29 June 2020
Japan’s Kyoto Semiconductor Co Ltd has developed the KP-H KPDEH12L-CC1C lens-integrated chip-on-carrier indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) high-speed photodiode to support 400Gbps transmission systems that use PAM4 (Pulse Amplitude Modulation 4) both within and between data centers.
Currently, Kyoto has achieved transmission speeds of mainly 100Gbps by bundling 4 lanes of 25Gbps. However, there are growing demands in the market for 400-800Gbps transmission speeds. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) set the PAM4 standard, which corresponds with 4-bit signal to one modulation. The transmission speed per photodiode reaches 50Gps (= 400Gps/4 lanes/2 (PAM4)). The transmission bandwidth required for the photodiode to achieve this speed is 35-40GHz.
With the introduction of the new photodiode, Kyoto is supporting the increasing speeds and capacity requirements for transmission systems in 5G networks and beyond.
Picture: Mounting of the KPDEH12L-CC1C photodiode (with integrated condenser lens) on the carrier.
The 0.6mm x 0.48mm x 0.25mm size of the carrier on which the photodiode is mounted, and the width and length of the electrode pattern formed on the surface of the board (with little attenuation at high frequencies), are optimized using electromagnetic simulation. As a result, Kyoto claims that it has achieved an industry-leading 400Gbps and 40GHz as a frequency band with an integrated transimpedance amplifier. The KP-H photodiode has passed Telcordia GR-468-Core qualification (the standard reliability test for communication equipment).
As well as being mounted on a carrier that is optimally designed to achieve high frequency, a condenser lens is integrated on the backside of the KPDEH12L-CC1C photodiode, allowing incoming light to collect in the light absorption area, and making it easy to align the optical fiber with the photodiode. The photodiode chip is mounted on a carrier twice as big as the chip itself.
Mass production of the KP-H KPDEH12L-CC1C photodiode is scheduled to start in November.
FBH and UVphotonics develop LED irradiation system – from disinfection to medical treatments
2 July 2020
Berlin-based Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (FBH) and its spin-off UVphotonics NT GmbH have designed and developed a versatile turnkey irradiation system for surface treatment.
Since the compact, modular system can be equipped with both in-house-developed UV LEDs as well as commercially available UV, visible and infrared LEDs, it can be flexibly adjusted to the targeted emission spectrum.
For disinfection purposes the system can be equipped with in-house-developed LEDs emitting at 265nm to eliminate germs on critical surfaces, including personal items such as mobile phones and reusable masks as well as menu cards in restaurants. It can also be used in the professional sector, for example in healthcare clinics and laboratories.
The system is equipped with an illumination module comprising 16 UV LEDs distributed over an area of 80mm x 80mm. The LEDs provide an illumination intensity of >5mW/cm2. So, the irradiation system achieves the minimum UV dose of 500mJ/cm2 recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US Department of Health) in less than two minutes. An integrated timer ensures the correct dosage.
The module can control up to four different wavelengths separately, which can be an advantage in applications such as medical treatments and curing. To cover larger areas, the modular segments can be mechanically interconnected wire-free and therefore the system is flexibly expandable into one-dimensional as well as two-dimensional arrays. Also, individually shaped arrays are possible, which can be integrated into a large number of disinfection systems.
The overall system is a plug & play solution that can be computer-controlled or operated as standalone with constant power. Even programming a timing pattern is possible.
GaN Systems participating in online PCIM Europe 2020
1 July 2020
GaN Systems Inc of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (a fabless developer of gallium nitride-based power switching semiconductors for power conversion and control applications) says that, at the ‘virtual’ PCIM (Power Conversion and Intelligent Motion) Europe 2020 ‘Digital Days’ online event (7–8 July), its CEO Jim Witham is participating in two panel sessions, ‘GaN Devices – The Game-Changers’ and ‘Power GaN: Past-Present-Future’, illustrating how GaN power semiconductors are becoming the fundamental building block in power electronics. Furthermore, technical experts from the company are presenting papers at the event (see Table).
Additionally, at its Virtual Experience site, GaN Systems is showcasing its latest solutions and design tools as well as featuring products by companies that have used GaN Systems’ devices in consumer, industrial, automotive and data-center applications.
“While it will be a different PCIM Europe this year, the global power electronics community will once again converge to exchange knowledge and ideas on trends and technologies shaping our industry,” says Witham. “We look forward to participating in the discussions and highlight how GaN is establishing itself as a preferred solution.”
- 650V/60A Gen2 automotive transistors that meet enhanced AEC-Q101 performance requirements and have lifetime results of failure-in-time (FIT)<<1;
- 650V/150A Full-Bridge Module & Driver; 650V/150A Half-Bridge IPM (intelligent power module); and 650V/300A 3-phase Module & Driver;
- 100V integrated DrGaN device and 650V integrated Half-Bridge DrGaN power stage.
New design tools
- 100V DrGaN module that features the highest power density and efficiency for board and brick power delivery;
- 65W QR charger reference design that is easy to implement and meets size (18.5W/in3 cased), thermals, EMI, cost and efficiency requirements;
- Class-D amplifier evaluation kit that includes a 2-channel, 200W-per-channel (8Ω) Class-D audio amplifier and companion 400W, continuous-power audio-grade switched-mode power supply (SMPS).
- Consumer: Includes the industry’s smallest 65W mobile device charger.
- Industrial: High-efficiency motor drive and power supplies from industry leaders.
- Automotive: Leading EV powertrain performance with GaN including the ‘All GaN Vehicle’ and the latest EV power electric designs from Canoo’s onboard charger and BrightLoop’s DC-DC converter. Most recently, BrightLoop was chosen as the sole supplier of DC-DC converters for ETCR (Electric Touring Car Racing).
- Data Center and 5G: Delivering 5G mmWave data indoors has been unsolved, until now. This GaN-based high-power, through-wall wireless power solution solves this 5G challenge.
GaN and SiC power semiconductor markets to surpass $1bn in 2021
1 July 2020
Energized by demand from hybrid & electric vehicles (HEVs), power supplies and photovoltaic (PV) inverters, the global market for silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) power semiconductors is forecast to grow to $854m by the end of 2020 (up from just $571m in 2018) then surpass $1bn in 2021, according to Omdia’s ‘SiC & GaN Power Semiconductors Report – 2020’. Revenue is expected to increase at a double-digit annual rate for the next decade, surpassing $5bn by 2029.
These long-term market projection totals are about $1bn lower than those in last year’s edition of the report because demand for almost all applications has slowed since 2018. Moreover, device average prices fell in 2019. Omdia adds a note a caution: the equipment forecasts used to create this year’s forecast all date from 2019, and do not take account of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
SiC Schottky diodes have been on the market for more than a decade, with SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFETs) and junction-gate field-effect transistors (SiC JFETs) appearing in recent years. SiC power modules are also becoming increasingly available, including hybrid SiC modules, containing SiC diodes with silicon insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), and full SiC modules containing SiC MOSFETs with or without SiC diodes.
SiC MOSFETs are proving popular among manufacturers, notes Omdia, with several companies already offering them. Several factors caused average pricing to fall in 2019, including the introduction of 650V, 700V and 900V SiC MOSFETs priced to compete with silicon superjunction MOSFETs, as well as increasing competition among suppliers.
“Declining prices will eventually spur faster adoption of SiC MOSFET technology,” says Richard Eden, senior principal analyst for power semiconductors. “In contrast, GaN power transistors and GaN system ICs have only appeared on the market quite recently,” he adds. “GaN is a wide-bandgap material offering similar performance benefits as SiC, but with a higher cost-reduction potential. These price and performance advantages are possible because GaN power devices can be grown on either silicon or sapphire substrates, which are less expensive than SiC. Although GaN transistors are now available, sales of GaN system integrated circuits, from companies such as Power Integrations, Texas Instruments and Navitas Semiconductor, are forecast to rise at a faster rate.”
SiC and GaN power semiconductor market trends
By the end of 2020, SiC MOSFETs are forecasted to generate revenue of about $320m, matching that of Schottky diodes. From 2021 onwards, SiC MOSFETs will grow at a slightly faster rate to become the best-selling discrete SiC power device, it is expected. Meanwhile, SiC JFETs are each forecasted to generate much smaller revenues than those of SiC MOSFETs, despite achieving good reliability, price and performance.
“End-users strongly prefer normally-off SiC MOSFETs, so SiC JFETs appear likely to remain specialized, niche products,” Eden says. “However, sales of SiC JFETs are forecast to rise at an impressive rate, despite having very few active suppliers.”
It is estimated that, in 2019, hybrid SiC power modules (combining Si IGBTs and SiC diodes) generated $72m in sales and full SiC power modules generated $50m. Full SiC power module revenue is forecasted to exceed $850m by 2029, as they will be preferred for use in HEV powertrain inverters. In contrast, hybrid SiC power modules will be used mainly in PV inverters, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems and other industrial applications, delivering a much slower growth rate.
What has changed since 2019?
There are now trillions of hours of device field experience available for both SiC and GaN power devices. Suppliers, even new market entrants, are demonstrating this by obtaining JEDEC and AEC-Q101 approvals. There do not appear to be any unexpected reliability problems with SiC and GaN devices; in fact, they usually appear better than silicon, notes Omdia.
SiC MOSFETs and SiC JFETs are available at lower operating voltages, such as 650V, 800V and 900V, allowing SiC to compete with Si Superjunction MOSFETs on both performance and price.
End-products with GaN transistors and GaN system ICs inside are in mass production, particularly USB type-C power adaptors and chargers for fast charging of mobile phones and notebook PCs. Also, many GaN devices are being made by foundry service providers, offering in-house GaN epitaxial crystal growth on standard silicon wafers, and potentially unlimited production capacity expansion as volumes ramp, concludes the report.
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