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Eleven risks of marrying a quantum information scientist




Some of you may have wondered whether I have a life. I do. He’s a computer scientist, and we got married earlier this month. 

Marrying a quantum information scientist comes with dangers not advertised in any Brides magazine (I assume; I’ve never opened a copy of Brides magazine). Never mind the perils of gathering together Auntie So-and-so and Cousin Such-and-such, who’ve quarreled since you were six; or spending tens of thousands of dollars on one day; or assembling two handfuls of humans during a pandemic. Beware the risks of marrying someone who unconsciously types “entropy” when trying to type “entry,” twice in a row.

1) She’ll introduce you to friends as “a classical computer scientist.” They’d assume, otherwise, that he does quantum computer science. Of course. Wouldn’t you?


2) The quantum punning will commence months before the wedding. One colleague wrote, “Many congratulations! Now you know the true meaning of entanglement.” Quantum particles can share entanglement. If you measure entangled particles, your outcomes can exhibit correlations stronger than any produceable by classical particles. As a card from another colleague read, “May you stay forever entangled, with no decoherence.”

I’d rather not dedicate much of a wedding article to decoherence, but suppose that two particles are maximally entangled (can generate the strongest correlations possible). Suppose that particle 2 heats up or suffers bombardment by other particles. The state of particle 2 decoheres as the entanglement between 1 and 2 frays. Equivalently, particle 2 entangles with its environment, and particle 2 can entangle only so much: The more entanglement 2 shares with the environment, the less entanglement 2 can share with 1. Physicists call entanglement—ba-duh-bummonogamous. 

The matron-of-honor toast featured another entanglement joke, as well as five more physics puns.1 (She isn’t a scientist, but she did her research.) She’ll be on Zoom till Thursday; try the virtual veal.


3) When you ask what sort of engagement ring she’d like, she’ll mention black diamonds. Experimentalists and engineers are building quantum computers from systems of many types, including diamond. Diamond consists of carbon atoms arranged in a lattice. Imagine expelling two neighboring carbon atoms and replacing one with a nitrogen atom. You’ll create a nitrogen-vacancy center whose electrons you can control with light. Such centers color the diamond black but let you process quantum information.

If I’d asked my fiancé for a quantum computer, we’d have had to wait 20 years to marry. He gave me an heirloom stone instead.


4) When a wedding-gown shopkeeper asks which sort of train she’d prefer, she’ll inquire about Maglevs. I dislike shopping, as the best man knows better than most people. In middle school, while our classmates spent their weekends at the mall, we stayed home and read books. But I filled out gown shops’ questionnaires. 

“They want to know what kinds of material I like,” I told the best man over the phone, “and what styles, and what type of train. I had to pick from four types of train. I didn’t even know there were four types of train!”

“Steam?” guessed the best man. “Diesel?”

His suggestions appealed to me as a quantum thermodynamicist. Thermodynamics is the physics of energy, which engines process. Quantum thermodynamicists study how quantum phenomena, such as entanglement, can improve engines. 

“Get the Maglev train,” the best man added. “Low emissions.”

“Ooh,” I said, “that’s superconducting.” Superconductors are quantum systems in which charge can flow forever, without dissipating. Labs at Yale, at IBM, and elsewhere are building quantum computers from superconductors. A superconductor consists of electrons that pair up with help from their positively charged surroundings—Cooper pairs. Separating Cooper-paired electrons requires an enormous amount of energy. What other type of train would better suit a wedding?

I set down my phone more at ease. Later, pandemic-era business closures constrained me to wearing a knee-length dress that I’d worn at graduations. I didn’t mind dodging the train.


5) When you ask what style of wedding dress she’ll wear, she’ll say that she likes her clothing as she likes her equations. Elegant in their simplicity.

6) You’ll plan your wedding for wedding season only because the rest of the year conflicts with more seminars, conferences, and colloquia. The quantum-information-theory conference of the year takes place in January. We wanted to visit Australia in late summer, and Germany in autumn, for conferences. A quantum-thermodynamics conference takes place early in the spring, and the academic year ends in May. Happy is the June bride; happier is the June bride who isn’t preparing a talk.

7) An MIT chaplain will marry you. Who else would sanctify the union of a physicist and a computer scientist?

8) You’ll acquire more in-laws than you bargained for. Biological parents more than suffice for most spouses. My husband has to contend with academic in-laws.


Academic in-laws of my husband’s attending the wedding via Zoom.

9) Your wedding can double as a conference. Had our wedding taken place in person, collaborations would have flourished during the cocktail hour. Papers would have followed; their acknowledgements sections would have nodded at the wedding; and I’d have requested copies of all manuscripts for our records—which might have included our wedding album.

10) You’ll have trouble identifying a honeymoon destination where she won’t be tempted to give a seminar. I thought that my then-fiancé would enjoy Vienna, but it boasts a quantum institute. So do Innsbruck and Delft. A colleague-friend works in Budapest, and I owe Berlin a professional visit. The list grew—or, rather, our options shrank. But he turned out not to mind my giving a seminar. The pandemic then cancelled our trip, so we’ll stay abroad for a week after some postpandemic European conference (hint hint).

11) Your wedding will feature on the blog of Caltech’s Institute for Quantum Information and Matter. Never mind The New York Times. Where else would you expect to find a quantum information physicist? I feel fortunate to have found someone with whom I wouldn’t rather be anywhere else.


1“I know that if Nicole picked him to stand by her side, he must be a FEYNMAN and not a BOZON.”



Being a Quantum Scientist – an interview with Ke Guo




Ke Guo image

Physics had always been one of the subjects Ke Guo excelled at in school, so that, combined with her love for learning new things and discovering new applications meant a career in quantum science was for her. Ke first undertook a Bachelors degree in Physics before embarking upon a Masters and subsequently a PhD in optics; she has since moved to the UK to work at the Quantum Communications Hub. Based full time at the National Physical Laboratory as a seconded employee of the University of York, Ke works on the assurance of Quantum Random Number Generators (i.e. making sure their outputs are truly quantum), which have a variety of applications. We recently caught up with Ke to find out more about her journey in quantum so far, her work and her hopes for the future:

Can you tell me a little bit about how you got to where you are today?

I grew up in a small city in China called Ji’an and went to the University of Science and Technology of China, in a nearby province, for my Bachelors degree. Initially I chose to study physics, partly because it was one of the easier subjects for me in school, compared with subjects like history and politics. Also, at the time, I wasn’t interested in industry, I wanted to do something more fundamental than practical.

In the last year of my Bachelors degree I did theoretical physics, but, when I graduated I realised that pure theory wasn’t really my thing – I didn’t want to just sit in an office and stare at computer screens all day. Meanwhile, I didn’t feel like starting to look for a job, so I moved onto a Masters programme, I did it in applied physics at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. It was a very exciting experience because it was the first time I had been to Europe! I was excited and able to travel which was nice.

During the last year of my Masters I did an internship in Philips research at Eindhoven, where I worked on plasmonics for solid state lighting. My supervisor at the time, Marc, was involved in a PhD project with AMOLF, an institute in the Netherlands originally founded for the study of atomic and molecular physics. He recommended this PhD project to me, I applied and got the position!

I did my PhD with Professor Femius Koenderink. In short, the project was on a similar topic to what I did during my Masters involving a deeper and broader range of research work. When I graduated, I wasn’t very clear on what kind of career I wanted to continue with. I felt I wasn’t really interested in a particular field but more interested in the experience of learning new things, so, I decided to move to a slightly different field. As I studied classical optics as part of my PhD, I had also attended some interesting talks in quantum optics and thought this could be an interesting subject with plenty of unknowns to learn about.

I found the position that I have now online, I didn’t know much about the Quantum Communications Hub but I was interested in the project, applied and got the job!

It’s clear that you’re very passionate about your work, but what interested you in quantum? It’s an optional direction, so what attracted you?

So, quantum mainly interests me because there are plenty of things that are quite different to what you expect in daily life and in daily experiences, sometimes things are counter intuitive. I find it very exciting to learn about new things and see how they can lead to new applications.

What are you working on at the moment and what are the applications of this?

I work on assessment of QRNGs (Quantum Random Number Generators). Random numbers are very widely used in life: scientists use them to simulate complex systems like climate, traffic and spread of diseases; banks and websites use QRNGs for encryption; and QRNGs are also key components for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) so therefore they’re a crucial for quantum communications. Of all kinds of random number generators, QRNGs are currently the only type that can be proven in theory to give truly unpredictable outputs, so that’s why we are interested in them. However, practical devices are not perfect and we need to be certain that we can trust the output. My work is focused on investigating methods to test these devices and provide certifications for them.

What would a typical day at work be for you?

I don’t have a daily routine for work but typically I do optical experiments and data processing. That means that I will experiment with the arrangement of optics and conduct measurements that I think would be interesting. Once the data are recorded, they are processed and presented as part of different models so that in the end you can see more information than just the raw data, this can help us to learn about the systems and how they can be used. Sometimes I also read research literature to keep up to date with other people’s work in the field and have discussions with colleagues about this and my own work.

Is there a certain application of quantum technologies that you are particularly excited to see the development of in years to come?   

Of course, I’m interested in quantum communications, there has already been a lot of development in this area, particularly on a national scale – many countries are already building up their own quantum networks. I’m really interested to see how these networks are going to be rolled out and integrated in national infrastructure and everyday life. I also know that there is a lot of interest in quantum communications for individuals, so I am also looking forward to seeing QRNGs and QKD systems being integrated into daily life such as personal banking or integrated into smart phones, for example.

Do you feel as though you are a minority, being a woman in the field of quantum and do you feel as though you have experienced any barriers because of your gender?

Personally, I don’t consider myself a minority because I don’t think my gender has any influence on my work. I can imagine, and I’ve heard, that in some places discrimination can exist for historical reasons, and sometimes for practical reasons, so if I was to continue in this field I would take this into account. But, so far, I haven’t experienced any barriers myself.

What are your hopes for the future in terms of your career path?

Honestly, it’s still not very clear to me! I like doing science and I hope that I can continue in a profession that allows me to do science, preferably fundamental science. But, I also realised that careers are different from subjects. As part of a career, you ideally get to engage in what you like and are excited to do but you also have to fulfill certain responsibilities. For example, if you work for a company, you may be asked to carry out certain routine projects that you might not feel particularly enthused about. Similarly, if you work in academia, you may worry about balancing administrative responsibilities with chasing grant funding and attracting student numbers, while also having to do other things, such as constantly worrying about writing research papers (the famous “publish or “perish” academic principle). The point is that you cannot simply isolate yourself in a lab and “do science”. My hope is that I can find a position where I can continue with science, but, I will try to avoid – to the extent that it’s possible – having to be deeply involved in things like administrative duties.

What advice would you give to someone who might be interested in a career in STEM, knowing what you know now?

So, I think that a career in STEM would be very rewarding and interesting indeed, but, if you decide to go into this as a career you must be prepared for the responsibilities that come with it. You will have to consider many practical things such as moving around to different institutions in order to broaden your view. You also need to consider salary, academia isn’t necessarily the best way to earn a lot of money if that’s important to you!  I don’t think people are often aware of these practicalities but they must be considered so that informed choices can be made.


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‘Future Horizons for Photonics Research 2030 and beyond’ report released




The Photonics Leadership Group and the All-Party Parliamentary Group in Photonics and Quantum have released a report on the ‘Future Horizons for Photonics Research 2030 and beyond’ which aims to outline what will be possible in photonics in the next decade and beyond, and the substantial opportunities for the photonics industry in the UK.

Numerous Quantum Communications Hub investigators and advisory board members were among the 26 leading photonics academics in the UK that were invited to participate in the horizon scanning exercise, which required them to consider what the focus of photonics research will be, a decade and more from now.

The report defines 70 research topics that will be the focus of photonics research, including established research topics and new research fields, organised into four broad categories: materials, optical and physical phenomenon, future manufacturing processes and devices and systems.

Also identified within the report are the nine ‘great challenges’ representing major societal trends and concerns which will influence and motivate future photonics innovation: data, health and ageing, physical pollution, mobility and transport, climate change, defence and security, economic patriotism, scale and food production photon. The report recognises that the photonics industry is well established and is fundamental to many advanced technologies and industries, however, it also highlights that photonics innovation needs to undergo a ‘step change’ in order to combat the challenges indentified to be facing photonics in the future.

Finally, the report makes seven recommendations which include researchers, research agencies, funding agencies, policy makers and Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund (ISCF) Directors taking action in order to enable the identified topics to become research activity within the UK and for the potential benefits of photonics to be realised.

You can download and read the report from the resources page of this website.


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New Hub Paper: ‘Towards practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution’




Cosmo Lupo, 2020, ‘Towards practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution’, Phys. Rev. A 102, 022623. DOI:

Rigorous mathematical proofs of the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) have been obtained recently. Unfortunately, these security proofs rely on assumptions that are hardly met in experimental practice. Here I investigate these issues in detail, and discuss experimentally friendly workarounds to assess the security of CV QKD. The aim of this paper is to show that there are hidden and unsolved issues and to indicate possible partial solutions. To provide a complete and rigorous mathematical security proof is out of the scope of this contribution.


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