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We went backpacking with suitcases in Italy and it was a mess




(CNN) — Like many people, I developed an obsession with Italy relatively early in life. Unlike many people, mine was probably inspired by a cartoon dream sequence in which Yogi Bear and his girlfriend Cindy sailed through Venice on a gondola.

I quickly moved on to classier inspiration — “Light in the Piazza” starring Olivia de Havilland and George Hamilton and “Roman Holiday” with Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck — but really, anything featuring Italy would do.

That’s the only explanation I have for seeing Mary Kate and Ashley Olsen’s “When In Rome” multiple times.

I got my first taste of the beautiful country during a school trip to Florence, during which my friends and I had a blast recreating scenes from the book, eating gelato, walking along the River Arno and hanging out by the Duomo.

I left craving more.

Once school exams were over, I began planning a mini-trip to Italy with my sister, who’s just a year younger than me, so I could revisit Florence and go to some of the other Italian cities I’d only ever seen in movies and, er, cartoons.

Reluctant backpackers

Trip that changed my life - Florence - Tamara Hardingham-Gill

Tamara Hardingham-Gill developed a thirst for spontaneous travel during a trip around Italy with her sister.

Tamara Hardingham-Gill

It was technically a backpacking trip. We had everything a backpacker needed — a Lonely Planet guide and a vague itinerary.

The only problem was, we didn’t care for backpacks.

Instead, in August 2001, as we embarked on a trip that would take us from Verona to Venice, we decided it would be far more convenient to squeeze our possessions into two colossal suitcases.

Spacious luggage was crucial. We needed all the outfits we could possible cram into them. The thought of turning up at the Vatican Museums or Florence’s Uffizi Gallery looking even slightly disheveled was something we wouldn’t even consider.

We knew we’d be looking back on the photos for years to come and wanted to ensure we liked what we saw. Mercifully, this was before we owned digital cameras, otherwise we’d have wasted hours of the trip deleting and retaking pictures.

On arriving in the “City of Love” in the middle of the night, we hauled our massive bags into a hostel shared by actual backpackers.

There were looks of horror as our cases knocked chunks out of the walls while we tried to fit them under the bunk beds.

Blissfully unaware of how ridiculous we looked, we unpacked and chatted to them about their exploits, taking recommendations on places to see.

The next few blisteringly hot days were spent continually getting lost in Verona while waving our Lonely Planet around and occasionally attempting Italian phrases.

It took us so long to find “Juliet’s tomb,” a sarcophagus beneath the former Monastery of San Francesco al Corso that’s said to have links with Shakespeare’s tragic love story, I actually remember more about the random places we ended up than the tomb.

Once we finally located it, my sister climbed into and played dead, just because.

The next day, because our suitcases weren’t already heavy enough, we hit the Fiorucci store, buying dresses and shoes that we struggled to stuff into them.

When the time came to move on, our new friends from the hostel, who were leaving the same day, invited us accompany them to the station — despite our huge luggage we’d been accepted as backpackers!

But after 10 minutes of looking back at us loudly scraping our unwieldy cases across cobbled streets, they unceremoniously ditched us.

Perhaps they were embarrassed to be seen with such badly prepared travelers.

Travel on a whim

Trip that changed my life - Tamara Hardingham-Gill - Italy

The two-week trip was full of ups and downs, but both look on it as one of the best times of their lives.

Courtesy Tamara Hardingham-Gill

Our lack of preparation extended to train timetables.

We’d simply drag our suitcases over to a city station as early as we could, depending on how long it had taken us to get ready that morning, and hope for the best.

This also meant we went hungry a lot.

Back then, most restaurants in Italy operated around strict meal times, so we’d often arrive at a city at around 3 p.m in the afternoon desperate for a serving of pizza or pasta, only to be greeted by locked doors and shutters.

Turning up in cities without pre-booked accommodation also proved to be very hit and miss.

In Milan, the only place available at very short notice was a hot convent, where we dragged our suitcases into an austere room originally meant for nuns.

Our day trips were so poorly timed, we barely scratched the surface of Siena’s stunning landscape, and our trip to the Leaning Tower of Pisa was so rushed, I can only just about remember being there.

Surviving the heat

Trip that changed my life - Italy - Tamara Hardingham-Gill

The pair struggled with the scorching temperatures during their time in the Italian capital.

Tamara Hardingham-Gill

Nevertheless, by the time we got to Rome, we’d convinced ourselves we were seasoned adventurers — albeit seasoned travelers with enough shoes to last several months.

But the rising heat of mid-August began to take its toll, prompting some spectacular meltdowns.

My sister still reminds me of the time I asked a street vendor outside the Colosseum the price for a bottle of Coke.

“Twelve thousand lire,” he replied. This was the equivalent of around five dollars then — a lot to spend on a fizzy drink.

Almost delirious at this stage, I began rummaging around my purse for the cash before being dragged away by my incredulous sister.

“You were really going to pay 12,000 lire for coke?” she asked me.

“I’m just so thirsty,” I said, sounding much like a toddler having a tantrum.

After yet another scorching afternoon of sightseeing, we were accosted by a very friendly tour guide, who offered us tickets for a pricey hop-on/hop-off bus tour of the city.

We looked at her with disdain. Didn’t she realize we were “real” travelers. As far as we were concerned, luxury bus tours were for pampered tourists staying in swanky hotels.

She was clearly reading us all wrong. I imagine our immaculate outfits were throwing her off track — although our look was rather spoiled by the bruises on our legs from being bashed by those heavy cases.

Hilariously, we aligned ourselves with the dedicated backpackers who continued to shake their heads in disbelief every time we turned up at a new destination with luggage that only got heavier as we indulged in more shopping sprees.

When it came to pack up and move on, they would gasp as they watched us sit on the cases in order get zips to close.

Venice or broke

Trip that changed my life - Italy - Tamara Hardingham-Gill

Venice was the last stop on their eventful Italian visit.

Tamara Hardingham-Gill

When we first arrived in Italy, we’d envisioned hanging out in bars and nightclubs every evening.

But we soon realized that partying is often the last thing you want to do after an exhausting day walking around museums, art galleries and boutiques.

Having said that, we tried not to leave any major city without sampling its nightlife at least once.

On our last evening in Rome, we were accosted on the Spanish Steps by a group of American tourists who were part of an official bar crawl — an activity long since banned in the Italian capital.

They convinced us to join in and we had an absolute blast. It was as rowdy as you can imagine, with mindless drinking games and lots of inebriated conversations.

But after spending so much time with just one other person, it felt great to be in the company of so many strangers, even if they could barely stand up.

Next up was Venice, our final stop. But our typically chaotic relationship with train timetables mean we missed a direct connection, opting instead to break up the journey with a few hours in Florence.

What could possibly go wrong? Plenty as it turns out.

After a failed attempt at seeing Botticelli’s “The Birth of Venus”– the queue for the Uffizi Gallery was insane — we sheepishly returned to the station to await our train.

During the course of the trip, we’d been swapping bags while on the move for no particular reason, and being the useless travelers we were, we’d opted to keep both passports in the same bag.

An hour into our train journey to Venice I looked over at our luggage and realized one bag was missing.

We’d left it on the floor of the train platform in Florence, both assuming the other had picked it up. We exited the train at the next stop and made our way back. The bag and our passports were long gone.

After alerting station staff, we were taken to an office and asked to complete a form describing the bag and its contents.

I broke down in tears as I imagined having to camp out at the British Embassy to get replacement travel documents and never making it to Venice, my heavy tears starting to ruin the paperwork I was filling out.

At the moment of my deepest despair, a very petite Italian woman came sailing through the door.

“Tamara,” she said excitedly. “I ‘ave ah your bag.” The sheer joy I felt in that moment cannot be put into words.

Beginning of the end

Trip that changed my life - Italy - Tamara Hardingham-Gill

After dreaming of taking a night time gondola ride as kids, the pair were able to experience it together.

Tamara Hardingham-Gill

A few hours later, we boarded yet another train to Venice, opting for a faster, more expensive one in an attempt to make up lost time.

Everything had been building up to this, and it was just as magical as we’d imagined — even despite the obstacle course of staircases and cobbled streets between the station and our hostel.

We visited the Piazza San Marco and the Rialto Bridge and I enjoyed getting lost in tiny winding streets and discovering little boutiques and cafes, as well as the novelty of traveling on water buses.

We blew a small fortune on a night time gondola ride, for the full Yogi bear experience. It was worth every penny and thankfully meant we had less money to spend on things to make our suitcases any heavier.

Our last day was disastrous. We lost each other for hours and blamed the other for the wasted time searching when we were finally reunited a few hours before our flight home to London.

The flight was delayed, as was our baggage, which we were understandably sick of the sight of by this point.

We didn’t get home until the very early hours of the next morning, and by then we were barely speaking to each other.

Still, in retrospect, I wouldn’t have it any other way.

Although I’ve returned to Italy several times over the years, I’ve never been able to recreate the magic of that trip.

My sister and I took plenty more vacations together in the years that followed — Maui, Rio de Janeiro and New Orleans — always with suitcases rather than backpacks.

Then, suddenly, we stopped traveling as a twosome. There was no conversation about it. Just a silent agreement that that part of our lives was over — at least for the time being.

When I told her I was writing about one of our many escapades, she paused, then asked “which trip?”

“Italy, of course,” I replied.

“Really?” she said with a smile. “That’s perfect. I think that’s the best we’ve ever looked. Those are some great pictures.”

Hauling those suitcases full of clothes around was worth it after all.



What The Eff Is This Keystone XL Segment, CNN??




One of the weirdest segments I’ve ever seen published on CNN aired this past week. It was focused on a small town (population of 444) and a few people who were going to miss out economically from the Keystone XL Pipeline being canceled. There were several odd things about the video that made me think or even say out loud, “WTF, CNN?”

First of all, everyone acted shocked that the pipeline was being cancelled, as if they didn’t know it was one of the biggest political footballs in the past decade. It should have been surprising to absolutely no one that the pipeline would eventually be cancelled (again). Going even further, some people had built businesses or were counting on millions of dollars of income centered around the project going through, and then were highlighted talking about the loss as if there was no way at all of predicting this would happen and that it was risky to build one’s hopes on one of the most controversial infrastructure projects in modern US history.

The CEO of the West Central Electric Cooperative was asked how he felt when the announcement was made, and said, “Like I got kicked in the stomach.” He was anticipating generation about half a million dollars a month from a project that relied on the Keystone XL going through. That’s right — half a million dollars a month. Based on the idea the Keystone XL wouldn’t be canceled. West Central Electric Cooperative has had 99 new customers … in 30 years. (Side note: the segment narrator indicates that all of the profits would have gone back to the coop members, ~3700 people, and the CEO indicated that on average they’d get about $325/year. That pencils out to $1,202,500 a year, or $100,208 a month, approximately $400,000 a month less than the CEO indicated the project would generate for West Central Electric Cooperative. Do we want to know where that $400,000 a month goes? Probably not.)

Then there was the fact that CNN spent almost no time truly explaining why the project was canceled, why it was obvious the project would be canceled, or how letting the pipeline go through would costs innumerable risks to the climate as well as communities in the case of potential (or likely) oil leaks. It was all basically something like, “for some reason, Biden just killed this project and took away our income.” It is framed as if Biden just killed a bunch of jobs — because environmentalists. Biden said he was going to create jobs, but look what he’s doing! If you can’t sense the snark in those statements, I’ll tell you, it’s there. The false battle between “environmentalists” (not the stability of our climate, society, and human civilization) and money (there’s also money and jobs in clean energy that doesn’t ruin our precious and rare blue marble) is grating. The loss of income for a small coop in North Dakota is not due to some wildflowers being protected in the middle of nowhere, and the money isn’t vaporized by Biden’s evil ballpoint pen.

There was no talk of a greater shift to clean energy and electric vehicles and the fact that many more jobs are being created in this transition than lost, including in rural areas and small towns. Rather than explain that yes, some areas are declining economically but others are getting an economic boost, it was a completely one-sided story making it seem like there were either jobs or the environment, but not both — a false dichotomy that is probably older than Betty White. This is practically journalistic malpractice — instead of providing good, broad context and insight, it is cherry picking a few personal stories to perpetuate a mythical dichotomy that is harmful to both our economy and our environment. It is doing the opposite of what a good news company should do.

And let’s be honest — they found basically 3 individual stories in 2 tiny towns and gave them an enormous megaphone. (The second town, where a husband and wife had invested “their own money” in a wellness studio for pipeline construction workers … who wouldn’t live there long anyway, had a population of 779.) Have you ever seen CNN highlight 3 of the millions of solar, wind, and electric vehicle jobs that have been created from the same transition away from fossil fuels and toward clean energy? Have you seen them highlight entrepreneurs who saw where the world was headed and formed side businesses to complement the cleantech transition rather than betting that fossil fuels will be burnt haphazardly forever? Have you seen them show a balanced look at the number of jobs created in clean energy and electric vehicle technology versus those lost in oil, coal, and gas? Did the interviewer even ask, “But didn’t you notice that there’s been a full-scale movement for years to block this climate-destroying pipeline? Did you think it was a safe bet to create a business or expect your business’s income to blow up indefinitely with the assumption that this pipeline wouldn’t eventually be canceled (again)?” If there was one individual project in the whole country that was bound to close down if/when Biden won, it was the climate disaster that the Obama–Biden administration canceled a handful of years ago that Biden promised to shut down.

Getting back to the context CNN so magnanimously bungled, the narrator says, “Environmentalists had argued the pipeline and the oil would have added to climate change, and feared damage to water and wildlife where the pipeline went through.” First of all, it’s not environmentalists just claiming something. It’s basic, clear climate science. They could have said, “Science shows that the pipeline and the oil would have done great damage to the climate humans rely on for food, water, and basic livability.” Secondly, the concern regarding oil leaks isn’t just for water and wildlife! It’s also for humans and the economy! But that doesn’t fit the simplistic, ignorant, outdated narrative.

“But, stopping the pipeline has problems of its own.” Lions and tigers and bears, oh my! Seriously, CNN, you’re going to put these on the same level and play this ridiculous game of false balance in 2021? And where that statement leads gets even dumber: “Like, what happens to the land that was already bought? Another concern: what do you do with all this stuff? Pipeline assets were spread across hundreds of miles, much of it now … just stranded.” This is not an April Fool’s Day joke.

What happens to the land? It stays where it is. If I asked my 4-year-old that question, she’d probably be confused at how senseless it is.

What about the stranded assets? That’s why you shouldn’t invest in stupid, harmful projects. No one has to guarantee a return on a stupid investment that was clearly going to be canceled.

It’s gets even stupider, but I’m done. I saved the video to write about it last week when it irritated me with its stupidity and counterproductive narrative. I had to watch it again just now to write this piece, and the lack of logic, context, and point is driving me nuts again. Why, CNN, why?

When it comes down to it, why did CNN run a piece like this? Did someone sponsor it or did someone high up the food chain hint that it was a special request that needed to get done for some? Is it bringing anyone together or highlighting any issues that need to be resolved? Is it just stirring up a political food fight over the fact that the world changes? Is it bringing to light anything new and useful that the world wasn’t aware of? Is it putting the clear losses of some people and some businesses in the broader light of technology change and an effort to save humanity from itself? What is the actual point? Is it an effort to make CNN look like a joke?

When CNN does so much other useful stuff, why stoop down to such poor journalistic malpractice?

Featured photo by Gerd Altmann from Pexels



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Maximizing Edge AI Performance




Inference of convolutional neural network models is algorithmically straightforward, but to get the fastest performance for your application there are a few pitfalls to keep in mind when deploying. A number of factors make efficient inference difficult, which we will first step through before diving into specific solutions to address and resolve each. By the end of this article, you will be armed with four tools to use before building your system.

Why accelerate convolutional layers?

Broadly speaking, convolutions are all about sliding a function over something else. In the context of image data, we slide a window over pixels with three channels (RGB) and apply the same function on each window.

Fig. 1: Convolving a window over an image.

In a convolutional layer of a CNN, the function performed in every window is actually an element-wise multiplication with a matrix (necessarily of equal size) of fixed values called a filter. A set of multiple filters is also known as a convolutional kernel. The number of filters in this kernel will ultimately be the number of channels that the layer will output.

Fig. 2: In a convolutional layer, the actual function we are convolving is a series of element-wise matrix multiplications with different filters. Note: Each mathematical operation is actually a fused multiply and add (FMA) operation, also known as a ‘tensor op’.

Use fast matrix multiplication algorithms

The first and biggest challenge with CNN inference is that each layer requires a massive amount of matrix multiplies, as mentioned above. The number of operations scale with the size of the image, as well as the number of filters in each layer. While there’s no way to avoid these computations, specialized inference solutions have hardware for fast matrix multiplication algorithms such as the Winograd transformation. On common 3×3 convolutional kernels, such transformations can have the effect of reducing the number of operations needed by 2.25x! Therefore, the first and most general optimization you can make is to ensure that your deployment solution is able to leverage the advantages that fast matrix multiplication algorithms like Winograd can provide. For example, dedicated SoCs like Flex Logix’s InferX X1 have circuitry built in that can dynamically perform the transformations necessary for Winograd multiplication.

Quantize to lower precision data types

Just as the number of multiplications can vary dramatically between layers, so too does the amount of data that needs to be passed between layers. This data is known as activation energies, or activations. Inherently neural networks are approximations, and once a function has been trained in FP32 or FP16, the extra precision that these data types provide is unnecessary for inference. The process of changing the data type of a CNN is known as quantization. In common frameworks like PyTorch and TensorflowLite, quantization to INT8 can be accomplished after training with a tiny fraction of the data required for training, and only a few extra lines of code. The benefit of quantizing for inference can result in an immediate 2x improvement in latency over inference even in FP16!

Choose hardware with flexibility

Next up, as inference proceeds through a CNN, each layer does a different convolution from the previous layer. Whether it’s changing the window size of the kernel or using a different number of filters, the operations that mold and shape the activations end up having different ratios of memory access to computation. An early layer may have many more computations relative to the amount of memory it requires, whereas a middle layer will be operating on a very large activation data but only perform a fraction of the computations. Inherently, then, an architecture that can adapt to these changing memory and computation access patterns will have an advantage over one that does not. For example, the InferX X1 leverages Flex Logix’s eFPGA technology to dynamically reconfigure between layers to maintain an optimal datapath throughout inference. So, when looking to deploy, choose an architecture that can adapt.

Streaming data

Lastly, when training models, in a process known as backwards propagation, much information is generated to update the weights of the model based on each piece of training data. One way to cut down the amount of memory bandwidth required is to ‘batch’ the data and sum up the different changes to these weights over that set of data. In the context of inference, the approach of batching and calculating multiple inferences in parallel, going layer by layer can also improve throughput, but at the cost of latency. For example, in realtime applications, you will have to wait for enough data to come in before starting, and with some hardware, instead of using all the processing elements on a single job, you end up splitting the resources to process multiple inferences in parallel. If the fastest possible inferences is a concern for your application, remember to infer on a batch size of 1.


Faster inference for real-time applications opens up new design possibilities and can ultimately save you and your customers not just time, but also money. As this article highlights, now you have a template you can apply to improve inference performance in your end application, whether that be for medical imaging, factory automation, ADAS, or something else entirely! Just remember these four key tools: 1) make sure you’re taking advantage of fast matrix multiplication algorithms, 2) quantize to INT8, 3) deploy on flexible hardware, and 4) use batch=1 for real-time applications. Leveraging these tools will ensure you get the fastest inference possible for your applications.

Vinay Mehta

  (all posts)
Vinay Mehta is the inference technical marketing manager at Flex Logix.

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How To Spot Fake News




Who were the world leaders when the Berlin Wall fell? How many women have been heads of state in prominent governments? And who are the newest additions to the list of world leaders?

This graphic reveals the leaders of the most influential global powers since 1970. Countries were selected based on the 2020 Most Powerful Countries ranking from the U.S. News & World Report.

Note: Switzerland has been omitted due to the swiftly changing nature of their national leadership.

The 1970s: Economic Revolutions

Our graphic starts in 1970, a year in which Leonid Brezhnev ruled the Soviet Union, while on the other side of the Iron Curtain, Willy Brandt was presiding over West Germany.

In the U.S., Richard Nixon implemented a series of economic shocks to stimulate the economy, but resigned in scandal due to the Watergate tapes in 1974. In the same time period, China was undergoing rapid industrialization and economic hardship under the final years of rule of communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, until his death in 1976.

In 1975, the King of Saudi Arabia, Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was assassinated by his nephew. The decade also marked the end of Park Chung-Hee’s dictatorship in South Korea when he was assassinated in 1979.

To cap off the decade, Margaret Thatcher became the first female prime minister of the United Kingdom in 1979, transforming the British economy using a laissez-faire economic policy that would come to be known as Thatcherism.

The 1980s: Reaganomics and the Fall of the Wall

The 1980s saw Ronald Reagan elected in the U.S., beginning an era of deregulation and economic growth. Reagan would actually meet the Soviet Union’s president, Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 to discuss human rights and nuclear arms control amid the tensions of the Cold War.

The 1984 assassination of the Indian prime minister, Indira Gandhi was also a defining event of the decade. She was succeeded by her son, Rajiv Gandhi for only seven years before his own assassination in 1991.

The ‘80s were clearly turbulent times for world leaders, especially towards the end of the decade. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell and Germany was reunified under chancellor Helmut Kohl. 1989 was also the year when the devastating events occurred at the Tiananmen Square protests in China, under president Deng Xiaoping. The event left a lasting mark on China’s history and politics.

The 1990s: War 2.0 and the Promise of the EU

The beginning of a new decade marked the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union, leading to Boris Yeltsin’s position as the first president of the Russian Federation. A sense of peace, or at least the knowledge that a finger wasn’t floating above a nuclear launch button at any given moment, brought a sense of global calm.

However, this does not mean the decade was without conflict. The Gulf War began in 1990, led by the U.S. military’s Commander-in-Chief George H.W. Bush. In the mid-90s, prime minister Yitzhak Rabin of Israel was assassinated by Jewish extremists.

In spite of this, the ‘90s were a time of optimism for many. In 1993, the European project began. The European Union was founded with the support European leaders like the UK’s prime minister John Major, France’s president Francois Mitterrand, and chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany.

The 2000s: Historic Firsts and Power Shifts

The dawn of a new century had people feeling both hopeful and scared. While Y2K didn’t end the world, many transformative events did occur, such as the 9/11 attacks in New York and the subsequent war on terror led by U.S. president George W. Bush.

On the other hand, Angela Merkel made history becoming the first female chancellor of Germany in 2005. A few years later, Barack Obama also achieved a momentous ‘first’ as the first African-American president in the United States.

The 2000s to early 2010s also revealed rapidly changing power shifts in Japan. Shinzō Abe rose to power in 2006, and after five leadership changes in seven years, he eventually circled back, ending up as prime minister again by 2013—a position he held until late 2020.

Country Number of Leaders Since 1970
🇯🇵 Japan 25
🇹🇷 Turkey 18
🇮🇳 India 12
🇦🇺 Australia 12
🇬🇧 UK 10
🇺🇸 USA 10
🇰🇷 South Korea 10
🇮🇱 Israel 9
🇨🇦 Canada 9
🇷🇺 Russia 7
🇫🇷 France 7
🇨🇳 China 6
🇩🇪 Germany 5
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia 5
🇦🇪 UAE 2

The 2010s: World Leaders Face Uncertainty

The 2010s were more than eventful. The Hong Kong protests under Chinese president Xi Jinping, and the annexation of Crimea led by Vladimir Putin, uncovered the wavering dominance of democracy and international law.

UK Prime Minister David Cameron’s move to introduce a Brexit referendum, resulted in just over half of the British population voting to leave the EU in 2016. This vote led to a rising feeling of protectionism and a shift away from globalization and multilateral cooperation.

Donald Trump’s U.S. presidential election was a shocking political longshot in the same year. Trump’s stint as president will likely have a longstanding impact on the course of American politics.

Two countries elected their first female leaders in this decade: president Park Geun-Hye in South Korea, and prime minister Julia Gillard in Australia. Here’s a look at which global powers have been led by women in the last 50 years.

Country Female Leader
🇦🇺 Australia Julia Gillard
🇨🇦 Canada Kim Campbell
🇩🇪 Germany Angela Merkel
🇮🇳 India Indira Gandhi
🇮🇱 Israel Golda Meir
🇰🇷 South Korea Park Geun-Hye
🇹🇷 Turkey Tansu Ciller
🇬🇧 UK Margaret Thatcher
🇬🇧 UK Theresa May

2020 to Today

No one can avoid talking about 2020 without talking about COVID-19. Many world leaders have been praised for their positive handling of the pandemic, such as Angela Merkel in Germany. Others on the other hand, like Boris Johnson, have received critiques for slow responses and mismanagement.

The year 2020 packed about as much punch on its own as an entire decade does, from geopolitical tensions to a nail-biting 2020 U.S. election. The world is on high alert as the now twice-impeached Trump prepares his transfer of power following the riot at the U.S. Capitol.

The newest addition to the ranks of world leaders, Joe Biden, has recently taken his place as the 46th president of the United States on January 20, 2021.

Editor’s note: We’ll continue to update this graphic on world leaders as time goes on. Unfortunately, we were unable to include world leaders from more countries, as we were limited by the graphic format and user experience.

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