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When it comes to social and environmental justice, words don’t cut it

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Not so long ago, business was business.

The vast majority of corporations happily functioned according to the doctrine of economist Milton Freidman, who believed a company’s sole responsibility was to make gobs of money for its shareholders to roll around in. And, whether due to ideology or cynicism, few expected anything more from the business world.

Today, corporate executives have taken to substituting the word shareholder with “stakeholder,” a buzzword for the broader group that also includes customers, employees, even neighboring communities. But companies that espouse the “interests of all stakeholders” best take care to follow their words with action, especially when it comes to social and environmental justice. Because today’s stakeholders are fed up and armed with social media, and they will call a company out for greenwashing or an opportunistic antiracist tweet.

After a Minneapolis police officer killed George Floyd last summer, the message from protestors in the streets was clear: We will no longer wait for justice. No more words, thanks, give us action and results. Activist investors and public pension funds interested in justice and equity heard that message, and they began demanding companies do more to address systemic racial injustice, even if that means making fundamental changes to the way they make and invest money.

“Intent does not always equal impact,” Renaye Manley, deputy director of strategic initiatives at the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), said during GreenBiz’s inaugural GreenFin event earlier this April. “It’s not just about diverse hiring [policies]. We want you to look at your core business practices. If your algorithm has a bias built in, that’s no bueno. That’s going to lose us money.”

Manley spoke alongside Lisa Hayles, an investment manager at Trillium Asset Management, and Marvin Owens, chief engagement officer at Impact Shares, during a session on diversity, equity and inclusion.

Throughout the event, they and other panelists returned to that same message: We want results.

To that end, investors such as the SEIU and Trillium have filed resolutions related to racial justice in unprecedented numbers and scope this year, according to the 2021 Proxy Preview produced by nonprofits the Sustainable Investments Institute (Si2), As You Sow and Proxy Impact.

After Floyd’s death, two-thirds of the corporations listed on the S&P 100 declared their solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement, including all the major Wall Street banks. So the SEIU and Trillium, along with CtW Investment Group, and the New York State Comptroller’s Office, filed shareholder proposals with six of the big banks (along with other companies) asking them to conduct third-party racial justice audits to evaluate how structural racism affects their business practices, according to the Proxy Preview. Banks’ discriminatory policies on mortgage lending, checking accounts and small business funding have perpetuated racism for decades, the investors argue.

Even some corporate leaders themselves acknowledge that, at the very least, capitalism needs reimagining, something that would have been unthinkable at the height of Freidman’s reign.

As Hayles put it, if a company’s business model depends on checking account minimum balance fees that disproportionately affect Black and brown communities, “That in and of itself is racist.”

Can capitalism be fair?

The common thread running through today’s urgent justice issues — structural racism, income inequality, a climate crisis that hits poor people of color hardest — is the staggering, relentless unfairness of it all.   

Our economic system has become so unjust, some have begun to question whether we can salvage it at all. Seventy-eight percent of Americans feel the divide between rich and poor is a serious issue, according to a September survey conducted by polling firm YouGov for the anticommunist Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Additionally, 68 percent of those polled believe the rich don’t pay their fair share in taxes, and roughly half of that 68 percent think we need “a complete change of our economic system.”

Even some corporate leaders themselves acknowledge that, at the very least, capitalism needs reimagining, something that would have been unthinkable at the height of Freidman’s reign.

The Council for Inclusive Capitalism with The Vatican includes dozens of CEOs and board chairs who feel this way. The council describes itself as “a movement of the world’s business and public sector leaders who are working to build a more inclusive, sustainable and trusted economic system.”

Lynn Forester de Rothschild, who spoke during a GreenFin 21 session titled “Companies, Capitalism and the Vatican,” founded the organization after a meeting with Pope Francis, who is quoted on the group’s website as saying, “What is required now is not a new social compact in the abstract, but concrete ideas and decisive action which will benefit all people, and which will begin to respond to the pressing issues of our day.”

It seems even the pope has grown impatient with all the talk. 

According to Forester de Rothschild, a managing partner at Inclusive Capital Partners, she could see the pope was looking for concrete ways to actually change the market after hearing him speak. “I wrote Pope Francis a letter saying that I work with people, investment and corporate leaders around the world, who I know in my heart are sincerely interested in reforming the system, but we needed the moral authority,” she recalled. “So I asked him to be our moral authority.”

Joining Forester de Rothschild on the panel, CalPERS CEO Marcie Frost said that companies looking to take concrete action on equity can start by making sure they pay their employees equally and fairly.

“One very tangible action that every company can take today is to really look at your talent and culture and make commitments to the people who make your company successful,” said Frost, who is also a member of the council. “Pay equity should be a part of your overall talent management, and it should be a part of your overall diversity, equity and inclusion program.”

To be clear, the investors and corporate leaders involved in these efforts represent a small portion of the global economy, and many companies will continue to fight any attempt to change the status quo.

But the holdouts and naysayers do not have momentum on their side. One thing you can count on with change: It takes forever, until it doesn’t. Remember when the legalization of gay marriage was hard to imagine? Remember when environmental, social and governance investing would never go mainstream? And now one just for the white people: Remember when you could watch a movie such as “Bridesmaids” and not wonder why the character portrayed by Maya Rudolph —a mixed-raced woman — doesn’t have any black bridesmaids?

Change will always come for you, and when it does, your stakeholders, and the pope, will be watching.

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Source: https://www.greenbiz.com/article/when-it-comes-social-and-environmental-justice-words-dont-cut-it

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The Future of Lamborghini is Electric – Hybrid and 100% EV Models Announced

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As a kid, I had a poster of a Lamborghini Countach on my wall. That was one sexy car. Life moves on, priorities change, and when I had the disposable income for an “extravagant” new car, I bought a Tesla Model 3 Performance. It may not have the sleek lines or that satisfying guttural rumble of a Lamborghini, but the Tesla blows away the acceleration numbers of that sexy Italian super sports car of yesteryear. The fact is that electric motors offer more than just lower emissions: they also offer incredible torque, which translates to off-the-line acceleration that’s difficult for any internal combustion engine to match.

Rather than dismissing the advantages of electrification, Automobili Lamborghini is embracing it. Today the company unveiled its vision for the future and it includes gas/electric hybrid models in the near future as well as a 100% electric super sports car. Stephan Winkelmann, Chairman and CEO of Automobili Lamborghini, announced the company’s new strategy for environmental sustainability, nicknamed: “Direzione Cor Tauri,” from the Latin for “heart of the bull.” The company has stated that they plan to move toward an electrified future, while “remaining faithful to the heart and soul of the brand.”

Stephan Winkelmann, Chairman and CEO of Automobili Lamborghini

Stephan Winkelmann, Chairman and CEO of Automobili Lamborghini, poses with a few of the company’s current models. Photo courtesy of Automobili Lamborghini.

Automobili Lamborghini, now a division of Volkswagen (under the auspices of the Audi brand) celebrated record profits in 2020, despite a global pandemic. The parent brand suffered a few years back from its “Diesel-gate” scandal and has been on a mission to turn its brands around through electrification and ecological awareness. Lamborghini’s Sant’Agata supercar factory was one of the first automobile factories certified as carbon-neutral in 2015, utilizing an extensive solar array as well as efficient heating and cooling systems. And while the company has shown hybrid vehicle prototypes  as far back as 2014, its first hybrid offering, the Sián FKP 37, is just now going into a limited production run of 63 units. But this won’t be the end of the Lamborghini’s electric story: it’s just the beginning.

Lamborghini's electric future

May 18, 2021 – Automobili Lamborghini is planning to release gas/electric hybrid super sports cars in 2023 and a fully electric model by the end of this decade.

The first step toward electrification will be the complete transition to hybrid drive trains, adding the instant torque benefits of an electric motor to the cars’ high performance combustion engines. The company plans to add electrification to all of its current models by the end of 2024. The environmental goal for this stage is to reduce the cars’ CO2 emissions by 50% by the beginning of 2025. The company plans to invest over 1.5 billion Euros (about $1.83B) over four years in order to make these plans a reality. The first fully electric Lamborghini is said to be coming before the end of this decade.

Lamborghini Sian Hybrid

The Lamborghini Sián FKP 37 combines a 48-volt electric motor with a V-12 combustion engine for a combined 807 HP of hybrid power.

The announcement comes just as Italy is enjoying a surge in sales of hybrid and electric vehicles.

More details on Lamborghini’s plans for electrification are available on the Lamborghini web site.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/18/the-future-of-lamborghini-is-electric-hybrid-and-100-ev-models-announced/

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Italy’s Plugin Vehicle Market More Than Tripled YoY In Q1 2021 — 6.6% Market Share

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Originally published on opportunity:energy.

The first quarter of 2021 has offered an upbeat snapshot of EV sales throughout Europe, with a continued strong rise across all markets. Italy’s sales started off the year with softer growth than other countries, but a strong rebound at the end of Q1 means this year’s electric car sales stats are already impressing.

The Italian plugin vehicle market posted new historic highs in March, with record numbers of registrations for pure electric cars as well as plug-in hybrids, as most automakers rushed to deliver to customers by quarter end. This is a fairly typical feature across many markets, and encourages us to use aggregate sales within a quarter as a good projection of the year’s trends.

The first three months of 2021 saw 13,319 registrations of fully electric cars, marking great progress over the same period last year, when 5,402 BEVs were registered in the same timeframe (see UNRAE data). This 146% increase year over year (YoY) was in part influenced by Covid — the pandemic started affecting all markets in March 2020 — but is mostly a sign of the increasing strength of electrified sales in the Bel Paese. The overall market rebounded in fact “only” by 29%, with around 450,000 units compared to 350,000 units in the first quarter of 2020. In 2021, BEV market share rose to 3% for the quarter, up from 1.5% a year ago.

An even better performance was that of plug-in hybrids, which at 16,408 units actually performed better than BEVs in the first three months of 2021, an unusual exploit in the Italian car market. This performance by PHEVs marks an eye-watering +455% growth YoY, from just 2,957 units a year ago, moving the segment’s market share to 3.6% from a measly 0.8% in Q1 2020. Whether the relative strength of plug-in hybrids versus full electrics is a new trend is yet to be confirmed, but it certainly helped build up the overall weight of plug-in vehicles, which grew to 6.6% in the first three months of 2021, from 2.4% last year.

With these dramatic changes in the perception — and sales — of electric vehicles in such a short timeframe, it’s interesting to single out which models contributed most in reaffirming the exponential growth trends of the nascent Italian EV market. Can anyone guess?

The top 10 chart confirms the preferences of a car market known for its reliance on compact models. The Fiat 500e sits firmly in first place with 2,058 units registered, a broadly anticipated position for the first beautiful BEV effort by Fiat in the A-segment. The even smaller Smart ForTwo follows in second place at 1,723 registrations, benefitting from its perfect fit for tight Italian urban environments. A surprisingly close third is the Tesla Model 3, with 1,684 registrations, mostly due to its record March deliveries. This luxury D-segment outlier is proof of Tesla’s ability to conquer market share even in a country so averse to larger size and price as Italy. What will happen when the American automaker will land its C-segment model in less than a couple of years?

Off of the podium, French models seized most positions. A distant fourth, the Renault Zoe achieved 1,271 registrations, a 50% improvement on its own numbers from a year prior, but not enough to compete with even stronger growth by the top 3. Is the Zoe’s reign over Europe already a thing of the past? The Renault Twingo Z.E. followed in fifth position with 1,254 registrations, another strong candidate for the podium in this market. The Peugeot e-208 and crossover sibling Peugeot e-2008 followed at a distance in sixth and seventh, respectively, trailed by their platform-sharing Opel Corsa-e in eighth position. The Hyundai Kona EV and Volkswagen ID.3 closed out the chart, showing how successful BEVs can still fall victim to lower regional availability or showrooms’ unwillingness to sell.

Italy’s EV market is so far confirming its predilection for smaller and cheaper cars, a tough arena that is gradually getting more crowded. As A- and B-segment full electric models keep playing a leading role in Europe’s fourth largest market, we could nonetheless soon start to see a growing interest in more family-sized models, as tantalising new entries (the Volkswagen ID.4, Hyundai Ioniq 5, Kia EV6 …) make their debut in Tesla territory and a broader choice of EVs is progressively met by increased awareness. A crucial year for EV adoption is unfolding, and no market — not even Italy — will be left untouched.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/18/italys-plugin-vehicle-market-more-than-tripled-yoy-in-q1-2021-6-6-market-share/

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The Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 Folding E-Bike — CleanTechnica Review

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The team over at Lectric eBikes in Phoenix, Arizona is hell bent on making electric bikes affordable and functional for the masses. The Lectric XP and Lectric Step-Thru were launched at a bargain price of just $899 a bit less than 2 years ago and having shipped more than 70,000 of the bikes to date, it is clear its first iterations were massive successes.

The team has taken the lessons learned from its first generation bikes and is launching version 2.0 of both the Lectric XP and the Lectric Step-Thru with a slew of improvements. The new bikes feature slightly wider, slightly curved handlebars for a more comfortable ride, a front oil shock, slightly smaller 20″ x 3″ tires, new front rack mounting points on the frame, a ton of new accessories, and a beefier rear rack, to name a few of the upgrades.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike, image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

Lectric is committed to keeping the price down and was able to bring all these new features while keeping the price under $1000. The new Lectric XP 2.0 and Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 are both launching today for what’s still, in my opinion, the best value in e-bikes at $999. As a special bonus, Lectric is making the new version of the bike available to all customers with backlogged orders eagerly waiting for their Lectric e-bike to ship.

Customer with existing orders were given the option to upgrade to the 2.0 models for just $50 for a total price of $949. Lectric also gave those customers a 20% discount off of accessories to further sweeten the deal. Here are just a few of the new accessories Lectric is launching with the introduction of its second generation bikes: A cargo package including a front rack and a pair of baskets for $149, a comfort package including a suspension seatpost and a saddle that is the equivalent of a recliner for $99, a premium headlight upgrade for $49, a bike lock $49, mirrors for $39, and a phone holder for $29.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

The Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 kitted out with the front rack, a small basket up front, large basket in the rear, and Lectric’s comfort upgrade seat package. Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

We met up with Lectric eBikes CEO Levi Conlow and a few guys from his merry band of misfits while they were out in Southern California doing some work and were able to spend a few days with a prototype build of the Lectric Step-Thru 2.0.

We toured it through our normal review route on miles of roads, took it off-road, onto the sand, over rocks, downhill, uphill, and everything in between and just can’t help but to be impressed by the second generation build. The Lectric was designed to be as capable as possible at as low a price point as possible and considering what you get for the price in this second version, it is an impressive value.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

The Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 is built on top of the same low-step folding frame as its predecessor, with the removable battery integrated into the primary tube of the bike. The power is routed to a 500 watt rear hub motor designed in house by Lectric. 500 watt motors are increasingly popular as bike builders and riders find they strike a nice balance between power output and efficiency.

The updated Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 comes with an adjustable shock up front that provides a bit of extra cushion to absorb heavier bumps. Combined with the shock absorption coming from the oversized 20″ x 3″ CST tires, the Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 provides a smooth ride.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

These tires are smaller than the 20″ x 4″ tires on Lectric’s original bikes and are a significant improvement. The tread on these CST tires provides a ton of traction without creating a ton of additional rolling resistance. Their rounded profile makes them smooth on city streets as well as on dirt trails.

As a folding bike, the slightly smaller tires trim off a bit of extra weight and thin out the profile of the bike a bit. At 62 pounds, this bike is no lightweight, but the ability to fold increases its portability and gives owners plenty of options for tucking it into an RV, boat, trunk, or in the closet.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

The handlebars were also improved on the new version. They’re slightly wider and pull back just a bit from the bike for more control and more comfort. They are a subtle, but noticeable improvement over the first generation that make for a more stable, comfortable, controlled ride.

Individually, these upgrades are nice, but not life changing. Together, they smooth over some of the rough edges in the first generation bikes for a new Lectric lineup that’s more capable, more refined, and more capable than their predecessors. A massive part of that capability has to do with the new accessories Lectric is rolling out alongside its new bikes.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

The new front rack bosses we mentioned earlier are sweet, as they make it possible to mount a front rack to the frame of the bike. Doing this adds a new place to haul gear and makes it far more stable than a traditional front basket by securing the load to the frame itself. A large or small basket can be bolted to the L-shaped front rack, depending on the needs of the rider. We had a look at some of the first prototypes of the baskets, and they are sharp looking matte black metal baskets built to put in some serious work.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

Out back, the new rear rack that comes with the bike has a capacity of  77 lb (35 kg). That’s a significant amount more hauling capacity than a standard rear rack can carry and that could be a factor for folks looking to put their Step-Thru to work hauling gear. With the improved hauling capacity, a copious lineup of new accessories available from the factory, the fact that Lectric was able to deliver a ton of new features for only $100 more at a time when supply chain prices are climbing across the industry is an impressive feat.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike baskets

From left, Lectric’s new front rack, small basket, and large basket. Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

Lectric’s stock seat is already one of the most comfortable factory seats we’ve ridden on, but they wanted more. It may be a pet project of the CEO or just a desire to make the most comfortable seating position on any bike out there, but we had the opportunity to test out Lectric’s new optional comfort saddle and suspension and man, is it comfortable.

Yes, it is a massive seat. Yes, the seat and post probably weigh more than some high end road bikes. But dang, this thing brings the comfort. It’s the equivalent of the recliner chair in your living room that everyone falls asleep in and it’s actually reasonably comfortable to peddle the bike on. I took it off-road for a short blast on some local trails and it was like riding on a cloud of marshmallows.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 E-Bike

Image credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica

The new 2.0 looks to be better positioned to meet the needs of even more customers, accelerating Lectric’s evil plan for world domination. Ok, maybe it’s not evil, but the company is trying to get as many e-bikes out into the world as possible, electrifying the way we get around along the way. On top of that, Lectric’s introductory accessory bundles make it easier for owners to get their hands on quality gear designed and built specifically to extend the functionality of their Lectric bikes.

The upgraded version of the bike should help to carry them even farther up the sales ladder, ultimately replacing even more cars with miles ridden on electric bikes. I mean, if you can get an electric bike with a rear rack and basket for under $1,000, who wants to drive to the grocery store anyway? And that’s the goal. Lectric’s CEO is bent on replacing car trips with trips on electric bikes. That might be from your house to the grocery store, from your RV to the beach, or leaving with the kids and dog in tow to head to the park. Zero emissions is zero emissions and who knows, you just might get a workout while you’re at it.

The new Lectric XP 2.0 and Lectric Step-Thru 2.o both officially launch today. Get all the juicy details about the new bikes, the new accessories to bling them out with, and order one directly from Lectric’s website.

Lectric Step-Thru 2.0 Folding E-Bike Specs

  • Motor: 500 watt Lectric-designed rear hub motor
  • Battery: 460Wh, 48v, 9.6Ah battery built with Samsung cells
  • Range: up to 45 miles
  • Charge Time: 4-6 hours
  • Top Speed:
    • Throttle: 20 mph
    • Pedal Assist: 28 mph
  • Tires: 20″ x 3.3″ CST BFT or Chao Yang tires with oversized 3.5″ inner tubes
  • Gearing: 1 x 7-speed
  • Size: One size
  • Recommended Rider Height: 4’10” – 6’3″
  • Colors: White or Black
  • Lights: integrated front and rear LED lights
  • Assembly: Arrives fully assembled
  • Weight: 62 lb
  • Payload Capacity: 330 lb
  • Price: $999

All images credit: Kyle Field, CleanTechnica


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/18/the-lectric-step-thru-2-0-cleantechnica-review/

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Lithium-Ion Battery Care Guide – Part Three

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Lithium-ion batteries are the most common battery in consumer electronics. They are used in everything from cell phones to power tools to electric cars and more. However, they have well-defined characteristics that cause them to wear out, and understanding these characteristics can help you to double the life of your batteries or more. This is especially useful for products that do not have replaceable batteries.

Battery wear is loss of capacity and/or increased internal resistance. The latter not being a well known concept, over time the battery is able to put out less amperage as the battery ages and eventually the battery is unable to generate power quickly enough to operate the appliance at all even though the battery is not empty.

The standard disclaimers apply, all advice is for informational purposes only, CleanTechnica is not responsible for any damages caused by inaccurate information or following any advice provided. Also, new technology may change the characteristics spoken about, making them less or more relevant in the future or even rendering them obsolete.


Lithium-Ion Batteries Age From The Following Factors:

  • Time – Part One
  • Cycles – Part One
  • Storage/operating temperature – Part Two
  • Charging – Part Two
  • Discharging – In this article
  • Depth of charge – Part Four (upcoming)
  • Time spent at near full/empty – Part Four (upcoming)
  • Depth of discharge – Part Five (upcoming)
  • End Of Life – Part Five (upcoming)
  • Summary – Part Six (upcoming)

Discharging Characteristics

Lithium batteries last longest when discharged slowly. Discharge rate is commonly quoted in C rate, 1C meaning going from 100% full to empty (0%) in one hour, 2C meaning 30 minutes, 0.5C meaning 2 hours and so forth). High discharge rates are not ideal, as batteries prefer to be discharged at well below 1C (going from fully charged to fully drained in well over 1 hour). Some chemistries are actually able to handle discharge rates of up to 60C (full to empty in 1 minute) but it’s not good for longevity. There is also generally a capacity vs discharge rate at play, the higher the discharge C rate a battery is rated for, the lower the capacity. For example many power tools use batteries that only hold 25-40% of the capacity of the highest capacity cells available but are able to reliably discharge at 5-10C.

Constant ludicrous speed acceleration will reduce the life of your batteries, but you don’t need to completely baby them during discharge, unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, a super low rate of discharge is not going to net you much utility over standard driving.

Your best bet in increasing longevity here is to try not to punish your batteries. Don’t push them to their limits and they will experience less capacity loss and slower increases in internal resistance over time. Of course this is not always practical. For example, many yard tools give less than an hour of run time on fully charged batteries and there is nothing you can do about this except to not use the tool (which is unrealistic). On the other hand, you can sometimes buy larger batteries for the tool which nets you a lower C/hr discharge rate. Or use powerbanks that don’t drain themselves as quickly when recharging phones away from an outlet — a 15,000mAh USB Powerbank that can charge your phone say three times will have a lower C discharge rate than a 5000mAh USB Powerbank doing the exact same job (but only delivering perhaps one charge).

If you have the ability to choose between different batteries, aim for higher capacity and higher C rated (if you can get this information and the upcharge is reasonable). For an EV you don’t have much choice of battery chemistry, but you can look into longevity information online for that model of vehicle and see how they have fared. In general most modern EVs have been designed well in regards to battery longevity. But don’t take this for granted, do the necessary research before purchase.

Virtually all battery types experience self-discharge over time. Self-discharge is when a battery loses power that is stored in it even though you did not use it for anything. When a battery/battery pack is left unused for long periods, the pack drains itself over time and eventually you end up with a dead battery even though it’s only been sitting on a shelf (or your driveway).

There is self-drain and parasitic drain at play. Self-drain is loss of energy as the chemicals in the battery go from its higher energy charged state to a lower energy discharged state without a load attached. Virtually all batteries experience self-drain, but the rate varies by battery chemistry, temperature, and the age of the battery. The rate of self-drain is not always linear. That said, modern lithium-ion batteries often have a very low self-drain rate, contrasted to parasitic drain. Parasitic drain is caused by circuitry attached to the batter(ies) that slowly drains them in the background when the device is not in active use by its owner. It can sometimes also be caused by leaving a battery on an unplugged charger after its charged. Finally it can also be caused by functions happening in the background for more complex devices like cell phones (screen off waiting for a call/text, WiFi/Bluetooth on etc) and EVs (Sentry mode, listening for the fob signal, conditioning the batteries when the vehicle is not in use and so forth).

Lithium-ion does not typically self-discharge as quickly as other battery types, however, cells and packs (made up of many cells) have control circuity and this inevitably causes some parasitic drain. As each pack type’s control circuitry is custom designed, how much drain any particular pack experiences is not defined and you will have to experiment to figure it out. Some may last weeks, others months, and some could (rarely) last years. Also, self-discharge will vary on whether the battery pack is connected or disconnected from the device it powers (think power tools, e-bikes etc.). In some cases the self-discharge rate soars when it’s left connected vs battery stored separately. Manufacturers rarely specify if this applies to the item in the owner’s manual.

Stay tuned for Part Four, Depth Of Charge


A summary of the terminology used in the battery world:

Charging algorithm = Battery is charged at Constant Current, then near full charge (typically over 80%) the charger switches to Constant Voltage. The charging rate slows until the battery reaches 100% charge. Many EVs modify this algorithm.

C = Capacity of the battery

  • Battery ability to output power is measured in 1/C. 1C means the battery drained in one hour, 2C means 30 minutes (1/2 hour), 3C means empty in 20 minutes (1/3 of an hour) and so forth.
  • Charging can also be measured in C, 1C means charged in 1 hour, 0.5C charged in 2 hours, 2C charged in 30 minutes and so forth.
    Charge rates are not typically linear, the battery is typically charged more rapidly until it reaches the Constant Voltage stage.

Series = Multiple batteries linked in a chain to increase the total voltage of the pack.

Parallel = Multiple batteries linked side by side to increase amperage instead of voltage.

(x)S(x)P configuration = explains how multiple batteries are linked. 4S2P for example means 8 cells, four in Series and two Parallel rows

Volts (V) = Electric potential. Power outlets are measured in volts.

Amps (A)= Number of Coulombs of electrons carrying those volts.

Watts (W)= Volts x Amps. Energy/Power usage is often measured in watts. A kilowatt is 1000 watts. kWh is Kilowatts per hour.

Energy is measured in Joules and is convertible to Watts/second if you have a time component.

Power = Energy over time. Typically measured in Watts. One Joule per second is 1 watt. The same number of Joules or Watts in half the time is twice the power.

Nominal voltage = Voltage used to calculate Watts of a battery.

Battery capacity = How many Ah of power the battery can output (when new).

Load = Device that uses the power from the battery.

Internal resistance of a battery affects its Power output. Increased internal resistance is the reduction in rate of Power output the battery can deliver. Energy output is affected somewhat by increased internal resistance.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/18/lithium-ion-battery-care-guide-part-three/

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