Connect with us

Big Data

A Brief History of Microservices

Published

on

The history and origins of microservices are a continuing effort to provide better communication between different platforms, greater simplicity, and more user-friendly systems. Microservices are typically thought of as a software development technique which organizes an application as a group of loosely coupled services. It is, however, any kind of small service which interacts with other services to operate a software application. Microservices architecture uses services that are fine-grained and protocols that are lightweight.

Dr. Peter Rodgers used the term “Micro-Web-Services” in 2005 during a presentation on cloud computing. Rodgers argued against conventional thinking and promoted software components supporting micro-web-services. In the presentation, he established a functional model of microservices which eventually became a reality. Explaining how complex service-assemblies work behind simple URI interfaces, he suggested, “Any service, at any granularity, can be exposed.” He went on to describe how a well-organized micro-web-services platform “applies the underlying architectural principles of the Web and REST services together with Unix-like scheduling and pipelines to provide radical flexibility and improved simplicity in service-oriented architectures.”

Enterprise Java Beans to Service Oriented Architecture

IBM released enterprise java bean (EJB) in 1997. It was one of the earliest efforts to provide “small” service or microservice working with web-related software components. EJBs were designed to allow developers to write code in a standardized way and automatically handle many common issues. They were the first specification that offered an easier way to “encapsulate and re-use” business logic for enterprise Java applications.

However, there were still frustrating issues with the use of enterprise java beans. They could only be used while working in Java and could not communicate with other systems. They were still complicated, not terribly user-friendly, and extremely difficult to debug. The limitation of working only with Java and not being able to extend communications to other platforms brought about the solution known as service-oriented architecture (SOA) which became the next evolutionary step for the existence of microservices.

A service, in SOA context, is a “self-contained” software program performing a specific task. SOA allows these services to communicate with one another across different languages and platforms by using a loose coupling system. (Loose coupling continues to be used for web services.) Loose coupling describes the ability of the client to maintain independence from the service it requires. Two platforms can communicate even if they are not closely related. This is accomplished through the use of a special interface capable of translating the data. (Some consider microservices to be a subdivision of SOA, but SOA and microservices each have their own strengths and weaknesses, and can be categorized separate systems.) SOA services are built primarily on simple object access protocol.

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

SOAP was essential to the development of microservices. The philosophy “Do the Simplest Thing Possible” is at the heart of SOAP, released in 1999 by Microsoft. SOAP can be described as a way to utilize object methods using HTTP (or hypertext transfer protocol). It is a way to transfer small amounts of information, or messages, over the Internet. These messages use an XML format and are usually sent using HTTP. The use of HTTP, a protocol employed by Web pages, has the advantage of bypassing most network firewalls. (Firewalls typically don’t block HTTP traffic, allowing most SOAP messages to pass through with no problems.) This solution took advantage of two trends in the computing world during the early 2000s:

  • The growing trend for using HTTP in corporate networks.
  • The support provided by automatic logging and debugging mechanisms for text-based Internet communications.

SOAP messages are contained within an “envelope,” which includes a body and a header. The header may contain the message’s ID and the sending date, while the body holds the actual message. SOAP messages each use the same format, making them compatible with a variety of different protocols and operating systems. For instance, a SOAP message can be sent to a Unix-based web server from a Windows XP computer without concerns the message will be distorted. The Unix server can then open the file or redirect this message to the most appropriate location.

Though SOAP does have its own strengths, it does not scale well, nor does it support error handling, two features microservices perform automatically. Additionally, though SOA and SOAP started off simply enough, efforts to expand their usefulness – by adding layers – made them clumsy and difficult to work with.

SOA continues to be used used as a basic tool, and there are continuing efforts to make SOAP more efficient.

REST

As a whole, the computer tech community began to reject the concepts required by SOAP in roughly 2005 through 2007. They shifted toward Representational State Transfer (REST) in 2008 through 2010, as it gained in popularity. This architectural style defines constraints that are used to create web services and supports use of the cloud to develop software apps. Web services conforming to REST’s architectural style are referred to as RESTful Web services, and such services support interoperability between computer systems communicating through the Internet.

REST using HTTP is a very common practice in modern microservices development. A RESTful API describes an application program interface (API) using HTTP requests to POST, GET, PUT, and DELETE data. APIs are portable, scalable, easy-to-use, and easy to integrate. A website’s API uses code that supports the communication between two software programs.

Roy Fielding worked on developing the REST architectural style from 1996 to1999, and he discussed it during his 2000 PhD dissertation, Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Fielding was not an advocate for rigidness, but for flexibility. REST’s primary theme stated that for each portion of data, the URL stays the same, but depending on the method used, the operation would change. For example, ordering “http://theirsite.com/posts” to GET may return a list of posts, but a POST order to the same URL would create a new post.Asked about the development of REST, Fielding responded,

“Throughout the HTTP standardization process, I was called on to defend the design choices of the Web. That is an extremely difficult thing to do within a process that accepts proposals from anyone on a topic that was rapidly becoming the center of an entire industry. I had comments from well over 500 developers, many of whom were distinguished engineers with decades of experience, and I had to explain everything from the most abstract notions of Web interaction to the finest details of HTTP syntax. That process honed my model down to a core set of principles, properties, and constraints that are now called REST.”

REST is often used with microservices.

Microservices Become a Reality

In May, 2011, people in a workshop near Venice for software architects used the word “microservice” to describe an architectural style several of them had recently explored. In May, 2012, they decided microservices was the most appropriate name for the work they were doing and formally adopted it. They had been experimenting with building continuously deployed systems, while incorporating the DevOps philosophy. This form of architecture quickly gained popularity.

DevOps is a series of software development practices which combine development (Dev) and operations (Ops) in an effort to shorten the development life cycle. Microservices architecture effectively brings both departments together, allowing them to produce applications that are more reliable and have better performance and greater resilience. As a process, it allows developers to provide updates more often, ensuring the software stays aligned with the business’s objectives. Microservices architectures have quickly become the standard for DevOps. These services are especially useful for continuously releasing software.

The benefits of microservices architecture include:

  • Support: Microservices have become popular and are supported by many technology and cloud vendors. With the combination of efficiency and support, many businesses are adopting microservices because of their easy availability.
  • Language Independence: Microservices can work with almost any technology with only minor tweaks.
  • DevOps: The architecture of microservices are designed to support DevOps philosophies. In turn, DevOps helps guide the development of applications based on microservices.
  • Resources Are Not Shared: Earlier service architecture designs focused on shared resources. Shared resources tended to make the work unnecessarily complicated. The architectural design of microservices allows each service to be encapsulated. This provides developers with the ability to tweak the microservices without influencing other services.

The Future of Microservices

The Cloud Microservices Market Research Report of February of 2020 has predicted the size of the global microservice architecture market will increase with a compound annual growth rate of 21.37 percent from 2019 to 2026 with the market reaching a value to $3.1 billion by 2026.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.dataversity.net/a-brief-history-of-microservices/

Big Data

Facebook Launches One of the Toughest Reinforcement Learning Challenges in History

Published

on

Facebook Launches One of the Toughest Reinforcement Learning Challenges in History

The FAIR team just launched the NetHack Challenge as part of the upcoming NeurIPS 2021 competition. The objective is to test new RL ideas using a one of the toughest game environments in the world.




Image Credit: Facebook Research

 

I recently started a new newsletter focus on AI education and already has over 50,000 subscribers. TheSequence is a no-BS( meaning no hype, no news etc) AI-focused newsletter that takes 5 minutes to read. The goal is to keep you up to date with machine learning projects, research papers and concepts. Please give it a try by subscribing below:

Image

Reinforcement learning(RL) has been at the center of some of the most impressive achievements in artificial intelligence(AI) in the last decade. From DeepMind’s famous AlphaGo to milestones in games such as StarCraft II, Dota 2 or Minecraft, RL remains one of the fastest growing areas in the deep learning space. Despite all its success, Facebook AI Research(FAIR) believes that RL needs to be pushed to new levels and, for that, they are turning their attention to a new game: NetHack.

The FAIR team just launched the NetHack Challenge as part of the upcoming NeurIPS 2021 competition. The objective is to test new RL ideas using a one of the toughest game environments in the world.

NetHack and RL

 
NetHack is a traditional dungeon game that has been under development since the 1980s and its incredibly tough to master for new players. For once, mistakes in NetHack have a disproportional cost. Once a player dies, the game starts from scratch in a completely different dungeon. To complete the game successfully, a player needs to execute about 25–50x more steps than in StarCraft. Additionally, the solution to many problems in NetHack require creativity and consulting external knowledge sources which results incredibly hard to model from a strategic standpoint.



Image Credit: Facebook Research



Image Credit: Facebook Research

 

From the RL perspective, NetHack presents a unique set of challenges:

  • Agents cannot reset the environment so optimization methods such as Monte Carlo Tree Search are useless in that type of setting.
  • Exploration is even more important given the partial completeness of the environment.
  • The high variability of changes in the environment requires rapidly adaptative RL techniques.

Among other things, the NetHack challenge should bring a new set of RL methods that can operate in highly complex environments in which errors have a significant cost. This should help advance research in areas such as navigation or many industrial environments that share some macro-characteristics with NetHack. Can’t wait to see the first wave of submissions.

 
Original. Reposted with permission.

Related:

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.kdnuggets.com/2021/06/facebook-launches-toughest-reinforcement-learning-challenges.html

Continue Reading

Big Data

Facebook Launches One of the Toughest Reinforcement Learning Challenges in History

Published

on

Facebook Launches One of the Toughest Reinforcement Learning Challenges in History

The FAIR team just launched the NetHack Challenge as part of the upcoming NeurIPS 2021 competition. The objective is to test new RL ideas using a one of the toughest game environments in the world.




Image Credit: Facebook Research

 

I recently started a new newsletter focus on AI education and already has over 50,000 subscribers. TheSequence is a no-BS( meaning no hype, no news etc) AI-focused newsletter that takes 5 minutes to read. The goal is to keep you up to date with machine learning projects, research papers and concepts. Please give it a try by subscribing below:

Image

Reinforcement learning(RL) has been at the center of some of the most impressive achievements in artificial intelligence(AI) in the last decade. From DeepMind’s famous AlphaGo to milestones in games such as StarCraft II, Dota 2 or Minecraft, RL remains one of the fastest growing areas in the deep learning space. Despite all its success, Facebook AI Research(FAIR) believes that RL needs to be pushed to new levels and, for that, they are turning their attention to a new game: NetHack.

The FAIR team just launched the NetHack Challenge as part of the upcoming NeurIPS 2021 competition. The objective is to test new RL ideas using a one of the toughest game environments in the world.

NetHack and RL

 
NetHack is a traditional dungeon game that has been under development since the 1980s and its incredibly tough to master for new players. For once, mistakes in NetHack have a disproportional cost. Once a player dies, the game starts from scratch in a completely different dungeon. To complete the game successfully, a player needs to execute about 25–50x more steps than in StarCraft. Additionally, the solution to many problems in NetHack require creativity and consulting external knowledge sources which results incredibly hard to model from a strategic standpoint.



Image Credit: Facebook Research



Image Credit: Facebook Research

 

From the RL perspective, NetHack presents a unique set of challenges:

  • Agents cannot reset the environment so optimization methods such as Monte Carlo Tree Search are useless in that type of setting.
  • Exploration is even more important given the partial completeness of the environment.
  • The high variability of changes in the environment requires rapidly adaptative RL techniques.

Among other things, the NetHack challenge should bring a new set of RL methods that can operate in highly complex environments in which errors have a significant cost. This should help advance research in areas such as navigation or many industrial environments that share some macro-characteristics with NetHack. Can’t wait to see the first wave of submissions.

 
Original. Reposted with permission.

Related:

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.kdnuggets.com/2021/06/facebook-launches-toughest-reinforcement-learning-challenges.html

Continue Reading

Big Data

Web Scraping With Python: BeautifulSoup Library

Published

on



BeautifulSoup Library | Web Scraping With Python: BeautifulSoup Library





















Learn everything about Analytics


Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2021/06/web-scraping-with-python-beautifulsoup-library/

Continue Reading

Big Data

Web Scraping With Python: BeautifulSoup Library

Published

on



BeautifulSoup Library | Web Scraping With Python: BeautifulSoup Library





















Learn everything about Analytics


Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2021/06/web-scraping-with-python-beautifulsoup-library/

Continue Reading
Esports5 days ago

Every new Passive Power in Legends of Runeterra Lab of Legends 2.9.0

Crowdfunding4 days ago

April/May 2021 Top Campaigns

Aviation2 days ago

Delta Air Lines Flight Diverts To Oklahoma Over Unruly Off-Duty Flight Attendant

Blockchain4 days ago

Crypto Fund Manager Says Bitcoin ETFs to be Approved By 2022

Esports3 days ago

Lost Ark Founders Pack: Everything You Need to Know

Fintech5 days ago

PayPal launches PayPal Rewards Card in Australia

Cyber Security3 days ago

Data Breach that Impacted Both Audi of America and Volkswagen of America

Energy3 days ago

Industrial robots market in the automotive industry | $ 3.97 billion growth expected during 2021-2025 | 17000+ Technavio Research Reports

Energy3 days ago

Daiki Axis Co., Ltd. (4245, First Section, Tokyo Stock Exchange) Overview of Operating Performance for the First Three Months Ended March 31, 2021

Aviation2 days ago

Spirit Airlines Just Made The Best Argument For Lifting LaGuardia’s Perimeter Rule

Cleantech3 days ago

Tesla Model S 420 Plaid Is The Best Car In The World (But Not For Me)

Fintech5 days ago

Stripe launches Stripe Tax to simplify global tax compliance for Australian businesses

Blockchain4 days ago

Blockchain technology can help to protect sensitive information

Blockchain5 days ago

JPMorgan Cautioned Coming Bear Market Signal in Bitcoin

AI5 days ago

Ransomware Incidents Surging; Cybersecurity Experts Scramble to Respond   

Blockchain3 days ago

Blockchain technology can help to protect sensitive information

Blockchain3 days ago

DCR Technical Analysis: Look for Support Levels of $130.13 and $126.01

CNBC4 days ago

From green energy to cybersecurity, Citi names ‘unstoppable trends’ that investors can jump on

Esports4 days ago

V-Union cards officially revealed for the Pokémon TCG, includes Mewtwo, Zacian, and Greninja

Blockchain4 days ago

State-Chartered Banks in Texas to Provide Crypto Custody

Trending