Connect with us

Bioengineer

Study links elevated levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with breast cancer risk

Avatar

Published

on

Hollings Cancer Center researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina assess the connection between dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and breast cancer risk

Hollings Cancer Center researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and colleagues assessed the connection between dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and breast cancer risk in a study first published online March 2020 in Cancer Prevention Research.

It supports an increasingly evident link between high levels of AGEs in the body and cancer risk, said principal investigator David Turner, Ph.D., who worked with colleagues Susan Steck, Ph.D., with the University of South Carolina, and Lindsay Peterson, M.D., with Washington University School of Medicine.

The study was part of a larger decade-long prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO) designed and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. It included over 78,000 women between the ages of 55 and 74 years who were cancer free at the start of the study. The women completed a food frequency questionnaire at the beginning and again at five years into the study. After an average of 11 ½ years, 1,592 of the women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When the intake of high-AGE food was assessed, based on the questionnaires, increased AGE intake via the diet was associated with an increased risk of in situ and hormone receptor positive breast cancers.

Advanced glycation end products are proteins and lipids (fats) that go through a chemical alteration called glycation when they are exposed to sugars. This process occurs naturally in the body. However, processed foods and foods cooked at high temperatures are extremely high in AGEs, which can lead to a dangerous overabundance in the body.

Turner said AGEs are involved in nearly every chronic disease, in some way. “The study of AGEs in cancer is just starting to get traction. The presence of AGEs has been known for at least 100 years, but the research has been challenging. In order to determine how they work, their mechanism of action, researchers first have to determine a role in various diseases.”

Turner said this study is important because it adds to the evidence between high levels of AGEs in the body and cancer risk. Turner and his collaborators are promoting the connection between AGEs and lifestyle choices to help the public make better food choices.

This will become an even more popular area of study as researchers employ new tools to help study AGEs. “A novel device, the AGE reader, is about to change how we look at AGEs in the clinic,” Turner said. The AGE reader, made by Diagnoptics, is an easy to use noninvasive device where someone rests their forearm for just 12 seconds. It uses light at certain wavelengths to excite AGE autofluorescence in the human skin tissue.

“This machine actually measures glow from some of the AGEs. The more AGEs that are in the skin, the higher the glow,” explained Turner.

While the AGE reader has been used to show strong correlations between AGE levels and Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and even mortality, Turner is using a cancer center support grant to validate further the AGE reader for use in cancer patients. He and his colleagues plan to investigate whether pigmentation in the skin skews the reading and use the reader as part of a growing community outreach program.

Since a link between AGEs and breast cancer has been shown, the ultimate goal is to test all Hollings Cancer Center patients who are interested at each visit, Turner said. This will provide a huge amount of data about the link between AGEs and a wide variety of cancers. Turner and his collaborators expect that future multicenter grants will come out of this project.

While the connection between high AGE levels and cancer risk might be disconcerting, research is also being done to determine if there is a way to reverse the detrimental effects of AGEs.

Bradley Krisanits, a Ph.D. student in Turner’s lab, said that preliminarily, they have seen that physical activity reduces the amount of AGEs in the circulation.

“In our prostate cancer models, we see that physical activity counteracts prostate cancer progression in mice fed a high-AGE diet. This may be occurring due to a reduction in AGEs and changes in the immune system that we need to study more.”

Turner hopes that by educating people about AGEs, they can make informed lifestyle decisions and lower their risks for chronic diseases. The top three things that a person can do is learn what AGEs are, avoid processed foods and think about how you cook your food in order to make changes to avoid the highest AGE-inducing cooking methods such as frying, grilling and broiling.

“AGEs build up in a cumulative way. Fats, sugars, everything that is bad for you leads to the accumulation of AGEs. One of our goals at Hollings is to reach out to the community to encourage the public to make healthier choices. Just making small changes in your diet can have a big effect.”

###

About the Medical University of South Carolina

Founded in 1824 in Charleston, MUSC is the oldest medical school in the South as well as the state’s only integrated academic health sciences center with a unique charge to serve the state through education, research and patient care. Each year, MUSC educates and trains more than 3,000 students and 800 residents in six colleges: Dental Medicine, Graduate Studies, Health Professions, Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy. The state’s leader in obtaining biomedical research funds, in fiscal year 2019, MUSC set a new high, bringing in more than $284 million. For information on academic programs, visit http://musc.edu.

As the clinical health system of the Medical University of South Carolina, MUSC Health is dedicated to delivering the highest quality patient care available while training generations of competent, compassionate health care providers to serve the people of South Carolina and beyond. Comprising some 1,600 beds, more than 100 outreach sites, the MUSC College of Medicine, the physicians’ practice plan and nearly 275 telehealth locations, MUSC Health owns and operates eight hospitals situated in Charleston, Chester, Florence, Lancaster and Marion counties. In 2019, for the fifth consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report named MUSC Health the No. 1 hospital in South Carolina. To learn more about clinical patient services, visit http://muschealth.org.

MUSC and its affiliates have collective annual budgets of $3.2 billion. The more than 17,000 MUSC team members include world-class faculty, physicians, specialty providers and scientists who deliver groundbreaking education, research, technology and patient care.

About Hollings Cancer Center

The Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina is a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center and the largest academic-based cancer research program in South Carolina. The cancer center comprises more than 100 faculty cancer scientists and 20 academic departments. It has an annual research funding portfolio of more than $44 million and a dedication to reducing the cancer burden in South Carolina. Hollings offers state-of-the-art diagnostic capabilities, therapies and surgical techniques within multidisciplinary clinics that include surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation therapists, radiologists, pathologists, psychologists and other specialists equipped for the full range of cancer care, including more than 200 clinical trials. For more information, visit http://www.hollingscancercenter.org.

https://web.musc.edu/about/news-center/2020/06/10/advanced-glycation-end-products-increase-breast-cancer-risk

Source: https://bioengineer.org/study-links-elevated-levels-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-with-breast-cancer-risk/

Bioengineer

Climate change atlas offers a glimpse into forest futures

Avatar

Published

on

Delaware, Ohio, April 21, 2021– For 20 years, the USDA Forest Service’s Climate Change Atlas has been giving foresters in the Eastern United States insight into how future habitat conditions may affect tree species, from dramatic change (a big increase of cedar elm, for example, and a big loss in balsam poplar) to the fairly neutral (red maple). The Forest Service scientists who designed the Climate Change Atlas recently completed a major overhaul of the online tool, including new predictor variables, an updated modeling framework, updated data, information on potential migration, and a revised series of four tutorials on how to use the Atlas.

The Climate Change Atlas offers a glimpse into possible futures for 125 eastern tree species by combining modeling for species distribution, migration, and tree species traits. Modeling is provided for trees assuming moderate and high emissions of greenhouse gases. The Atlas uses data collected by the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program from 3.9 million trees from 85,000 inventory plots in the Eastern United States.

“Science-based forest management offers a natural solution to climate change in the United States, and our challenge is to not only develop that science but to package it in formats that are convenient, accurate, and useful to forest managers,” said Cynthia West, Director of the Northern Research Station and the Forest Products Laboratory. “The Climate Change Atlas exemplifies how Forest Service research serves land managers in our region.”

Updates to the Climate Change Atlas include place-based summaries of current tree species ranked in order of importance, potential tree species shifts within the area, and potential species to consider for planting for individual national forests, national parks, urban areas, ecoregions, watersheds as well as full coverage by 1×1 degree grids, across the Eastern United States.

The Atlas was created by Northern Research Station scientists Louis Iverson, Anantha Prasad, Matthew Peters, and Stephen Matthews.

###

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://bioengineer.org/climate-change-atlas-offers-a-glimpse-into-forest-futures/

Continue Reading

Bioengineer

Warming seas might also look less colorful to some fish. Here’s why that matters.

Avatar

Published

on

Climate change is driving some fish into cooler, deeper waters. Now they may be faced with another challenge: how to make sense of a world drained of color.

DURHAM, N.C. — When marine biologist Eleanor Caves of the University of Exeter thinks back to her first scuba dives, one of the first things she recalls noticing is that colors seem off underwater. The vivid reds, oranges, purples and yellows she was used to seeing in the sunlit waters near the surface look increasingly dim and drab with depth, and before long the whole ocean loses most of its rainbow leaving nothing but shades of blue.

“The thing that always got me about diving was what happens to people’s faces and lips,” said her former Ph.D. adviser Sönke Johnsen, a biology professor at Duke University. “Everybody has a ghastly sallow complexion.”

Which got the researchers to thinking: In the last half-century, some fish have been shifting into deeper waters, and climate change is likely to blame. One study found that fish species off the northeastern coast of the United States descended more than one meter per year between 1968 and 2007, in response to a warming of only about one degree Celsius.

Could such shifts make the color cues fish rely on for survival harder to see?

Previous research suggests it might. Scientists already have evidence that fish have a harder time discerning differences in each other’s hues and brightness in waters made murkier by other causes, such as erosion or nutrient runoff.

As an example, the authors cite studies of three-spined sticklebacks that breed in the shallow coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, where females choose among males — who care for the eggs — based on the redness of their throats and bellies. But algal blooms can create cloudy conditions that make it harder to see, which tricks females into mating with less fit males whose hatchlings don’t make it.

The turbidity makes it harder for a male to prove he’s a worthy mate by interfering with females’ ability to distinguish subtle gradations of red or orange, Johnsen said. “For any poor fish that has beautiful red coloration on his body, now it’s like, ‘well, you’re just going to have to take my word for it.’”

Other studies have shown that, for cichlid fish in Africa’s Lake Victoria, where species rely on their distinctive colors to recognize their own kind, pollution can reduce water clarity to a point where they lose the ability to tell each other apart and start mating every which way.

The researchers say the same communication breakdown plaguing fish in turbid waters is likely happening to species that are being pushed to greater depths. And interactions with would-be mates aren’t the only situations that could be prone to confusion. Difficulty distinguishing colors could also make it harder for fish to locate prey, recognize rivals, or warn potential predators that they are dangerous to eat.

In a study published April 21 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Caves and Johnsen used mathematical models to determine what the colors of the underwater world might look like as fish in the uppermost layer of the ocean shift to new depths.

They were able to show that, while the surface waters may be bursting with color, descending by just 30 meters shrinks the palette considerably.

“It’s like going back to the days of black and white TV,” Johnsen said.

When sunlight hits an object, some wavelengths are absorbed and others bounce off. It’s the wavelengths that are reflected back that make a red fish look red, or a blue fish blue. But a fish sporting certain colors at the surface will start to look different as it swims deeper because the water filters out or absorbs some wavelengths sooner than others.

The researchers were surprised to find that, especially for shallow-water species such as those that live in and around coral reefs, it doesn’t take much of a downward shift to have a dramatic effect on how colors appear.

“You really don’t have to go very far from the surface to notice a big impact,” said Caves, who will be starting as an assistant professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, this fall.

Precisely which colors lose their luster first, and how quickly that happens as you go down, depends on what depths a species typically inhabits and how much deeper they are forced to go, as well as the type of environment they live in — whether it’s, say, the shallow bays or rocky shores of the Atlantic, or a tropical coral reef.

In clear ocean water, red is the first color to dull and disappear. “That’s important because so many species use red signals to attract mates or deter enemies,” Johnsen said.

The team predicts that some species will be more vulnerable than others. Take, for instance, fish that can’t take the edge off the heat by relocating toward the poles of the planet. Particularly in semi-enclosed waters such as the Mediterranean and Black seas or the Gulf of Mexico, or in coral reefs, which are stuck to the sea bed — these species will have no option but to dive deeper to keep their cool, Caves said.

As a next step, they hope to test their ideas in the coral reefs around the island of Guam, where butterflyfishes and fire gobies use their vivid color patterns to recognize members of their own species and woo mates.

“The problem is only accelerating,” Caves said. By the end of this century, it’s possible that sea surface temperatures will have heated up another 4.8 degrees Celsius, or an increase of 8.6 degrees Fahrenheit, compared to the 1896-2005 average.

And while warming is happening faster at the poles, “tropical waters are feeling the effects too,” Caves said.

###

This research was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement (No 793454).

CITATION: “The Sensory Impacts of Climate Change: Bathymetric Shifts and Visually Mediated Interactions in Aquatic Species,” Eleanor Caves and Sönke Johnsen. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, April 21, 2021. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2021.0396

https://today.duke.edu/2021/04/warming-seas-might-also-look-less-colorful-some-fish-heres-why-matters

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://bioengineer.org/warming-seas-might-also-look-less-colorful-to-some-fish-heres-why-that-matters/

Continue Reading

Bioengineer

Children exposed to intimate partner violence twice as likely to have poorer health

Avatar

Published

on

A new study has found up to half of all children with language difficulties and mental and physical health problems have been exposed to intimate partner violence, prompting calls for health and social care services to provide more effective identification and early intervention.

The research, led by the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI) and published in The BMJ, showed children exposed to intimate partner violence from infancy were twice as likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and impaired language skills at age 10. They were also more likely to have asthma and sleep problems.

The study also found that children exposed to intimate partner violence in the year they turned 10 were two to three times more likely to experience poor mental health, elevated blood pressure and sleep difficulties. But with the exception of language difficulties and asthma, child health outcomes at age 10 were not affected if their only exposure to intimate partner violence occurred before they turned five, highlighting the need for more effective early intervention.

The research involved 1507 first-time mothers and their first-born children. Women were recruited to the study from six public maternity hospitals in Melbourne. More than one in four women and children in the study were exposed to intimate partner violence during the first 10 years after the child’s birth.

MCRI Professor Stephanie Brown said the findings showed the size of the burden of ill health carried by children growing up in households where intimate partner violence occurred.

“Intimate partner is the most common form of violence against women and their children and is a global public health issue,” she said. “It’s not limited to physical and sexual violence and is often characterised by a pattern of psychological control and coercion. Children may pick up on this and experience constant fear or anxiety at home.

“The impact of COVID-19 has increased pressures on families and heightened the need for more effective intervention and support for women and children experiencing domestic abuse.”

Professor Brown said that many women experiencing intimate partner violence were unsure about seeking support from family health and social care services.

“Services need to aware of the impact of intimate partner violence on children’s health and wellbeing and work to overcome barriers that may get in the way of women seeking support for themselves and their children,” she said.

“Barriers may include fear of judgement, the perception that health services can’t help, the cost of GP appointments, limited availability of low cost psychological and other allied health services, and lack of services that take a holistic approach to women and children’s health and wellbeing.

“If child health and social services do not recognise and respond to intimate partner violence as a potential contributing factor to poor child health outcomes, interventions to support children with health and developmental problems are likely to be less effective.”

MCRI Dr Deirdre Gartland said some mothers and children experience good health and wellbeing despite their exposure to intimate partner violence.

“It is important to recognise that not all children exposed to intimate partner violence have poor physical and mental health,” she said.

“Women are doing everything they can to protect and look after their children to give them the best possible outcomes despite the situations they are in.”

Researchers from The University of Melbourne, La Trobe University, The Royal Women’s Hospital, Queensland University of Technology, Griffith University and Deakin University also contributed to the findings.

###

Publication: Deirdre Gartland, Laura J Conway, Rebecca Giallo, Fiona K Mensah, Fallon Cook, Kelsey Hegarty, Helen Herrman, Jan Nicholson, Sheena Reilly, Harriet Hiscock, Emma Sciberras and Stephanie J Brown. ‘Intimate partner violence and child outcomes at age 10: a pregnancy cohort,’ The BMJ. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320321

*The content of this communication is the sole responsibility of MCRI and does not reflect the views of the NHMRC.

Available for interview:

Professor Stephanie Brown, MCRI Group Leader, Ingenerational Health

Dr Deirdre Gartland, MCRI Team Leader, Ingenerational Health

Funding:

The Maternal Health Study was supported by project grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; #199222, #433006 and #491205) and Australian Rotary Health. Stephanie Brown holds an NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship (#1103976). Rebecca Giallo, Fiona Mensah and Emma Sciberras hold NHMRC Career Development Fellowships (#1123900, #1111160 and #1110688). Emma Sciberras holds a Veski Inspiring Women’s Fellowship. Harriet Hiscock holds an NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (#1136222). Deirdre Gartland and Laura Conway are supported by the NHMRC Safer Families Centre (#1116690). Laura Conway and Fallon Cook hold Lifecourse Postdoctoral Fellowships supported by The Royal Children’s Hospital Research Foundation. Research at the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute is supported by the Victorian Government Operational Infrastructure Support Programme.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://bioengineer.org/children-exposed-to-intimate-partner-violence-twice-as-likely-to-have-poorer-health/

Continue Reading

Bioengineer

Large NIH clinical trial will test polyclonal antibody therapeutic for COVID-19

Avatar

Published

on

A Phase 2/3 trial to evaluate a new fully-human polyclonal antibody therapeutic targeted to SARS-CoV-2, called SAB-185, has begun enrolling non-hospitalized people with mild or moderate cases of COVID-19. The trial, ACTIV-2, is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. The therapeutic was developed by SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. (Sioux Falls, South Dakota).

NIH’s Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) program is a public-private partnership to develop a coordinated research strategy for speeding development of the most promising treatments and vaccine candidates. ACTIV-2 is a master protocol designed for evaluating multiple investigational agents in adults with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who are not hospitalized. Led by the NIAID-funded AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) and supported by PPD (Wilmington, North Carolina), a global contract research organization that is responsible for trial execution, the trial will enroll participants at sites around the world.

The ACTIV-2 study design allows researchers to evaluate SAB-185 in a small group of volunteers and then continue testing it in a larger group if the antibody appears safe and effective. The trial began on August 4, 2020 and has since added several therapeutics for testing.

SAB-185 is a fully-human polyclonal antibody therapeutic candidate for COVID-19 that has completed enrollment of Phase 1 and Phase 1b clinical studies. In previous pre-clinical studies, SAB-185 demonstrated neutralization of live SARS-CoV-2 at titers higher than convalescent plasma. The therapeutic candidate was developed from SAB’s platform, which uses genetically engineered cattle to produce fully-human antibodies in a process designed to potentially be both scalable and reliable.SAB-185 is administered intravenously, with the dose depending on the patient’s weight in kilograms (kg). A high and a low dose of SAB-185 will be tested in this trial.

When participants enroll in ACTIV-2, they will be assigned at random to receive either SAB-185, another therapeutic currently being evaluated in ACTIV-2, or a placebo. Other therapeutics currently being evaluated in ACTIV-2 include:

  • a regimen of two experimental antibodies, BRII-196 and BRII-198, developed by Brii Biosciences based in Durham, North Carolina and Beijing, China
  • SNG001, an inhalable beta interferon developed by Synairgen based in Southampton, United Kingdom
  • AZD7442, a long-acting monoclonal antibody combination administered by either an intravenous infusion or an intramuscular injection, developed by AstraZeneca based in Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Camostat mesilate, an orally administered serine protease inhibitor developed by Sagent Pharmaceuticals based in Schaumburg, Illinois.

In the Phase 2 evaluation, each agent tested in ACTIV-2, and the shared placebo group, will enroll 110 participants with mild or moderate COVID-19 who are at risk for disease progression. The trial is blinded, so neither participants nor investigators will know whether a participant is receiving the therapeutic or the placebo. Participants will attend a series of clinic or at-home visits by clinicians and will be followed for a total of 72 weeks.

An independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) overseeing the trial will review the data collected at 28 days. They will monitor data to see if the therapy is safe, reduces the duration of COVID-19 symptoms and eliminates virus from the body. If there are no serious safety concerns and the results of this Phase 2 study seem promising, the trial will transition to Phase 3. It will then enroll 421 additional volunteers to receive the SAB agent, and 421 volunteers in the placebo group. The primary objective of the Phase 3 trial is to determine if the SAB therapy prevents either hospitalization or death by 28 days after study entry.

###

The study team for ACTIV-2 is led by protocol chairs Kara W. Chew, M.D., of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Davey Smith, M.D., of the University of California, San Diego. Eric S. Daar, M.D., of UCLA, and David Wohl, M.D., of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), serve as protocol vice-chairs. Babafemi Taiwo, MBBS of Northwestern University is a co-investigator focused on the SAB agent. The ACTG network is led by chair Judith Currier, M.D., (UCLA) and vice-chair Joseph Eron, M.D., of UNC.

For more information on this study, please visit http://www.riseabovecovid.org, or visit ClinicalTrials.gov and search identifier NCT04518410.

NIAID conducts and supports research–at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide–to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov/.

NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://bioengineer.org/large-nih-clinical-trial-will-test-polyclonal-antibody-therapeutic-for-covid-19/

Continue Reading
Esports5 days ago

Dota 2 patch 7.29b brings nerfs to Phantom Lancer and Lifestealer amongst other hero balance changes

Esports5 days ago

Apex Legends Season 9 will add new hero, fix Banglore bugs

Esports5 days ago

Code S: Trap & Zest advance to RO8, playoff bracket set

Esports5 days ago

New CSGO Update Makes Items Purchased From Store Non Tradable for a Week

Blockchain3 days ago

Mining Bitcoin: How to Mine Bitcoin

Esports5 days ago

Radiant Valorant streamer Solista banned for cheating on live stream

Esports5 days ago

How to Calculate Steam Market Tax on CSGO Items

Fintech4 days ago

Fintech offers brokers better commissions after BID

Esports4 days ago

OWL 2021 Power Rankings – #9 Guangzhou Charge

Esports5 days ago

OWL 2021 Power Rankings – #10 Washington Justice

Blockchain4 days ago

Stanislovas Tomas im Interview: „NFTs können unsere Gesellschaft verändern“

PR Newswire3 days ago

Hello Pal Signs Definitive Purchase Agreement to Acquire Interest in Dogecoin/Litecoin Mining Assets

Esports4 days ago

xQc Banned From NoPixel GTA RP Server Once Again

Esports4 days ago

CDL Challengers Elite Stage 3 Preview

Coinbase hourly chart
Blockchain3 days ago

Coinbase Addresses Future Revenue Concerns With Plans to Become Crypto’s Amazon

Esports5 days ago

Zayt Retires From Competitive Fortnite For The Second Time

Esports4 days ago

Twitch streamer Lando Norris takes Italian F1 Grand Prix podium

Esports5 days ago

Dota 2: DPC Weekly Recap — SEA Apr 12-17, 2021

Esports4 days ago

Three takeaways from the SWT Japan Ultimate Online Qualifier

Esports4 days ago

Cloud9 Perkz says Kassadin can’t ever be balanced in LoL

Trending