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Lime puts Jump bikes back on London streets

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Jump bikes are returning to London — this time through its new owner Lime .

London is the first city in Europe to see Jump bikes return since Uber offloaded the company to Lime in a complex deal that unfolded in May. Lime raised $170 million in a funding round led by Uber, along with other existing investors Alphabet, Bain Capital Ventures and GV. As part of the deal, Lime acquired Jump, the electric bike and scooter division that Uber acquired in 2018 for around $200 million.

When the deal closed with Lime, thousands of Jump bikes were scrapped in the United States and the entire Jump team — some 400 employees — lost their jobs. Lime closed the acquisition of Jump in Europe several weeks after the transaction closed in the U.S. Until now, it was unclear if the Jump bikes in Europe would suffer the same fate as their counterparts in the United States.

Thousands of Jump bikes were pulled off the streets in European cities such as Berlin, Brussels, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Malaga, Munich, Paris, Rome and Rotterdam. It’s unlikely that Lime will put Jump bikes back in all of these cities. Sources have said Lime plans to redeploy Jump scooters and bikes in London, Paris, Rome and Barcelona. Today’s announcement appears to be the first step.

For now, the Jump bikes will be available in the Uber app in London. The Jump bikes will be added to the Lime app at a later date as a result of ongoing systems integration, the company said. The fleet size will start at around 100 e-bikes and will grow based on demand. Pricing will be £1 unlock and 15p per minute thereafter. Bikes will be deployed in Camden and Islington, Lime said.

Demand for bikes appears to have prompted Lime to bring Jump back into service. The company said that since lockdown restrictions have eased, Lime’s e-bike rental service has seen record usage. The micromobility company said users are taking longer journeys and the bikes are being used more frequently. Lime also recorded its highest-ever usage in a single day over a weekend in mid-June with more than 4,000 new users. Lime said its e-bike network has now facilitated over 1.5 million journeys across London.

The reintroduction of Jump bikes in London is part of a broader plan by Lime to increase its presence in the city. Earlier this week, the UK announced that an e-scooter pilot program would begin Saturday. Lime said it has partnered with global insurance giant Allianz to provide coverage for Lime e-scooter riders in the UK. Lime said it co-designed a two-year safety campaign with Allianz that will run until March 2022.

Source: https://techcrunch.com/2020/07/03/lime-puts-jump-bikes-back-on-london-streets/

Bioengineer

Scientists find molecular patterns that may help identify extraterrestrial life

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Upcoming Solar System exploration missions will search for extraterrestrial (ET) life, but ET life may not be like Earth life; a new mass spectrometry analysis technique may allow for process-based ways to find ET life that is compositionally alien

Scientists have begun the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System in earnest, but such life may be subtly or profoundly different from Earth-life, and methods based on detecting particular molecules as biosignatures may not apply to life with a different evolutionary history. A new study by a joint Japan/US-based team, led by researchers at the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, has developed a machine learning technique which assesses complex organic mixtures using mass spectrometry to reliably classify them as biological or abiological.

In season 1, episode 29 (“Operation: Annihilate!”) of Star Trek, which aired in 1966, the human-Vulcan hybrid character Spock made the observation “It is not life as we know or understand it. Yet it is obviously alive; it exists.” This now 55-year old pop-culture meme still makes a point: how can we detect life if we fundamentally don’t know what life is, and if that life is really different from life as we know it?

The question of “Are we alone?” as living beings in the Universe has fascinated humanity for centuries, and humankind has been looking for ET life in the Solar System since NASA’s Viking 2 mission to Mars in 1976. There are presently numerous ways scientists are searching for ET life. These include listening for radio signals from advanced civilisations in deep space, looking for subtle differences in the atmospheric composition of planets around other stars, and directly trying to measure it in soil and ice samples they can collect using spacecraft in our own Solar System. This last category allows them to bring their most advanced chemical analytical instrumentation directly to bear on ET samples, and perhaps even bring some of the samples back to Earth, where they can be carefully scrutinised.

Exciting missions such as NASA’s Perseverance rover will look for life this year on Mars; NASA’s Europa Clipper, launching in 2024, will try to sample ice ejected from Jupiter’s moon Europa, and its Dragonfly mission will attempt to land an “octacopter” on Saturn’s moon Titan starting in 2027. These missions will all attempt to answer the question of whether we are alone.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is a principal technique that scientists will rely on in spacecraft-based searches for ET life. MS has the advantage that it can simultaneously measure multitudes of compounds present in samples, and thus provide a sort of “fingerprint” of the composition of the sample. Nevertheless, interpreting those fingerprints may be tricky.

As best as scientists can tell, all life on Earth is based on the same highly coordinated molecular principles, which gives scientists confidence that all Earth-life is derived from a common ancient terrestrial ancestor. However, in simulations of the primitive processes that scientists believe may have contributed to life’s origins on Earth, many similar but slightly different versions of the particular molecules terrestrial life uses are often detected. Furthermore, naturally occurring chemical processes are also able to produce many of the building blocks of biological molecules. Since we still have no known sample of alien life, this leaves scientists with a conceptual paradox: did Earth-life make some arbitrary choices early in evolution which got locked in, and thus life could be constructed otherwise, or should we expect that all life everywhere is constrained to be exactly the same way it is on Earth? How can we know that the detection of a particular molecule type is indicative of whether it was or was not produced by ET life?

It has long troubled scientists that biases in how we think life should be detectable, which are largely based on how Earth-life is presently, might cause our detection methods to fail. Viking 2 in fact returned odd results from Mars in 1976. Some of the tests it conducted gave signals considered positive for life, but the MS measurements provided no evidence for life as we know it. More recent MS data from NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover suggest there are organic compounds on Mars, but they still do not provide evidence for life. A related problem has plagued scientists attempting to detect the earliest evidence for life on Earth: how can we tell if signals detected in ancient terrestrial samples are from the original living organisms preserved in those samples or derived from contamination from the organisms which presently pervade our planet?

Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (The National MagLab) in the US decided to address this problem using a combined experimental and machine learning computational approach. The National MagLab is supported by the US National Science Foundation through NSF/ DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida to provide cutting-edge technologies for research. Using ultrahigh-resolution MS (a technique known as Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (or FT-ICR MS)) they measured the mass spectra of a wide variety of complex organic mixtures, including those derived from abiological samples made in the lab (which they are fairly certain are not living), organic mixtures found in meteorites (which are ~ 4.5 billion-year-old samples of abiologically produced organic compounds which appear to have never become living), laboratory-grown microorganisms (which fit all the modern criteria of being living, including novel microbial organisms isolated and cultured by ELSI co-author Tomohiro Mochizuki), and unprocessed petroleum (or raw natural crude oil, the kind we pump out of the ground and process into gasoline, which is derived from organisms which lived long ago on Earth, providing an example of how the “fingerprint” of known living organisms might change over geological time). These samples each contained tens of thousands of discrete molecular compounds, which provided a large set of MS spectra that could be compared and classified.

In contrast to approaches that use the accuracy of MS measurements to uniquely identify each peak with a particular molecule in a complex organic mixture, the researchers instead aggregated their data and looked at the broad statistics and distribution of signals. Complex organic mixtures, such as those derived from living things, petroleum, and abiological samples present very different “fingerprints” when viewed in this way. Such patterns are much more difficult for a human to detect than the presence or absence of individual molecule types.

The researchers fed their raw data into a computer machine learning algorithm and surprisingly found that the algorithms were able to accurately classify the samples as living or non-living with ~95% accuracy. Importantly, they did so after simplifying the raw data considerably, making it plausible that lower-precision instruments, spacecraft-based instruments are often low power, could obtain data of sufficient resolution to enable the biological classification accuracy the team obtained.

The underlying reasons this classification accuracy is possible to remain to be explored, but the team suggests it is because of the ways biological processes, which modify organic compounds differently than abiological processes, relate to the processes which enable life to propagate itself. Living processes have to make copies of themselves, while abiological processes have no internal process controlling this.

“This work opens many exciting avenues for using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry for astrobiological applications,” says co-author Huan Chen of the US National MagLab.

Lead author Nicholas Guttenberg adds, “While it is difficult if not impossible to characterise every peak in a complex chemical mixture, the broad distribution of components can contain patterns and relationships which are informative about the process by which that mixture came about or developed. If we’re going to understand complex prebiotic chemistry, we need ways of thinking in terms of these broad patterns – how they come about, what they imply, and how they change – rather than the presence or absence of individual molecules. This paper is an initial investigation into the feasibility and methods of characterisation at that level and shows that even discarding high-precision mass measurements, there is significant information in peak distribution that can be used to identify samples by the type of process that produced them.”

Co-author Jim Cleaves of ELSI adds, “This sort of relational analysis may offer broad advantages for searching for life in the Solar System, and perhaps even in laboratory experiments designed to recreate the origins of life.” The team plans to follow up with further studies to understand exactly what aspects of this type of data analysis allows for such successful classification.

###

Reference:

Nicholas Guttenberg1,2,3, Huan Chen4, Tomohiro Mochizuki1, H. James Cleaves II1,5,6,*, Classification of the Biogenicity of Complex Organic Mixtures for the Detection of Extraterrestrial Life, Life, DOI: 10.3390/life11030234

1. Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

2. Cross Labs, Cross Compass Ltd., 2-9-11-9F Shinkawa, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0033, Japan

3. GoodAI, Na Petynce 213/23b, 169 00 Prague, Czech Republic

4. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive,
Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005, USA

5. Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA

6. Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA 98104, USA

More information:

Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) stands at the forefront of research and higher education as the leading university for science and technology in Japan. Tokyo Tech researchers excel in fields ranging from materials science to biology, computer science, and physics. Founded in 1881, Tokyo Tech hosts over 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students per year, who develop into scientific leaders and some of the most sought-after engineers in industry. Embodying the Japanese philosophy of “monotsukuri,” meaning “technical ingenuity and innovation,” the Tokyo Tech community strives to contribute to society through high-impact research.

The Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) is one of Japan’s ambitious World Premiere International research centers, whose aim is to achieve progress in broadly inter-disciplinary scientific areas by inspiring the world’s greatest minds to come to Japan and collaborate on the most challenging scientific problems. ELSI’s primary aim is to address the origin and co-evolution of the Earth and life.

The World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) was launched in 2007 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to help build globally visible research centers in Japan. These institutes promote high research standards and outstanding research environments that attract frontline researchers from around the world. These centers are highly autonomous, allowing them to revolutionise conventional modes of research operation and administration in Japan.

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Source: https://bioengineer.org/scientists-find-molecular-patterns-that-may-help-identify-extraterrestrial-life/

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Bioengineer

Life may have become cellular by using unusual molecules

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All modern life is cellular, but how life came to be cellular remains uncertain. New research suggests chemical compounds likely common on primitive Earth may have helped scaffold the emergence of biological cellularity.

Credit: Tony Z. Jia

All modern life is composed of cells, from single-celled bacteria to more complex organisms such as humans, which may contain billions or even trillions of cells, but how life came to be cellular remains uncertain. New research led by specially appointed assistant professor Tony Z. Jia at the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at Tokyo Institute of Technology, along with colleagues from around the world (Japan, Malaysia, France, Czech Republic, India and the USA), shows that simple chemical compounds known as hydroxy acids, which were likely common on primitive Earth, spontaneously link together and form structures reminiscent of modern cells when dried from solution, as may have happened on or in ancient beaches or puddles. The resulting structures may have helped scaffold the emergence of biological cellularity, and offer scientists a new avenue for studying early proto-biological evolution and the origins of life itself.

Modern cells are very complex, precisely organized assemblages of millions of molecules oriented in precise ways which help traffic materials into and out of cells in a highly coordinated fashion. As an analogy, a city is not just a random collection of buildings, streets and stoplights; rather, in an optimized city, the streets are arranged to allow for easy access to the buildings, and traffic flow is controlled to make the entire system function efficiently. As much as cities are the result of a historical and evolutionary process when primitive roving bands of humans settled down to work together in larger groups, cells are likely the result of similar processes by which simple molecules began to cooperate to form synchronized molecular systems.

How cellularization emerged is a long-standing scientific problem, and scientists are trying to understand how simple molecules can form the boundary structures which could have defined the borders of primitive cells. The boundaries of modern cells are typically composed of lipids, which are themselves composed of molecules which have the molecularly unusual property of spontaneously forming bounded structures in water known as vesicles. Vesicles form from simple molecules known as “amphiphiles,” a word derived from the Greek meaning “loving both” to reflect that such molecules have propensity to self-organize with water as well as with themselves. This molecular dance causes these molecules to orient themselves such that one part of these molecules preferentially aligns with the water they are dissolved in and another portion of these molecules tend to align with one another. This kind of self-organizational phenomenon is observed when groups of people enter elevators: rather than everyone facing in random directions, for various reasons people in elevators tend to all align themselves to face the elevator door. In the experiments investigated by Jia and colleagues, the low molecular weight hydroxy acid molecules, upon joining together become a new type of polymer (that could be similar in nature to amphiphiles), form droplets, rather than the bag-like structures biological lipids do.

Modern cell boundaries, or membranes as they are called, are primarily composed of a few types of amphiphilic molecules, but scientists suspect the property of forming a membrane is a more general property of many types of molecules. As much as modern cities likely adapted roads, buildings and traffic controls to deal with the subsequent problems of handling foot traffic, horse traffic and automobile traffic, primitive cells may have also slowly changed their composition and function to adapt to changes in the way other biological functions evolved. This new work offers insights into the problems primitive emergent biological systems may have had tom adapt to.

The types of molecules that help modern cells form their boundaries are only a small subset of the types which could allow for this kind of spontaneous self-assembly behavior. Previously, Jia and colleagues showed that hydroxy acids can be easily joined together to form larger molecules with emergent amphiphilic and self-assembly properties. They show in their new work that the subtle addition of one more type of subtly different hydroxy acid, in this case one bearing a positive electric charge, to the starting pool of reactants can result in new types of polyesters that spontaneously self-assemble into still more unexpected types of cell-like structures and lends them new functions which may help explain the origins of biological cellularity.

The novel structures Jia and coworkers prepared show emergent functions such as the ability to segregate nucleic acids, which are essential for conveying heredity in modern cells, or the ability to emit fluorescent light. That such minor changes in chemical complexity can result in major functional changes is significant. Jia and colleagues suggest that by further increasing the chemical complexity of their experimental system, still further emergent functions could arise among the resulting primitive compartments that could lead to greater understanding of the rise of the first cells.

Jia notes that this work is not merely theoretical nor even just relevant to basic science research. Major COVID vaccines such as those devised by Moderna and Pfizer involve the dispersion of RNA molecules in metabolizable lipid droplets; the systems Jia and coworkers have developed could be similarly biodegradable in vivo, and thus polyester droplets similar to the ones they prepared could be useful for similar drug delivery applications.

###

Reference:

Tony Z. Jia1,4*, Niraja V. Bapat1,2, Ajay Verma2, Irena Mamajanov1, H. James Cleaves II1,3,4, Kuhan Chandru5,6*, Incorporation of Basic α-Hydroxy Acid Residues into Primitive Polyester Microdroplets for RNA Segregation, Biomacromolecules, DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.0c01697

1. Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

2. Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, Maharashtra 411008, India

3. Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, United States

4. Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, Washington 98154, United States

5. Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 16628 Prague 6 — Dejvice, Czech Republic

6. Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, National University of Malaysia, UKM, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan 43650, Malaysia

More information:

Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) stands at the forefront of research and higher education as the leading university for science and technology in Japan. Tokyo Tech researchers excel in fields ranging from materials science to biology, computer science, and physics. Founded in 1881, Tokyo Tech hosts over 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students per year, who develop into scientific leaders and some of the most sought-after engineers in industry. Embodying the Japanese philosophy of “monotsukuri,” meaning “technical ingenuity and innovation,” the Tokyo Tech community strives to contribute to society through high-impact research.

The Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) is one of Japan’s ambitious World Premiere International research centers, whose aim is to achieve progress in broadly inter-disciplinary scientific areas by inspiring the world’s greatest minds to come to Japan and collaborate on the most challenging scientific problems. ELSI’s primary aim is to address the origin and co-evolution of the Earth and life.

The World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) was launched in 2007 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to help build globally visible research centers in Japan. These institutes promote high research standards and outstanding research environments that attract frontline researchers from around the world. These centers are highly autonomous, allowing them to revolutionize conventional modes of research operation and administration in Japan.

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Source: https://bioengineer.org/life-may-have-become-cellular-by-using-unusual-molecules/

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Experimental gene therapy points to cure for rare immune disease

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An experimental gene therapy developed to treat children born with a rare immunodeficiency disease has demonstrated extraordinary efficacy according to a new long-term follow-up study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare disease leaving children with no functioning immune system. The disease is perhaps best known as the “bubble-boy” disease following the well-publicized story of David Vetter, a boy born with SCID in the early 1970s who lived for 12 years in a protective bubble.

One particular type of SCID involves mutations in the ADA gene, and over the last couple of decades scientists have been investigating ways to deliver normal functioning versions of this gene into children with ADA-SCID. A prior gene therapy called Strimvelis was approved in 2016 for use in Europe, however, there have been concerns the therapy could be linked to increased risk of leukemia.

This new iteration of the gene therapy uses a different viral vector to deliver the functioning ADA gene. A study is reporting on 50 children administered the new type of gene therapy, following their conditions up to three years after the single treatment.

The incredibly promising findings reveal all children treated with the gene therapy were still alive up to three years later and 48 out of the 50 were essentially cured of ADA-SCID.

“Treatment was successful in all but two of the 50 cases, and both of those children were able to return to current standard-of care-therapies and treatments, with one eventually receiving a bone marrow transplant,” says Donald Kohn, a researcher who has been working on these gene therapies for decades.

Although this particular new gene therapy is not yet available, several other similar one-off treatments have reached market approval over the past few years, and they are not cheap. In 2017 one of the first of these kinds of gene therapies was approved for US patients and its price tag came close to half a million dollars.

The next year another gene therapy was approved by the FDA and hit the market with a price tag of US$850,000. And prices for these one-off gene therapies kept skyrocketing, with one treatment hitting $2.125 million dollars for a single dose.

It is unclear how much this new experimental therapy for ADA-SCID may cost but, in comparison, Strimvelis hit the market with a price tag well over $700,000. It has previously been noted that current treatments for ADA-SCID can quickly add up to millions of dollars over the course of several years, so it has been argued a costly one-off curative gene therapy should be cheaper than current ongoing treatments.

The new study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Sources: UCLA, NIH

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Source: https://newatlas.com/medical/experimental-gene-therapy-scid-rare-immune-deficiency/

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NEWATLAS

ESA seeks ways to make shared spacesuit underwear more hygienic

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ESA is working on ways to make sharing unwashed underwear used in spacesuits a bit less horrible. The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) will work with the Vienna Textile Lab on the BACTeRMA project to test textiles with improved anti-bacterial properties for spacesuits used on long-duration space missions.

Space travel may seem glamorous, but it’s not all boldly going and taking one small step. The unpleasant reality is that it isn’t possible to leave behind all the basic necessities, like having to do the laundry.

Unfortunately, one of the things that space agencies don’t like to talk about is that from Vostok 1 to today, astronauts have never had a way of cleaning their clothes. On the International Space Station (ISS), for example, where crew members live for months at a time, the personnel have to carry along enough clothes to (hopefully) last them until they return to Earth.

Astronaut wearing the liquid cooling garment
Astronaut wearing the liquid cooling garment

Robert Markowitz/NASA

Though the astronauts rotate their garments on a daily basis, they get ripe enough that they have few qualms about letting their underwear et al burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere in a returning uncrewed cargo ship. This is bad enough, but crew going on spacewalks not only have to deal with unwashed pieces of personal clothing, but ones that they have to share.

To be specific, the problem is the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG). This is worn with the NASA spacesuit called the External Mobility Unit (EMU), which was originally developed for the Space Shuttle program, and is now standard equipment on the space station.

The EMU is made up of several components in different sizes, which can be swapped around to fit individual astronauts. Underneath this, each astronaut is issued a disposable Maximum Absorbency Garment, which is a polite euphemism for an adult diaper, and a personal Thermal Comfort Undergarment to prevent chafing.

Electron microscope view of test textiles
Electron microscope view of test textiles

OeWF

Unfortunately, a vital part of the spacesuit is the LCVG. This is worn over the undergarment and is a tight-fitting, loose-woven jumpsuit lined with plastic tubes to circulate water that is cooled or heated to keep the astronaut safe and comfortable. This garment is so efficient that it can easily handle 4,000 BTU/hr (1,000 kilocalories/hr), which is equivalent to the heat generated by a 180-lb (82-kg) man sawing down a tree in the tropics.

Like the EMU itself, the LCVG has been shared between spacewalking astronauts and can only be cleaned by returning it to Earth for an overhaul. On the ISS, this means the spacesuits can get a bit manky, but on longer missions operating on the planned Gateway deep-space outpost, this could rise to the level of a flat-out health hazard.

“Spaceflight textiles, especially when subject to biological contamination – for example, spacesuit underwear – may pose both engineering and medical risks during long duration flights,” says ESA material engineer Malgorzata Holynska. “We are already investigating candidate materials for outer spacesuit layers, so this early technology development project is a useful complement, looking into small bacteria-killing molecules that may be useful for all kinds of spaceflight textiles, including spacesuit interiors.”

Some bacteria produce substances with antibiotic properties
Some bacteria produce substances with antibiotic properties

OeWF

The standard way of fighting bacteria in garments and other objects is to use materials like copper or silver, which can be effective, but they can also be toxic and tend to tarnish, reducing their effectiveness. As an alternative, the two-year BACTeRMA project is looking at secondary metabolites, which are produced by bacteria as an end product of metabolic processes, yet have antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal properties.

The goal is to find effective metabolites and integrate them into suitable textiles. Because these textiles may be used in spacesuits on lunar surface missions, they will not only be subjected to perspiration in testing, but also simulated lunar dust. The textiles will then be subjected to radiation, which will simulate the effects of prolonged storage in deep space.

“Christopher Columbus needed shipbuilders to make his journey happen, and that’s the kind of contribution we in the OeWF hope to make,” says Seda Özdemir-Fritz Bacterma, project scientist at the OeWF. “We’re interested in the human factors involved in future Moon Mars missions, so we perform ‘analogue astronaut’ simulations and analysis.”

Source: ESA

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Source: https://newatlas.com/space/esa-seeks-hygienic-solution-shared-spacesuit-underwear/

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