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Why Are Jet Bridges Almost Always On The Left Of The Aircraft?

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Modern jet aircraft have doors on both sides. But have you ever noticed that passengers almost always board on the left side of the plane? At airports around the world, the design and layout of jet bridges follow this convention. And it’s not just jet bridges; walk across the tarmac to board a plane, and you’ll almost always board via the left side doors. Why is this so?

Why are jet bridges always on the left-hand side of a plane? Photo: Getty Images

The aviation industry draws on the maritime industry

Much of the reason for this seems to be buried in historical precedent. The airline industry adopted many of the conventions of the sailing industry. Like on ships, the plane’s left side is called port, and the right side is starboard. While it’s not an absolute rule, historically, ships have been serviced from the right and load or discharge passengers from the left. The aircraft industry has followed this convention. Cabin supplies, such as catering, are invariably loaded through the right side doors, and passengers come and leave through the left side doors.

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As aviation kicked into gear in the 1930s and planes became bigger and more complex, aircraft designers almost uniformly adopted the convention. You can see that convention in contemporary planes. Enter via the forward left door on a Boeing 737, and there’s clear space. Over where the forward right side door is the galley and far less space.

There’s another historical tidbit that may be more myth than reality. Back when piston engines were standard, the rotation of piston engines made turns to the left when taxiing easier. That meant the pilot usually sat on the left side of the plane for better visibility when turning. From there, passengers began to board from the left, enabling the pilot to keep a better eye on the process.

The convention has its origins in the maritime industry where passengers also load and unload on the left side. Photo: The History Trust of South Australia via Wikimedia Commons

Standardization leads to economic and logistical efficiencies

Whether there’s truth in that or not, the convention has become standardized. With standardization come economic efficiencies. For example, Boeing 737s are cheaper and easier to build if there aren’t options about which side of the plane the galley goes on. Airports are easier to design if there’s a universal standard for loading and unloading passengers. It’s efficient, it’s practical, it just makes life easier.

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Passengers embarking and disembarking from the left was well-established before Frank Der Yuen first invented the jet bridge in 1959. At larger airports worldwide, the jet bridge has become the normal way to board and leave planes. They’re handy for passengers because you don’t have to lug up and downstairs, and there’s no risk of rain ruining your holiday hair.

For airports, jet bridges are a no brainer. They keep passengers off the tarmac. From an occupational health and safety point of view, that’s a big bonus for any airport. The safety angle is enhanced by loading and unloading passengers on one side of the plane and using the other side for service and supply purposes.

Bags go and off planes from the right, passengers go on and off from the left. Photo: Denver International Airport Newsroom

Aircraft adapt to the convention

The conventional has become so entrenched it’s not just the cabin interior design conforming to it; aspects of a plane’s external design have also adapted to it.

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To use the Boeing 737 again as an example. The auxiliary power unit (APU) is located on that plane’s right side, down at the plane’s tail end. The APU powers many of the plane’s systems on the ground and when the main engines are off. But it does so by sucking in air. It’s not so much an issue if you board via the forward right side door, but it might be a bit breezy climbing up those back stairs.

Jet bridges overcome the safety issues that come with walking across tarmacs. But because jet bridges are far from universal, the separation of left and right makes good logistical and safety sense at airports.

Jet Bridges simply adapted to the convention of boarding passengers on the left, rather than starting it or offering choice. For passengers, it’s a little thing few of us think about, but next time you are killing ten minutes waiting to board a plane, wander past a few gates and see the convention at work.

Have you ever defied the rule and boarded a plane from the right? Post a comment and let us know.

Source: https://simpleflying.com/aircraft-jetbridge-on-left/

Aerospace

Valuechain’s MES solution now integrates PrintSyst’s AI Engine

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Valuechain’s MES solution now integrates PrintSyst’s AI Engine

Today marks an important milestone in the strategic partnership between Valuechain Enterprise Systems and PrintSyst, upon completing the integration of PrintSyst’s cutting edge AI engine, the 3DP AI-Perfecter, into Valuechain’s industrial-grade MES, DNA.am.

The two companies have partnered to develop an integrated MES that will leverage PrintSyst’s world class AI engine, which enables an automated pre-printing workflow and thus assists customers in industries such as Aerospace, Automotive and Defence, to significantly improve their productivity and scale up their 3D printing production.

The integrated Valuechain-PrintSyst solution provides a state-of-the-art smart automation that learns from previous Additive Manufacturing builds and analyses the exact intent for which a specific part is going to be used to comply with industry specifications. It then accordingly suggests printing parameters that will have the highest probability of right-first-time Additive Manufacturing builds, accurately estimates 3D parts costs, recommends on the most suitable materials to be used based on 3D parts’ functional needs and eliminates the need for trial and error. Bottom line, this paves the way for transforming 3D Printing productivity through improved quality, cost and delivery responsiveness.

Tom Dawes, CEO of Valuechain, (pictured above on the right) commented: “Industrial 3D printing has continued to grow over recent months, as companies that initially trialled the technology are looking to scale up. Covid-19 has illustrated the importance of a robust supply chain structure, underpinned by secure collaboration and intelligence. However, many of these companies lack the digital solutions that drive 3D printing productivity while providing a path for an automated, standardized and certifiable digital workflow. Based on our customers’ feedback so far, I am confident that our collaboration with PrintSyst will be pivotal in addressing this critical need.”

Itamar Yona, PrintSyst’s CEO and co-founder, added that “combining our world class AI engine and hands on industry experience, with DNA.am’s leading industrial-grade MES, will step change the manual, costly and unscalable 3D printing workflow. We are now able to take into account multiple additional parameters that exist in DNA.am MES and automatically train our engine so we can provide instant, highly personalised and optimized printing recommendations to our joint customers.”

www.DNA.am

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Source: https://www.aero-mag.com/valuechains-mes-solution-now-integrates-printsysts-ai-engine/

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Paragraf drives electric transport revolution with graphene sensors

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Paragraf drives electric transport revolution with graphene sensors

Paragraf, a leader in graphene-based transformative electronic sensors and devices, is helping to realise an industry first by implementing a supply chain for graphene Hall-Effect sensors used in high-temperature Power Electronics, Electric Machines and Drives (PEMD) within the aerospace sector.

Named High-T Hall, the project stems from the UK Research and Innovation’s (UKRI) ‘Driving the Electric Revolution’ challenge and brings together Paragraf, Rolls-Royce, TT Electronics (Aero Stanrew) and the Compound Semiconductor Applications Catapult (CSA Catapult). It is set to demonstrate how graphene-based Hall Effect sensors can operate reliably at high temperatures, paving the way for more efficient electric engines in aerospace and beyond.

Hall Effect sensors play a major role in monitoring current levels and magnetic fields in PEMD applications, which is critical to monitoring drive power consumption and machine speed and position. The deployment of conventional silicon Hall sensors is, however, restricted to environments with temperatures below 150°C and frequencies below 100kHz, which can constrain system level design. Project High-T Hall aims to demonstrate that graphene-based Hall Effect sensors will operate reliably up to 180°C, and potentially even at temperatures of up to 230°C allowing them to be mounted within the machine or power module enclosure thus  enabling much greater flexibility in the design of new PEMD equipment aligned to Silicon Carbide power devices and higher performance more compact electrical machines. The ability to monitor current levels more accurately and reliably will enable better overall system control, which will in turn reduce size and weight and help design more efficient electric engine systems.

Ivor Guiney, co-founder of Paragraf, commented: “We are extremely proud to be part of this pioneering project that will hopefully lead to better efficiency in all-electric engines and help accelerate the adoption of e-planes and, more generally, electric vehicles. Our graphene Hall Effect sensors have already proven to possess unique cryogenic properties, so their resistance to high temperatures will help demonstrate how uniquely versatile graphene devices are from a thermal standpoint.”

As the lead partner in High-T Hall, Paragraf will design and manufacture custom Hall Effect sensors for integration into the systems of Rolls-Royce and TT Electronics. The CSA Catapult will provide their packaging expertise to develop innovative packaging solutions and advanced assembly process for realising the prototypes. The role of Rolls-Royce and TT Electronics will be to test the Paragraf’s graphene Hall Effect sensors in state-of-the-art, aerospace PEMD applications, with the former pioneering the use of this technology in their upcoming gas turbine product portfolio. TT Electronics will use it to develop a range of modular current sensors for use in rugged aerospace electrical systems to reduce Hall Effect sensor temperature-related errors.

Head of Electronics, Stephen Dennison at Rolls-Royce stated: “Rolls-Royce is committed to playing a leading role in reaching net zero carbon by 2050 and this includes championing sustainable power. This project with Paragraf and the other partners will help develop a resilient supply chain that enables companies to source made-to-measure, innovative electronic components to enhance the efficiency and performance of power, electronics, machines and drives.”

Owen Rolfe, Business Development Director at TT Electronics stated: “Now more than ever it’s important we make a proactive effort to accelerate innovation within the Aerospace supply chain. In this case, higher temperature operation of these sensing solutions has the capability to deliver significant efficiency benefits to power electronics systems and that’s something we’re extremely proud and well placed to support.”

Martin McHugh, CTO and Acting CEO at the CSA Catapult stated: “The aim of project High-T Hall is to demonstrate an integrated UK supply chain solution for advanced Hall sensing within PEMD. This will address the issues PEMDs experience when switching frequencies across a broad range of temperature conditions. We are very pleased to be involved in the sensor test platform and reliability testing on this project.”

The use of a graphene-based Hall Effect sensors in high-temperature aerospace environments could not only be replicated in other industries such as automotive. It may also open new opportunities for other graphene-based electronics, beyond sensors, which can help improve efficiency and performance even further in applications such as the engines of EVs.

Project High-T Hall started in July 2020 and is now due to run for one year. It is funded by UK Research and Innovation.

www.paragraf.com

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Source: https://www.aero-mag.com/paragraf-drives-electric-transport-revolution-with-graphene-sensors/

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Major US Airlines Pause Nonstop Flights To Shanghai

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American Airlines and United are putting their nonstop Shanghai plans on hold, the carriers confirmed Tuesday. Reports on long waits to enter the country and restricted accommodations have given rise to concerns regarding crew rest requirements. Services, including cargo-only, will continue to operate via Seoul Incheon. Meanwhile, Delta Air Lines is reportedly going ahead with nonstop flights to China.

American and United Airlines are pausing their plans for nonstop Shanghai flights due to concerns over crew rest requirements and accommodations. Photo: Getty Images

Both American Airlines and United have halted their plans to fly nonstop to Shanghai in China. Concerns have been raised from unions about reports on lengthy waits for tests upon arrival.

There is also apprehension regarding the government-mandated hotel for crew at Pudong airport, where movement is reported to be severely restricted. These cumbersome procedures take a large chunk out of the federally regulated rest requirements for airline crew.

Crew continues to change in Seoul

American had planned to initiate non-stop cargo-only flights from Los Angeles to Shanghai in December. However, it will now continue to operate the service with a stop in Seoul, South Korea, for a crew change, CNBC reported Tuesday.

Meanwhile, the return journey will go straight from Shanghai to LA. Sources told the publication that American would continue to include stops in Seoul for its flights from Dallas-Fort Worth to Shanghai and from LAX to Beijing.

“We started operating passenger service from DFW (Dallas/Fort Worth) to PVG (Shanghai Pudong) on Nov. 11 through Seoul (ICN) due to testing requirements for crews,” a spokesperson for American Airlines told Reuters. They also added that cargo flights are continuing to operate through Seoul for the same reason.

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United previously eliminated its Seoul stopover on its way to Shanghai but has now added it back to the itinerary. Photo: Vincenzo Pace | JFKJets.com

United adding the stop back in

United Airlines previously flew to Shanghai via Seoul on the way there. However, on October 21st, the airline removed the stop on its San Fransisco to Shanghai Pudong route. Now, due to the same concerns over crew rest time and limited local accommodations, the carrier is adding Seoul back to the itinerary.

“Due to changes in operating conditions, we adjusted service between San Francisco and Shanghai to now include a stop in Seoul, South Korea for a crew change as we did earlier this year,” a United spokesperson said to CNBC.

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Delta, meanwhile, the first US carrier to resume air traffic ties with China, is reportedly going ahead with nonstop services from Seattle and Detroit. Photo: Getty Images

Union making sure Delta’s decision is airtight

Delta Air Lines, however, is, thus far, still going ahead with the reintroduction of direct flights to China’s largest city. The carrier is set to offer nonstop services from both Seattle and Detroit starting this week. As the first US airline to reconnect the US and China since the flight suspension in February, Delta resumed a twice-weekly service to Shanghai in June. Since then, flights have also operated with a stop at Seoul Incheon.

“Delta has shared with us their plan and the logistics surrounding the initiation of nonstop service to Shanghai. Right now, we are studying it to make sure that it is airtight,” the ALPA told CNBC in a statement.

Simple Flying has reached out to the above-mentioned airlines with a request for further comments but was yet to receive a reply at the time of publication.

Source: https://simpleflying.com/us-airlines-pause-shanghai-flights/

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HOP’s Embraer Fleet To Be Rebranded As Air France

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CEO of Air France-KLM Ben Smith has confirmed plans to fully integrate the Hop! brand into Air France. The airline will become a regional feeder for Air France, rebranded in line with the main airline. Smith is targeting a shrink of around 50% for Hop!, which will see it emerge as an all-Embraer airline.

Hop! will become all-Embraer and Air France branded. Photo: Getty Images

An all-Embraer Air France brand

Air France-owned regional airline Hop! has had mixed success as a standalone operator. It’s distinct branding and separate marketing and operations led to inefficiency in the Air France Portfolio, something that the new boss at the group is keen to iron out.

Speaking at this week’s Routes Reconnected, CEO of Air France-KLM Ben Smith explained the position with Hop!. He said,

“For Hop!, we’ve shrunk it by 50%. It’s going to be at Roissy, CDG, and it’s got a sort of mini-hub at Lyon.

“Hop will become an all-Embraer fleet around those two cities or those two airports. We’re removing the brand, so it’s basically like most regional operators’ airlines; it will be Air France operated by Hop!”

While the rebrand is no big surprise, the news that it will become an all-Embraer fleet is new. Right now, the airline operates a mix of Bombardier and Embraer aircraft, with 25 CRJs and 45 ERJs. The CRJ-700s are aging, averaging 16.5 years across the fleet. However, many of the CRJ-1000s are still quite young, most under 10 years of age.

Does this mean an end to the CRJ-1000s? Photo: Getty Images

Also aging is its fleet of ERJ-145s. These 13 aircraft are all over 15 years old, with some as old as 23. Since being grounded earlier this year, none has flown for Hop!. With Smith talking about a 50% shrink, he’s got to be targeting 35 or so aircraft for Hop!. This may well mean only the E-170 and E-190 will stay; perhaps we could even see an order for the reimagined E2 jets in future as well.

Simplifying and boosting efficiency

Smith talked at length about his plans for the main Air France brand, as well as for Transavia and Hop! during the interview. Since his arrival at Air France-KLM in 2018, Smith has been on a mission to drive down the inefficiencies at both airlines, and to streamline every element of its operation.

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We’ve already seen the impact of this in a number of moves. Closing down Joon made sense to Smith, because it was really just replicating the work of Air France to no benefit of the business. The downturn in demand gave him his window of opportunity to get shot of the A380s, leaving future large-capacity widebody operations focused on the more efficient A350 and Boeing 777.

Bringing Hop! more tightly into the Air France brand makes sense from an efficiency perspective. Photo: Getty Images

Bringing Hop! into the Air France family more closely is simply an extension of everything else he’s been doing. It’s not driven by the pandemic, but has certainly become more urgent. He talked about the inefficiencies of running Hop as a separate entity, saying,

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“Hop! was actually marketed separately. It had its own revenue management system, it had its own scheduling depot, and then it would codeshare with Air France. So it’s really going to be a regional feeder carrier.”

In the US, having regional feeders for big airlines at their hubs is normal. Look at American Eagle or Delta Connect, operated by other airlines but with a greater alignment of operations and branding. For Air France, it’s about time – KLM has had Cityhopper for many years, and now both Air France and Hop! will benefit from a similar degree of integration.

Source: https://simpleflying.com/hop-rebranded-as-air-france/

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