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5 Reasons Why Bitcoin Price Fluctuates

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The price of bitcoin fluctuates as a result of a variety of reasons. In conventional markets, a liquidity factor has been used to quantify the variation of various assets about one another.

A bitcoin oscillation index is a tool for tracking regular price changes of bitcoin, which is the most widely used virtual money.

Factors:

Some believe this is due to the digital nature of bitcoin; nevertheless, there are various factors at play here.

    1. The Influence of the News
    2. A Permanent Supplier with Variable Demand 3.
    3. There is uncertainty about its perceived value.
    4. Breach of Security Measures
    5. Anxiety over losing one’s job

Even though several other factors impact trading volume volatility, they are still the most significant, so let us take a closer look at them.

Table of Contents

The Influence of News:

The impact of bitcoin journalism is the most crucial element that influences the value of the cryptocurrency. Since there is negative news, the asset value will decrease because purchasers will sell their positions because they believe the value will decrease. A second factor is that when there is positive news about currency, the currency’s price rises accordingly. You may learn more about bitcoin trading by clicking on this link: coin buying. Mt. Gox and thus the Silk Road, two of the worst bitcoin scams in history, have had a significant adverse effect on the price of bitcoin in the background. There have been many more instances of financial crime that have contributed to the volatility in the stock market.

Supply Is Fixed, While Demand Is Variable:

The second most significant cause for the fluctuation in the currency price is attributed to the differences in characteristics in the face of a fixed supply. Considering that there would only be 1.7 million cryptocurrencies created, there is no way for bitcoin to be controlled by changing the production, as is the case with traditional national currencies. Unfortunately, demand varies depending on the state of the organization’s financial statements. Many individuals invest in bitcoin because it is seen as a haven of value, similar to cash, despite the turmoil. As a result, the valuation of bitcoin varies as a result of these variables as well.

The Uncertainty Regarding Its Future Value:

Nobody can predict with certainty what the economic price of the currency will be. Tourists are engaged in predicting bitcoin’s country’s worth since it is seen as a unit of account during periods of economic turmoil. Unfortunately, because of the risks of harm of bitcoin, they are unable to forecast its future worth which is mentioned here bit-trader.io. As a result, there are no definite variables that can set the probability of bitcoin. It is dependent on a variety of random variables such as the news, the great recession, and on and on.

Breach Of Security Protocols:

Another important factor contributing to bitcoin’s volatility is security vulnerabilities. The open-source site enables bitcoin miners and consumers to contemplate the technique and encryption keys that underpin the cryptocurrency. When there is an expose or debate of a security flaw in any bitcoin community, bitcoin prices move. People in different bitcoin forums are spreading security worries, which contributes to bitcoin fluctuations.

Loss Apprehension:

The prospect of leaving money exists even though bitcoin is still the most valued and trustworthy cryptocurrency in the world. This is due to a high vulnerability in history, and that bitcoin’s value increases and falls without any discernible range. Currency traders are concerned that they will not be able to withstand a loss. Because of high-profile fraud instances like Mt. Gox, the stockholders see bitcoin as a financial asset. There is thus apprehension among individuals about jeopardizing their wealth over time. Although policymakers have begun to take measures to ensure that bitcoin and other digital money have been made, more has to be done.

Conclusion:

Besides, additional factors such as tax treatment, substantial deflation, and huge currency investments contribute to the volatility in bitcoin prices. If you wanted to invest in bitcoin, bear these things that should be considered before deciding. For trading reasons, you must, on the other hand, concentrate on quantitative research and media. I hope the info in the preceding article has been of use in understanding the variability of cryptocurrencies.


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Source: https://cybersguards.com/5-reasons-why-bitcoin-price-fluctuates/

Cyber Security

Westpac blocked 24,000 raudulent messages on payments

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Before payments could be completed, Westpac’s zero-tolerance technology required 19,000 consumers to modify the language of their transaction description.

Westpac stated that it was able to stop approximately 24,000 transactions that were deemed abusive payments.

The bank also stated in its update to its environment, social, and governance plan that it required 19,000 clients to adjust the language they used in transaction descriptions before their payments could be approved and processed.

The bank also stated that it sent over 800 warning letters and account suspensions, as well as reported over 70 customers to authorities for abusive payments.

Earlier this year, the bank stated that it would not tolerate any statements containing abuse being provided in transaction descriptions. The bank considers swear words to be unacceptable, as well as threats of domestic violence.

“We want to create a safer digital banking experience for our customers and send a clear signal that abusive messages in payment transactions will not be tolerated,” Westpac general manager of customer solutions Lisa Pogonoski previously said.

To combat such behaviour, the red and black bank launched a new feature that allows clients to report abuse and harassment in the payment transaction description for inbound payments.

In addition, the bank used technology to monitor outbound payments transmitted through its online and mobile banking platforms, which automatically bans transactions containing unsuitable or obscene language.

SEE ALSO:

Vulnerabilities Allowed Hackers to Change Passwords of TikTok Accounts

In other news, Westpac announced that it has completed 104 of 327 targeted activities for its Customer Outcomes and Risk Excellence (CORE) initiative, which aims to improve the bank’s risk management and governance. These included changing its transaction screen software and settings, identifying data points and developing automated reconciliations and checks, utilising analytics to increase detection, and improving risk reporting via a new insights platform.

Westpac reported that tech expenses climbed by AU$40 million in the first half of the fiscal year 2022, with a portion of the increase attributed to the CORE initiative. This was due to an increase in profit of AU$3.4 billion.

  • The National Sexual Assault and Domestic Family Violence Counselling Service can be reached at 1800 737 732.
  • MensLine Australia can be reached at 1300 789 978.
  • Call the Lifeline at 13 11 14 if you are in need of assistance.
  • Call the Kids Helpline at 1800 551 800.
  • Beyond Blue can be reached at 1300 22 46 36.
  • Headspace can be reached at 1800 650 890.
  • Always dial 000 in an emergency or if you are not feeling safe.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/westpac-blocked-24000-raudulent-messages-on-payments/

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Cyber Security

What Is a Ticketing System?

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A ticketing system manages customer support interactions via phone, email, chat and social media. This management system allows IT support agents to quickly route different types of tickets to the right person, resource, and department in order to get the fastest resolution.

It can also keep records, which allows organizations to gather data about the level of service provided by their support staff. This data is useful in improving company processes.

Table of Contents

Stages of the Ticket Lifecycle

From the moment it is created, to the point it is resolved, a ticket goes through many stages. This is called a Ticket’s lifecycle. These are the stages in the ticket’s journey:

  • A new ticket has been generated.
  • Open – A support agent will review the ticket and take the necessary action. The agent may assign the ticket to another operator.
  • In-progress – The agent will resolve any issues raised.
  • Problem solved
  • Closed – After all actions have been completed and the customer has been updated, the ticket will be closed.

Types of Ticketing Systems

There are many ticketing management systems that can support incident management. These are the two:

1. Software for Basic Help Desk Tickets

It includes the basic help desk ticketing system features as well as a simplified customer support process. Customers and users can access the help desk to request services or report incidents. Support agents can reach out to customers and assist them in resolving the tracking problem. The software does not always include additional features such as self-service, knowledgebase support, or live chat.

2. IT Service Desk Software

Service desk is based on the ITIL framework. This framework focuses on IT services and support. This software offers a much more customizable and robust set of features, such as live chat, knowledge base access, data capture and analysis and real-time reporting. It also supports workflow automation and omnichannel support.

A Multi-channel Support Ticketing System

Customers want to be able to solve tracking issues on the platform that suits them best. Online ticketing systems allow customers to easily connect to IT support on any platform. Customers can receive quality service via phone, email or live chat. Administrators can also monitor and track the performance of their support teams via the centralized hub.

SEE ALSO:

How to protect your device against Ransomware?

Top 10 IT Ticketing System Softwares in 2021

An effective ticketing system is essential for any organization. It will allow IT support to be efficient, focused, and organized. A ticketing system is essential for your business and allows you to deal with any issue, from the time they are identified until their resolution.

These are the main benefits of a ticketing tracker system:

  • It increases customer retention and improves brand image.
  • It can save you time and money.
  • It offers better support.
  • It allows for faster resolution.

It’s time to set up an IT ticketing system if you feel that your internal system has become more complicated. You will be able to save time and route all service requests to one help desk.

10 Top It Ticketing Software Software Systems In 2021

HubSpot

HubSpot’s Service Hub is the best option if you are looking for seamless ticketing software. The Service Hub features a 1:1 support function that converts all incoming requests into tickets. These tickets can then be easily managed via a drag-and drop pipeline.

This IT ticketing software will improve your IT team’s ability to resolve and respond faster by integrating bots and automation features.

Samanage

Samanage is one of the top 10 IT ticketing softwares in 2021. It empowers support teams to gather, address, and deliver consistent services within your organization. It has a custom service portal that allows staff to quickly submit requests and report issues.

It also allows you to create automation rules for ticket routing and service approvals. You can also establish processes for asset management, problem management, change management and other functions.

HappyFox

HappyFox, unlike other ticketing software allows organisations to send and receive tickets via email. This means that you can track issues from wherever staff have reported them.

Tickets are displayed on the “Ticket Listing” page. This allows agents to better understand current workload. There are several layout options, including KanBan View and Card View.

Jira Service Desk

Jira Service Desk is a great tool for organizations that need to be able to create multiple projects and organize and process requests. Jira Service Desk has been voted one of the top 10 IT ticketing softwares in 2021. It allows businesses to create projects for each topic and users can submit requests via their email address.

Mojo IT Helpdesk

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Mojo IT Helpdesk automates the workflow. It organizes your tickets in a systematic order, sends you auto-responders and assigns important tickets to the right department. This increases the efficiency of the support staff and allows them to serve more customers at a faster pace.

Mojo integrates seamlessly with G Suite. This allows users to submit service requests to their preferred channels and convert them into tickets. All of this can be managed in one place.

Freshservice

Freshservice offers support teams the ability to deliver timely services. It features asset management, SLA management and incident management. The dashboard provides a complete view of team performance and helps organizations improve their services.

Zendesk

Zendesk is flexible because it allows IT service desks to report incidents via multiple channels. You can extend its functionality by integrating your IT service desk with tools and apps that you prefer.

It allows you to track key metrics and helps you make informed decisions about addressing service issues that have a significant impact on your operations.

Vision Helpdesk

Vision Helpdesk was created to improve team performance. It has powerful configuration features that allow your business to organize it for problem management, incident management and other services.

It allows users to work together in the help desk, gamify daily activities, and use task management to finish projects on time.

Zoho Desk

Zoho Desk will work best for you if your company is using Zoho CRM. It provides the tools your IT team needs to efficiently resolve tickets. Additionally, it has access to all your users’ ticket history, activity, happiness rating, and other information.

ITarian

It is the best IT ticketing software available today. ITarian is a cloud-based software that automates ticket management. It also takes care of SLAs. This system effectively manages workflows. This means tickets are tracked, addressed, and reassigned to certain departments/organizations.

The service desk product provides clients with a self-service portal that allows them to find the solution they are looking for. If they are unable to find the answer they need, they can create tickets and track the status. The FAQ database can answer simple questions like adding a user or reset passwords.

Similar ticketing software is available on the market. However, you will need to build your knowledge base. ITarian provides a database and allows you to modify it according to your needs.

So that you can quickly find the information you are looking for, email requests are automatically converted to incident reports. This saves you time and effort that you could use to complete other urgent tasks.

SEE ALSO:

How Online Privacy Protection Evolved in the Last 20 Years

These are only 10 of the top IT ticketing softwares in 2021 that can meet your business’s needs for online ticketing.

Your team will be able to see what the problem is and who is reporting it. You can also decide which report should be prioritized. It takes less time to fix IT problems, which can help avoid bigger operational issues in the company.

Benefits of using an IT ticketing software

1. Seamless Interaction

Helpdesk ticketing systems make it easier for customers and support agents to communicate with each other. Multi-channel interaction is also possible so that customers can contact the IT support team from their preferred channel.

2. Effective Ticket Resolution

Support agents do not need to switch between color-coded tags and folders. Incoming emails can be automatically converted to tickets because ticketing software integrates with support email inbox. In a shorter time, more problems can be solved.

3. Prioritization of Tickets

Ticketing systems allow you to prioritize your incoming tickets using several criteria. Tickets about minor incidents and urgent issues will be handled first.

4. Agent Productivity.

Additional features in ticketing systems automate issue resolution. A preset action can be initiated when the software receives an email ticket. This saves time and increases productivity for the IT support staff. Some helpdesk software allows users to access an internal knowledge base to help them find answers to their questions.

5. SLAs, Monitoring and Reporting

SLA, or Service Level Agreement, is a contract that establishes expectations between customers (and service providers) to ensure smooth business transactions. SLA policies are an important part of any helpdesk management system. Online ticketing systems have reporting and monitoring modules that allow you to track the activities of your IT support agents.

6. Enhanced Customer Retention

It ticketing software can improve customer service, making customers happy. Customers will continue to use your products and services if they are satisfied.

7. Self-service Adoption

A lot of IT help desk software can identify keywords in customer inquiries and use machine learning techniques for finding the right solutions. This reduces the work load of your service desk agents and saves them a lot of time.

8. Service Desk Efficiency

Ticketing software reduces the inconvenience of having all customer data, priority, tag, labels, and ticket status in one place. Multiple communication channels, such as phone, email, chat, and live chat are all available on one platform. This allows your support team to manage any issue no matter where it is sent.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/what-is-a-ticketing-system/

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Cyber Security

Life in Smart Cities: Your Walk in the Park isn’t Private Anymore

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Smart cities are a promising application of IoT(Internet of Things) that brings technological intelligence to various city municipalities such as healthcare, logistics, and transportation. Smart city dwellers are exposed to an enormous amount of sensors that are continuously collecting data related to their health, location, habitat, and environment data. This data sometimes exposes the most personal and sensitive information of the citizens. Smart cities create an environment where the citizens’ data is collected, processed, and shared without even their knowledge, let alone taking consent.

image

In smart cities, walking in a park is not that simple. For example, Hyde Park in London collected visitors’ demographic information like gender, age, and location by their network provider EE for more than a year. Your walk in the park is not private anymore.

To enjoy technological advancement, we are giving away our private information!

Another example of a privacy breach – London city, where smart bins were installed in 2012. The bins were used to collect peoples’ data from their phones which were used for targeted advertisements. The data was collected without people’s knowledge, which was exposed by journalists after a year.

The Smart Sensors

Smart city dwellers are exposed to an enormous amount of sensors that are continuously collecting data related to their health, location, habitat, and environment data like pollution, noise, parking slots, etc. This data sometimes exposes the most personal and sensitive information of the citizens. 

These sensors and actuators are deployed in a huge amount for collecting information. While these sensing and actuating devices provide valuable data and statistics, unauthorized access to these devices can invade user privacy and safety.

According to McKinsey & Company report ‘Unlocking the potential of the Internet of Things’, IoT applications like smart cities can only reach their full potential with proper policy actions to ensure security and protect citizens’ privacy.

Security and Privacy Concerns in Smart Cities

Smart cities create an environment where the citizens are exposed to government and corporate surveillance the minute they step into the streets. The citizens’ data is collected, processed, and shared without even their knowledge, let alone taking consent. 

image

Image Source

Besides, vulnerabilities in databases and online systems demonstrate that smart cities are under serious cyberattacks and hacking possibilities. In December 2015, more than 80,000 people were left in the dark for 3 hours as Ukraines’ power plant was hacked.

Moreover, the phone helpline was also under TDOS, to prevent the users from calling for load shedding complaints. Another research paper demonstrated an attack on street lights, where an infectious worm can quickly spread and bring down all the city street lights within minutes. Interested readers can have a deeper look at the top security challenges and cyber-attacks faced by smart cities.

Access Control Models for Smart Cities

Access control is the discriminatory restriction of access to any resource for limiting the functions of an entity having legitimate access. Access control has been found to be an effective measure to prevent unauthorized access to resources. It restricts access rights of objects (data, files, and other resources) only to authorized subjects (users).

Several traditional access control models can be used according to application requirements. Traditional Access Control models such as Discretionary Access Control (DAC), Mandatory Access Control (MAC), and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) focus on the protection of data in a closed environment. 

image

Image Source: CyberHoot

As an exemplary scenario of access control in smart cities is that of smart healthcare, access control prevents the leakage of patient’s confidential and sensitive healthcare records by denying access rights to unauthorized users. Similarly, smart locks and keys have been introduced for smart buildings that store permission to open only an allowed list of locks. 

image

Image Source: iotforall

Most of the traditional access control models provide authorizations through subject attributes and object attributes only. These attributes assigned to subjects and objects are generally static and can be modified only through an administrative role. This static approach is suitable for some traditional access control policies but this approach is no longer appropriate for access controls in today’s world of the IoT.

However, these traditional access control models can be extended to incorporate the multi-domain, collaborative and dynamic requirements of IoT-based smart cities. Following are some popular access control models that have been proposed to cater to the needs of security and privacy in smart cities.

1. Intelligent Role-Based Access Control (I-RBAC)

image

RBAC is very significant and successful in providing access control measures to static computing domains. Yet, it is unable to adapt to the dynamically changing information of users, tasks, semantically meaningful business roles, access policies, and resources.

A novel access control scheme has been proposed by Rubina et al which uses intelligent software agents to achieve access control in smart cities applications. This model uses real-world semantic business roles as occupational roles, provided by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), USA.  

2. Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC)

Typical access control models like ACL (Access Control List) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control) coarsely provide a discrete list of users/roles that can access an object. Whereas, ABAC brings in the context information and also the attributes of subjects and objects into its access control policies. Incorporating attribute information will also aid in reducing the maintenance load as only attribute values will need to be updated instead of changing all the subject-object relationships. This will improve the dynamicity and granularity of ABAC, which is ideal for the security requirements of smart cities. 

3. User-Centric Access Control

This model empowers the users to be directly in charge of their sensitive data. Through policy-based access control and attribute-based encryption mechanisms, user-centric access control allow users to :

  1. Restrict their devices to join only certain applications that are permitted to sense and publish their data 
  2. Define fine-grained access control rules for their devices
  3. Decide who can or cannot be in ownership of their devices’ data

To this aim, Beltran et al have proposed an IoT integrated security ‘SMARTIE’ platform that provides authentication and access control to smart cities. 

4. LIGHT est

LIGHT est is an access control infrastructure for IoT-enabled smart cities, which provides on-device authentication. Access control policies are written in a machine-readable format, in this case, Trust Policy Language, which empowers the devices to reject an access request from unauthorized entities on their own. Trust policies can be formulated based on context information like location, time IP addresses, etc. 

5. CapBAC (Capability-Based Access Control)

Capability-Based Access Control provides the most fine-grained access by using access tokens. The access tokens are granted to the subjects only in a specific context (e-g, token usage within a predefined time). The token is valid to perform one action, once the action is performed the access token expires. Nakamura et al propose a decentralized CapBAC scheme for smart cities using Ethereum smart contract technology to manage and store capability tokens. 

As the acceptability and popularity of smart cities are increasing, there is an increased digital security concern.

Fortunately, legislation like the IoT Cybersecurity Improvement Act in the U.S is being introduced to address cyber threats and potential market failure that will be useful in enabling secure smart cities.

Tags

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Create your free account to unlock your custom reading experience.

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Source: https://hackernoon.com/life-in-smart-cities-your-walk-in-the-park-isnt-private-anymore?source=rss

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Cyber Security

Life in Smart Cities: Your Walk in the Park isn’t Private Anymore

Published

on

Smart cities are a promising application of IoT(Internet of Things) that brings technological intelligence to various city municipalities such as healthcare, logistics, and transportation. Smart city dwellers are exposed to an enormous amount of sensors that are continuously collecting data related to their health, location, habitat, and environment data. This data sometimes exposes the most personal and sensitive information of the citizens. Smart cities create an environment where the citizens’ data is collected, processed, and shared without even their knowledge, let alone taking consent.

image

In smart cities, walking in a park is not that simple. For example, Hyde Park in London collected visitors’ demographic information like gender, age, and location by their network provider EE for more than a year. Your walk in the park is not private anymore.

To enjoy technological advancement, we are giving away our private information!

Another example of a privacy breach – London city, where smart bins were installed in 2012. The bins were used to collect peoples’ data from their phones which were used for targeted advertisements. The data was collected without people’s knowledge, which was exposed by journalists after a year.

The Smart Sensors

Smart city dwellers are exposed to an enormous amount of sensors that are continuously collecting data related to their health, location, habitat, and environment data like pollution, noise, parking slots, etc. This data sometimes exposes the most personal and sensitive information of the citizens. 

These sensors and actuators are deployed in a huge amount for collecting information. While these sensing and actuating devices provide valuable data and statistics, unauthorized access to these devices can invade user privacy and safety.

According to McKinsey & Company report ‘Unlocking the potential of the Internet of Things’, IoT applications like smart cities can only reach their full potential with proper policy actions to ensure security and protect citizens’ privacy.

Security and Privacy Concerns in Smart Cities

Smart cities create an environment where the citizens are exposed to government and corporate surveillance the minute they step into the streets. The citizens’ data is collected, processed, and shared without even their knowledge, let alone taking consent. 

image

Image Source

Besides, vulnerabilities in databases and online systems demonstrate that smart cities are under serious cyberattacks and hacking possibilities. In December 2015, more than 80,000 people were left in the dark for 3 hours as Ukraines’ power plant was hacked.

Moreover, the phone helpline was also under TDOS, to prevent the users from calling for load shedding complaints. Another research paper demonstrated an attack on street lights, where an infectious worm can quickly spread and bring down all the city street lights within minutes. Interested readers can have a deeper look at the top security challenges and cyber-attacks faced by smart cities.

Access Control Models for Smart Cities

Access control is the discriminatory restriction of access to any resource for limiting the functions of an entity having legitimate access. Access control has been found to be an effective measure to prevent unauthorized access to resources. It restricts access rights of objects (data, files, and other resources) only to authorized subjects (users).

Several traditional access control models can be used according to application requirements. Traditional Access Control models such as Discretionary Access Control (DAC), Mandatory Access Control (MAC), and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) focus on the protection of data in a closed environment. 

image

Image Source: CyberHoot

As an exemplary scenario of access control in smart cities is that of smart healthcare, access control prevents the leakage of patient’s confidential and sensitive healthcare records by denying access rights to unauthorized users. Similarly, smart locks and keys have been introduced for smart buildings that store permission to open only an allowed list of locks. 

image

Image Source: iotforall

Most of the traditional access control models provide authorizations through subject attributes and object attributes only. These attributes assigned to subjects and objects are generally static and can be modified only through an administrative role. This static approach is suitable for some traditional access control policies but this approach is no longer appropriate for access controls in today’s world of the IoT.

However, these traditional access control models can be extended to incorporate the multi-domain, collaborative and dynamic requirements of IoT-based smart cities. Following are some popular access control models that have been proposed to cater to the needs of security and privacy in smart cities.

1. Intelligent Role-Based Access Control (I-RBAC)

image

RBAC is very significant and successful in providing access control measures to static computing domains. Yet, it is unable to adapt to the dynamically changing information of users, tasks, semantically meaningful business roles, access policies, and resources.

A novel access control scheme has been proposed by Rubina et al which uses intelligent software agents to achieve access control in smart cities applications. This model uses real-world semantic business roles as occupational roles, provided by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), USA.  

2. Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC)

Typical access control models like ACL (Access Control List) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control) coarsely provide a discrete list of users/roles that can access an object. Whereas, ABAC brings in the context information and also the attributes of subjects and objects into its access control policies. Incorporating attribute information will also aid in reducing the maintenance load as only attribute values will need to be updated instead of changing all the subject-object relationships. This will improve the dynamicity and granularity of ABAC, which is ideal for the security requirements of smart cities. 

3. User-Centric Access Control

This model empowers the users to be directly in charge of their sensitive data. Through policy-based access control and attribute-based encryption mechanisms, user-centric access control allow users to :

  1. Restrict their devices to join only certain applications that are permitted to sense and publish their data 
  2. Define fine-grained access control rules for their devices
  3. Decide who can or cannot be in ownership of their devices’ data

To this aim, Beltran et al have proposed an IoT integrated security ‘SMARTIE’ platform that provides authentication and access control to smart cities. 

4. LIGHT est

LIGHT est is an access control infrastructure for IoT-enabled smart cities, which provides on-device authentication. Access control policies are written in a machine-readable format, in this case, Trust Policy Language, which empowers the devices to reject an access request from unauthorized entities on their own. Trust policies can be formulated based on context information like location, time IP addresses, etc. 

5. CapBAC (Capability-Based Access Control)

Capability-Based Access Control provides the most fine-grained access by using access tokens. The access tokens are granted to the subjects only in a specific context (e-g, token usage within a predefined time). The token is valid to perform one action, once the action is performed the access token expires. Nakamura et al propose a decentralized CapBAC scheme for smart cities using Ethereum smart contract technology to manage and store capability tokens. 

As the acceptability and popularity of smart cities are increasing, there is an increased digital security concern.

Fortunately, legislation like the IoT Cybersecurity Improvement Act in the U.S is being introduced to address cyber threats and potential market failure that will be useful in enabling secure smart cities.

Tags

Join Hacker Noon

Create your free account to unlock your custom reading experience.

PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
Click here to access.

Source: https://hackernoon.com/life-in-smart-cities-your-walk-in-the-park-isnt-private-anymore?source=rss

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