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Lithium-Ion Battery Care Guide — Part One

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Lithium-ion batteries are the most common battery in consumer electronics. They are used in everything from cell phones to power tools to electric cars and more. However they have well defined characteristics that cause them to wear out, and understanding these characteristics can help you to double the life of your batteries or more. This is especially useful for products that do not have replaceable batteries.

Battery wear is loss of capacity and/or increased internal resistance. The latter is not a well known concept, but over time the battery is able to put out less amperage as the battery ages and eventually the battery is unable to generate power quickly enough to operate the appliance at all even though the battery is not empty.

The standard disclaimers apply, all advice is for informational purposes only, CleanTechnica is not responsible for any damages caused by inaccurate information or following any advice provided. Also, new technology may change the characteristics spoken about, making them less or more relevant in the future or even rendering them obsolete.


Lithium-ion batteries come in many chemistries, each with its own characteristics and are often assembled into packs of multiple cells. There are some appliances that can run off a single battery cell (LED flashlights, cell phones, some tools) but in most cases the appliance uses a battery pack which is a number of cells in series or parallel to provide the energy required to make the device operate. In order to have multiple batteries work together properly (and safely), they require control circuitry. This circuitry performs many functions. It can regulate how much power each cell can receive or put out to operate the appliance, it balances the cells to prevent charge differences and reverse charging, monitors the charge level of the pack, determines when the batteries are empty to prevent over discharge (which can permanently harm the cells), and should also be able to brick the pack if the voltage falls too low to recharge safely (below about 2.5V, the cell can start internally growing dendrites which can lead to explosions if the battery is recharged and used, even months or years after the under voltage event). Also, some packs have temperature monitoring/control circuitry to ensure the batteries don’t overheat.

The charger has a specific algorithm to charge the battery, typically starting with constant current then switching to constant voltage (and then stepped reductions in current) until the battery reaches 100% charge. This is required to not overcharge a lithium battery (which is also an explosion risk). This circuity also sets the maximum charge rate which is selected by the manufacturer. Sometimes manufacturers will intentionally design the charger to charge to less than 100% (the maximum that battery can hold) in order to gain a longer lifetime. This is rarely changeable by the end user but is typically good for consumers.

In general, for lithium-ion batteries (no load, meaning the device is not in use) 3.6V per cell is considered empty and 4.2V per cell is charged. There are also chemistries that consider 4.35V as fully charged. Lithium iron phosphate goes from 2.5V empty to 3.65V charged, but these batteries are not as common (this article mostly focuses on non-lithium phosphate batteries though some facets are interchangeable). For all batteries, the voltages between empty and full determine percent charge remaining, though it’s not a perfect science and percent charge at a specific voltage is chemistry dependent. For example in many chemistries 4.0V/cell is about 80% but for some chemistries it is about 85% charge.

Lithium batteries age from the following factors:

  • Time
  • Cycles
  • Storage/operating temperature
  • Charge and discharge characteristics
  • Depth of charge and discharge
  • Time spent at near empty/near full

Let’s look at each factor:

Time

A lithium battery begins to age as soon as it leaves the assembly line. There is not much you can do about this except to always buy the newest battery/appliance you can and not buy extras to store unused for the future (except for very unusual circumstances such as an incredible sale or the battery is being discontinued).

Batteries are typically purchased as a pack or already built into an appliance. Look carefully for a date stamp of when the item was manufactured, which is often present. In general, manufacturers use recent cells in their products. The battery itself will usually have a date code on it, though taking packs/appliances apart to find it is often unrealistic or will void the warranty. However, if you can find the date code on the battery cell itself you can Google how to decipher it.

Cycles

Each time you fully charge and then fully drain the battery you have used up one cycle. The number of cycles a particular battery is expected to last until it hits End Of Life (EOL) is sometimes available if you Google the datasheet for that cell. Modern lithium-ion batteries last anywhere from 300-15,000 cycles depending on the chemistry of the cell(s). EOL is often considered 80% of capacity remaining (industry standard). Many consumers will continue using batteries that have <80% capacity remaining but often this threshold is the harbinger of rapid cell/pack deterioration to come.

Partial discharges where you don’t fully charge or fully discharge will give you many more cycles before the battery wears out and is the best way to maximize this facet of lithium-ion battery wear. Some manufacturers consider even partial discharges to be a cycle, but in general a cycle is going from 100% charge to 0% charge.

V2G, or using the batteries of electric vehicles to power your local electricity grid, adds many cycles to the battery and will cause unnecessary battery wear. This is best avoided on pricey automotive batteries as it means your vehicle will lose range much more quickly from battery wear then it would have otherwise. It can take years off the life of your vehicle.

Stay tuned for Part Two, Storage/Operating Temperature and Charging


A summary of the terminology used in the battery world:

Charging algorithm = Battery is charged at Constant Current, then near full charge (typically over 80%) the charger switches to Constant Voltage. The charging rate slows until the battery reaches 100% charge. Many EVs modify this algorithm.

C = Capacity of the battery

  • Battery ability to output power is measured in 1/C. 1C means the battery drained in one hour, 2C means 30 minutes (1/2 hour), 3C means empty in 20 minutes (1/3 of an hour) and so forth.
  • Charging can also be measured in C, 1C means charged in 1 hour, 0.5C charged in 2 hours, 2C charged in 30 minutes and so forth.
    Charge rates are not typically linear, the battery is typically charged more rapidly until it reaches the Constant Voltage stage.

Series = Multiple batteries linked in a chain to increase the total voltage of the pack.

Parallel = Multiple batteries linked side by side to increase amperage instead of voltage.

(x)S(x)P configuration = explains how multiple batteries are linked. 4S2P for example means 8 cells, four in Series and two Parallel rows

Volts (V) = Electric potential. Power outlets are measured in volts.

Amps (A)= Number of Coulombs of electrons carrying those volts.

Watts (W)= Volts x Amps. Energy/Power usage is often measured in watts. A kilowatt is 1000 watts. kWh is Kilowatts per hour.

Energy is measured in Joules and is convertible to Watts/second if you have a time component.

Power = Energy over time. Typically measured in Watts. One Joule per second is 1 watt. The same number of Joules or Watts in half the time is twice the power.

Nominal voltage = Voltage used to calculate Watts of a battery.

Battery capacity = How many Ah of power the battery can output (when new).

Load = Device that uses the power from the battery.

Internal resistance of a battery affects its Power output. Increased internal resistance is the reduction in rate of Power output the battery can deliver. Energy output is affected somewhat by increased internal resistance.

Featured image: Kristoferb, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. 


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/04/28/lithium-ion-battery-care-guide-part-one/

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Volkswagen ID.4 vs. Toyota RAV4 — ID.4 Has Lower Cost of Ownership in Many Scenarios

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The Volkswagen ID.4 is one of our 4 finalists for the 2021 CleanTechnica Car of the Year award. It’s a good all-around vehicle, not a bare-bones budget car, but one key thing I noted about the ID.4 as potential justification for winning your vote is that it’s cheaper than the other models on the list.

With that in mind, I thought it would be interesting to look at how low its cost of ownership might actually be, especially in comparison to one of the best selling vehicles in the US and worldwide, the Toyota RAV4.

The RAV4 had 47,078 sales in the US in March alone. It had 114,255 in the first quarter of 2021. This is a vehicle to beat, and one that the Volkswagen ID.4 actually matches up well against. They have almost identical width (73″) and length (181″ — ID.4, 181–182″ RAV4), and the RAV4 is just slightly taller (67–69″ vs. 64″). The ID.4 should offer a better driving experience but otherwise has pretty much the same type of comfort, tech, and style. Well, in my opinion, it looks much better.

So, what does a cost comparison look like?

Before I get into the results, it’s important to highlight that any comparison like this requires a dozen or so assumptions, and individual cases can certainly vary tremendously. So, take a look at the assumptions more closely on the bottom of the article, and feel free to copy the spreadsheet and input your own assumptions in order to use your story and your expectations as much as you can muster. I tried to come up with 1) a moderate scenario; 2) a “high-cost, high-mileage” scenario; and 3) a “low-cost, low-mileage” scenario for this article, but there are basically unlimited variations on the theme.

On to the results from my cost of ownership comparison! (Oh, also, note that I thought up the different assumptions for the 3 scenarios and put them in before looking at the results. I did not modify results to suit my expectations — my expectations were slim anyway since I thought the results could go either way — and just tried to use reasonable assumptions for a few very different lifestyles.)


In the scenario using moderate assumptions, the Volkswagen ID.4 undercut every RAV4 model I included. It even slipped in below the base price of the most bare-bones, basic version of the RAV4, the RAV4 LE. When you climb up the ladder — to trims that are actually more similar to the ID.4 — the gap gets truly notable. This first round of assumptions results in an $8,000 savings over 5 years if you buy an ID.4 instead of a RAV4 XSE Hybrid! (Yes, please.)

Looking at the next comparison, I ramped up the miles traveled, the cost of gasoline, and the cost of electricity. The result was actually similar, though, with the ID.4 still handily beating the competition.

It wasn’t until I got to a “low mileage, low range” scenario that the ID.4 snuggled in between the higher-cost RAV4 EVs and the lower cost RAV4 EVs. Still, even in this scenario that is more challenging for an EV like the ID.4, it is doing quite well with a lower cost than the RAV4 XLE Hybrid or RAV4 XSE Hybrid.


All scenarios include these assumptions: $3000 down payment, 4% interest over 5 year loan period for remaining cost, $7500 federal tax credit for ID.4, $800 5-year maintenance cost for ID.4 and $2430 5-year maintenance cost for RAV4 models; 30 MPG for RAV4 LE and 40 MPG for the three hybrid RAV4 options; 2.857 miles/kWh efficiency for ID.4; no assumption for resale value after 5 years — add in your own expectation on that.

* This scenario assumes 13,300 miles driven a year; $0.11/kWh average rate for charging (across all charging in all locations across all 5 years); $3/gallon average across 5 years.

** This scenario assumes 20,000 miles driven a year; $0.30/kWh average rate for charging (across all charging in all locations across all 5 years); $4/gallon average across 5 years.

*** This scenario assumes 10,000 miles driven a year; $0.07/kWh average rate for charging (across all charging in all locations across all 5 years); $2.20/gallon average across 5 years.

Sources: Toyota, Volkswagen, US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Edmunds (but with the RAV4’s 5 year maintenance cost cut in half)


Related stories:

Photos courtesy of Volkswagen


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/11/volkswagen-id-4-vs-toyota-rav4-id-4-has-lower-cost-of-ownership-in-many-scenarios/

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Chicago EJ Advocates Notch Win After EPA Flags Civil Rights Violations

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Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot indefinitely delayed a permitting decision on the relocation of a highly polluting metal shredding and recycling facility after the U.S. EPA said doing so could violate the civil rights of Black and Latino people who live there. “Substantial data indicate the current conditions facing Chicago’s southeast side epitomize the problem of environmental injustice, resulting from more than a half-century of prior actions,” EPA administrator Michael Regan said. “This neighborhood currently ranks at the highest levels for many pollution indicators.”

Research Management Group, which acquired the General Iron facility in 2019, is seeking to relocate it from the white and wealthy North Side neighborhood of Lincoln Park to a predominantly Black and Latinx community on the Southeast Side already plagued by numerous polluting industries.

History of environmental racism

“When you take a company that has a terrible track record from a predominantly white and wealthy community to a community that is majority Latino and Black, then you’re sending a strong message that you value certain people over others,” Olga Bautista, a member of the Southeast Environmental Task Force, who organized against General Iron’s move to the Southeast Side, told WGN.

“Because of these well-known degraded environmental conditions, the siting of this facility in Chicago’s southeast side has raised significant civil rights concerns,” Regan said. “EPA believes the issues raised by the HUD complaint deserve your careful consideration as the City weighs its environmental permitting decision on the RMG facility.” The delay of the General Iron permit is a major victory for neighborhood and environmental justice groups that fought to protect Southeast Side communities from yet another source of industrial pollution — a campaign that included hunger strikes — but organizers said much more is needed.

“Until we have the right policies in Chicago, we are all getting ready, taking this moment to catch our breaths and getting ready to work with the city to stop any companies trying to move in that don’t have our health in mind,” Bautista said.

Sources: Block Club Chicago, WGN, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Tribune, WTTW, WLS-Chicago; Commentary: Crain’s Chicago Business, Wesley Epplin, Olga Bautista, and Linda Rae Murray op-ed)

Featured image: Environmental Issues in Southeast Chicago, courtesy of ESRI/ArcGIS and EPA

Originally published by Nexus Media.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/10/chicago-ej-advocates-notch-win-after-epa-flags-civil-rights-violations/

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Insular Areas Climate Change Act: Strengthen Territories’ Response to Climate Disasters & Protect the Most Vulnerable

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Courtesy of Union Of Concerned Scientists

By Juan Declet-Barreto, Climate Vulnerability Social Scientist, co-authored by Dr. Adi Martínez-Román with the University of Puerto Rico Resiliency Law Center.

Islands and their people are more vulnerable to climate impacts than continental jurisdictions. They are more unprotected from climate ravages that are becoming more ferocious. Their vulnerability is related to climate change, but more directly to the effect of human decisions. For this reason it is urgent that their problems be addressed decisively and effectively, and that we do not skimp on resources or strategies to protect their lives and infrastructure.

Under a changing climate, islands are increasingly suffering from hurricanes or typhoons, and are hard-pressed to withstand the damage caused by the winds and storm surges that they bring with them. The amount of drinking water that islands receive in the form of rain is limited by what can be collected in their land base, and the reliability that rain will fall in similar amounts compared with previous years is reduced by global warming. Also, sea-level rise and coastal erosion threaten the wellbeing of people, their communities, and infrastructure. Island flora and fauna are more sensitive to changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level because their ecosystems have evolved in an isolated way after the separation of the continental masses, and due to the fact that they are on islands, they cannot move to adjacent areas. Although islands are found in all latitudes, such as Australia, Indonesia, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, most are found in tropical latitudes near the equator, where the impact of extreme temperatures is also more marked.

For example, on the Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands, where about 30,000 people live, a rise in sea level of just 91 centimeters (about 3 feet) — predicted by science based on the global trajectory of emissions of coal — would permanently submerge the atoll. In 2017, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were hit in sequence by hurricanes Irma and María, destroying everything in their path and leaving a trail of misery and death in territories with social, economic and energy infrastructure already in bad shape due to decades of mismanagement and colonialism.

In Guam, Samoa, and the Marianas, elevated ocean temperatures are causing algae that feed coral reefs to abandon them, leaving corals without food and in danger of dying. The way in which these conditions of destruction and risk are addressed will determine the future of their ecosystems and populations.

The proposed Insular Areas Climate Change Act seeks to address the climate crisis in US unincorporated island territories

In October 2020, the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives announced the creation of the Insular Areas Climate Change Act, a bill whose purpose is to reduce climate impacts in unincorporated island territories. Congressman Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ), Chairman of the Committee, reaffirmed the obligation that Congress has to take action to protect lives and wellbeing in American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The bill draft, which is in a public comments process, seeks the creation of programs and government agencies focused on the planning, management and implementation of energy resources, scientific research, and the provision of economic resources for the insular unincorporated territories controlled by the US. It is a good starting point and shows congressional commitment to address the climate crisis in the territories.

However, the bill requires mechanisms that help to first, address the true causes of climate vulnerability in island territories; second, to integrate the local knowledge that insular frontline communities already possess and the climate crisis response work that they carry out in the territories; third, promote collaboration between civil society and government entities; and finally, to communicate with transparency in English as well as in Spanish the results of the reports created by the working groups that will implement the law. In particular, we offer the following recommendations to fill these gaps and achieve a bill that truly fulfills its goal of empowering island territories to tackle the climate crisis:

1) Incorporate more precise definitions that reflect both the climatic and political vulnerability of the island territories

The term “territories” includes the unincorporated territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The unincorporated territories “belong to, but are not part of” the United States, and in them the Constitution does not apply in its entirety (see the Insular Cases on Puerto Rico and the Philippines). This adds a new dimension of climate vulnerability to the territories since they do not have the same constitutional mechanisms that the 50 states of the Union enjoy to request or receive support from the federal government. The bill should refer to the island territories as unincorporated territories, recognize the lack of political power and governance in them, and promote the development of mechanisms that increase their capacity to respond to the climate crisis they face. The bill should codify that the governance and management of the climate crisis is not limited to collaboration between the federal and island governments, that is, that it must include sectors of civil society such as non-governmental and community-based organizations, as well as academics and scientists already embedded in community work, who have broad and deep local knowledge essential to the search for solutions.

2) Integrate local knowledge in formulating solutions

Local knowledge refers to the unique knowledge created by a particular culture or society, and consists of indigenous, traditional or folk knowledge or science. Local knowledge among island communities is instrumental for the production of food and shelter, as well as for regaining control over their lives and well-being following disasters. It is developed and transmitted from generation to generation as an adaptation mechanism in the face of socio-environmental and agroecological challenges. It thrives on cultural values, and is as essential to sustainable development as physical infrastructure and financial capital.

The Insular Areas Climate Change Act should incorporate local actors from the non-governmental sector, grassroots organizations, as well as academics and scientists inserted in community work, who have led the community recovery after recent climatic catastrophes in island territories. The participation of these sectors of civil society in the recovery process is essential to enable climate resilience beyond what federal or territorial government policies could achieve. In particular:

  • The Insular Areas Climate Change Act Must integrate civil society as members and direct consultative bodies to the groups and programs proposed through the project.
  • The study proposed as part of the Act’s comprehensive energy plan must identify energy vulnerability and how it is distributed among the different economic sectors as well as among the population.
  • The proposed Act’s Climate Change Insular Research Grant Program should establish protocols that ensure equitable forms of community collaboration and the development of the working capacity of civil society and existing local networks to manage grants and other resources.
  • The proposed Act’s Energy Star Rebate program should prioritize the inclusion of the most vulnerable groups, support existing local efforts in the territories, and prioritize the direct installation of renewable energy resources.

3) Strengthen the functioning of the Interagency Task Force

  • The proposed Act’s Interagency Task Force must integrate local actors from local government as well as members of non-governmental and other civil society groups, community leaders, grassroots organizations, and academics and scientists who are currently embedded in community work.
  • The tasks to be carried out by the Interagency Task Force should be clearly specified to ensure that they can advance sustainability and resilience goals through the planning, implementation and evaluation of programs.
  • The Interagency Task Force must promote the integration and meaningful participation of local actors in order to promote accountability of the task force’s actions, facilitate governmental and civil society cooperation and integration of local knowledge, and strengthen the task force’s credibility.

4) The comprehensive report must be available to the public

  • The reports prepared by the Interagency Task Force must be available electronically and in print, in both English and Spanish.
  • Specific guidelines on the content of the reports should be listed on the bill.

Clearly, the Insular Areas Climate Change Act proposes far-reaching programs and a substantial investment of resources. The changes we suggest are essential to ensure that resources are invested effectively and promote the resilience of our island communities and their ecosystems. It is counterproductive that the law only requires collaboration between executive governments at the local and federal level, especially when we consider that the island territories suffer serious vulnerabilities related to the lack of political power and governance.

A group of academics and professionals who are experts in the areas of climate change, energy sustainability, and building resilience have raised our concerns with the Committee on Natural Resources of the US House of Representatives. From our organizations — the Union of Concerned Scientists and the Resilience Law Center at the University of Puerto Rico — we advocate for these changes. It is clear to us that, even when island territories have very diverse populations and histories, the inclusion of local actors and prioritization of local knowledge will help balance power and correct the systemic failures that have left our populations so vulnerable and injured. Congress must not miss this opportunity to correct the course of the history of the territories over which it has control.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/10/insular-areas-climate-change-act-strengthen-territories-response-to-climate-disasters-protect-the-most-vulnerable/

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Colonial Pipeline Shut Down By Ransomware Attack

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The largest U.S. fuel pipeline remains shut down following a massive ransomware cyberattack on Friday. The Colonial Pipeline, described by one analysis as “the jugular of the U.S. pipeline system,” carries gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel from Texas to New Jersey and supplies fuel to much of the Southeast.

The attack and shutdown underscore the vulnerability of pipelines to cyberattacks. The Russian criminal group DarkSide is reportedly behind the attack. Operators of the Colonial Pipeline said they are in the process of bringing the system back online, but there was no indication of when that would happen from either company officials or outside experts.

Sustained outages could have significant impacts on fuel supplies along the East Coast. The Department of Transportation declared a state of emergency for 17 states plus DC on Sunday to help ease fuel shortages.

Attack and shutdown: New York Times $, Washington Post $, APNBCCNNThe Verge, Politico, Axios, Earther, Bloomberg $, CBS; Outage duration scenarios: CNBC; Market response: ReutersNPR; Administration response: Axios, Bloomberg $, BBC.

Originally published by Nexus Media.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/05/10/colonial-pipeline-shut-down-by-ransomware-attack/

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