Filing a patent application is only the first step toward receiving a registered patent. Next, the USPTO assigns a Patent Examiner (Examiner) to review and analyze the patent application for patentability and compliance with legal formalities. The Examiner will issue a report on the patentability of the patent application, including one or more rejections and/or […]
As readers would know, the TRIPS Waiver proposal at the WTO regarding Covid vaccines and treatment, has been discussed ad-nauseum for more than a year now, with very little actual progress. Roshan John brings us an interesting update from a closed-door discussion between EU, India, South Africa and the United States, based on some leaked text that appears to be a draft document outlining a potential compromise / way forward. Roshan is a lawyer and works on trade and intellectual...
Novartis AG asked a London court on Thursday to ban rival Teva Pharmaceuticals and three other drugmakers from selling any generic versions of a multiple sclerosis drug while the pharmaceutical giant takes the patent battle to trial.
Did you know that 42% of businesses were affected by cyberattacks in 2020? That figure is going to rise as cybercriminals use AI to attack businesses more efficiently. Artificial intelligence technology has led to some tremendous advances that have changed the state of cybersecurity. Cybersecurity professionals are leveraging AI technology to fight hackers. AI-driven solutions […]
Cosmos is a permissionless decentralized network of interoperable and independent blockchains that exchange tokens and information. Cosmos was established in order to overcome some of the problems that modern blockchains have. Scalability, governance, and usability are among these concerns. Blockchains can be separated into three conceptual layers from architecture: Application layer: It updates the state of blockchain based on the execution of transactions. Networking Layer: It is in charge of ensuring that transactions and consensus-related messages are propagated. Consensus Layer: It allows nodes to agree on the system’s present state. The Cosmos is a decentralized network of autonomous, scalable, and interoperable blockchains powered by the Tendermint Core Byzantine Fault-Tolerant (BFT) consensus algorithm. Cosmos is all about the multi-chain world, seamlessly communicating data and tokens between numerous sovereign blockchains. This establishes a collaborative ecosystem because no project or blockchain in the ecosystem exists to compete with others; instead, Cosmos connects them all. Features of Cosmos: Tendermint Core Cosmos SDK IBC Tendermint Core Tendermint BFT combines a blockchain’s networking layer and consensus layer into a generic engine, allowing developers to focus on the development of the application layer rather than the complicated underlying protocol. Tendermint saves hundreds of hours of development time as a result. Tendermint is also the name of the byzantine fault-tolerant consensus method employed by the Tendermint BFT engine. The Application Blockchain Interface connects the application layer of blockchains with the Tendermint BFT engine through a socket. Any programming language of your choice can be used to wrap the protocol, allowing developers to use whatever language best suits their needs. Cosmos SDK The Cosmos-SDK is an open-source framework for creating multi-asset public Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchains, such as the Cosmos Hub. Application-specific blockchains are blockchains that have been created using the Cosmos SDK. The Cosmos SDK’s purpose is to simplify developers to build unique blockchains from the ground up that can natively interact with existing blockchains. IBC It’s a protocol that enables different blockchains to communicate with one another. Considering the legalities and constraints that needed to be met to make this communication process a reality was hard. IBC makes it easy to transfer tokens and other data in a trusted and frictionless manner. It opens up a world of possibilities allowing for interoperability and value transfer, without facing the scaling issues which can be seen today in many blockchains. How does IBC work? The logic behind IBC is very simple. Let us suppose, there is an account on chain X, and it wants to send 20 tokens (for eg. ATOM) to chain Y. Tracking Chain Y receives the headers of chain X continuously and vice versa. This allows every chain to have the track record of the validator set of every other blockchain. For this purpose, each chain runs a light-client of the other. Proof Relay Proof that 20 ATOM tokens are bonded is sent from chain X to chain Y. Validation The proof sent to chain Y is verified against chain X’s header and if the proof is found valid, then 20 ATOM vouchers are created on chain Y. Keep in mind that, ATOM tokens created on chain Y are not real, because real ATOM tokens still exist on chain X. Tokens present on chain Y are just a representation of ATOM on chain X, along with proof that these ATOM tokens are frozen on chain X. A similar process is followed to unlock the tokens when they return to their origin chain. Tokenomics Use Cases of ATOM Token ATOM can be used in three ways: as a spam-prevention system, staking tokens, and voting method in governance. ATOM is used to pay fees as a spam prevention method. Similar to Ethereum’s idea of gas, the fee might be proportionate to the amount of computation required by the transaction. Taking fees is necessary so that malicious actors don’t misuse the blockchain. ATOM can be staked to obtain tokens as rewards. The quantity of ATOM staked determines the Cosmos Hub’s economic security. The more collateralized ATOM there are, the more skin is at stake and the cost of attacking the network rises. As a result, the more ATOM are staked, the better will be the economic security, Governance: ATOM holders can also govern the Cosmos Hub by voting on proposals with their staked ATOM. Initial Token Distribution of Cosmos(ATOM) The Interchain Foundation held multiple private investment rounds, and a public fundraising event on April 6, 2017. According to the Interchain Foundation, private Contributors, Public Contributors, All in Bits Inc (AiB), and the Interchain Foundation were the recipients of these newly created ATOMs. In exchange for a $1,329,472.3 donation, strategic and early adopters received 7.1 percent of the first supply or 16,856,718.97 ATOMs. In exchange for $300,000, the seed contributors received 5% of the initial supply or 11,809,947.91 … Continued
Organizations use messaging platforms like Slack to bring the right people together to securely communicate with each other and collaborate to get work done. A Slack workspace captures invaluable organizational knowledge in the form of the information that flows through it as the users collaborate. However, making this knowledge easily and securely available to users […]
This is a post co-written with Bernard Paques, CTO of Storm Reply, and Karl Herkt, Senior Strategist at Dassault Systèmes 3DExcite. While computer vision can be crucial to industrial maintenance, manufacturing, logistics, and consumer applications, its adoption is limited by the manual creation of training datasets. The creation of labeled pictures in an industrial context […]