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We both caught the Coronavirus

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My wife and I were both ill with the symptoms of COVID-19. While we were ill, we were looking for information about other people’s experience of COVID to understand how our symptoms could evolve. This is our experience, and this blog is written both by Tram Anh and me.

The context

We live in London, and are co-founders of the Centre for Finance, Technology and Entrepreneurship. Through our normal activities, we usually meet a lot of people every day.

However, because we have offices in Singapore and Hong Kong, we realised the seriousness of COVID very early on, and we knew that for a young company like ours, it could be hugely disruptive if a part of the team fell ill. A month ago, we therefore implemented our Business Continuity Plan for CFTE with the following measures:

  • Split the London team – and the management – in 3 different locations to make sure that a part of the management could continue to run the company if others were ill. Since Tram Anh and I are husband and wife, we would of course work in the same place
  • Decrease social interactions, and move physical meetings to videoconference when possible
  • Use hand sanitiser, stop sharing food in the office, stop hugging (which is a big thing at CFTE!)
  • Be healthy (sleep, food, vitamins) to avoid being ill (not just COVID, but any illness), because this is not a period where you want to be ill

Being in London, we knew however that our risk was still high – compared to Asia where people wear masks and have the experience of SARS –  but we wanted at least to decrease the risk to the team, and limit the contagion risk.

Despite our precautions, I fell ill, then 2 days after Tram Anh fell ill.

My symptoms (Huy)

  • Day 1: in the morning, we were filming one of our Senior Lecturers for a new course. This is always intense, but nothing out of the ordinary. We then had lunch, and he left. I felt a bit tired, so decided to go home at 4pm to avoid the rush hour in the Tube. An hour later, when I reached home, I was exhausted. I had some fever (38.2C), but especially a very high heart rate (120 beats per minute vs 70 usually). My respiratory rate was normal (16 per minute) and SPO2 too (98%). I drank a lot of water and went to sleep
  • Day 2: still fever around 38. Heart rate above 100, I slept 18 hours. I tried to have normal food, with a lot of water.
  • Day 3: still fever around 38. Heart rate above 100, I continued to sleep + normal food and water
  • Day 4: no more temperature, I still felt a bit tired, but nothing too concerning, apart from my heart rate that was a bit high (around 100).
  • Day 5: temperature went up again to 38.5, heart rate above 100, and I had body aches for the first time. I took 500mg of paracetamol, and went back to sleep.
  • Day 6: same
  • Day 7: temperature back to normal, heart rate a bit high
  • Day 8 and after: everything normal, the heart rate was a bit high, but then went back to normal.

Overall, I was tired with fever, but it wasn’t too serious. I still don’t know if it was COVID19. We called 111, and it was clear that only people who had been to high risk countries such as Italy or Iran, or were suffering from respiratory distress, would be tested. I was therefore not tested, and this is when I realised that the numbers in the UK were likely to be much much higher than reported.

My symptoms (Tram Anh)

Photo by camilo jimenez on Unsplash

Photo by camilo jimenez on Unsplash

Because Huy has had asthma since young, and because COVID19 is a respiratory disease, we thought that he was the one in the family who was most at risk of complications. I didn’t imagine I would be the one who who would have much more severe symptoms.

2 days after Huy got his symptoms, I started to feel ill too.

  • Day 1: when I woke up, I had a fever of 38.5. I also had a dry cough. By then, we were used to monitoring Huy’s symptoms, and we measured mine which were high (110 heart rate, 18 respiratory rate, 95 SPO2). I was extremely tired, and I had some food, water, and 500mg paracetamol, and went back to sleep.
  • Day 2: same
  • Day 3: same
  • Day 4: same. I was still extremely tired, and Huy made sure that I ate enough and had enough water / orange juice, and I just slept the whole day. During all these days, my temperature was around 38C
  • Day 5: Huy was talking to me and I felt very lightheaded, and couldn’t focus on what he said. I was extremely tired, and started to have difficulty breathing. We checked my temperature that had shot up to 39.5C and my respiratory rate was very high (25 per minute). Huy gave me 1g of Paracetamol and called directly 999. The ambulance came 2 hours later, and they monitored me. Thanks to the paracetamol, my temperature had gone down to 38, and my respiratory rate to 20, with my heart rate above 100. I wasn’t tested for COVID – although they said it was likely – and I was given antibiotics in case it was a bacterial infection.
  • Day 6: temperature above 39, I took 1g of paracetamol every 6 hours, and the temperature went down to 38 after this
  • Day 7: My temperature went back up to 39.5, I was coughing much more and had difficulty breathing again. I became extremely weak and semi-conscious. Huy gave me 1g of paracetamol immediately and called 999 again. When the ambulance arrived a couple of hours later, my temperature had gone down, but my heart rate was still very high, and they decided to bring me to the hospital. There was a special section to check people with the Coronavirus, and they took a sample of my blood, did an electrocardiogram and an X-ray of my lungs. My blood results showed that I had something (but we didn’t know if it was COVID since they didn’t test for COVID) and my X-ray was normal. They decided not to keep me so that I could better recover at home and not to be more exposed. I left the hospital in the middle of the night.
  • Day 8: temperature of 39, I continued to take paracetamol
  • Day 9: suddenly, my temperature went back to normal at 37
  • Day 10: Still tired, but apart from the cough, everything else is normal
  • Day 11: normal, still coughing
  • Day 12 : normal, still coughing
  • Day 13: normal, still coughing

Despite Huy being the “highest risk” person in the family because of his asthma, his symptoms were quite mild. On the other hand, I am normally quite healthy and would be considered “low risk”, and I had much more severe symptoms. This is the first time we had to call the ambulance for me (let alone two times), and there were very stressful moments when I was semi-conscious and could hardly breathe.

Our experience of COVID19 (Huy)

During the last 2 weeks, I spent quite a bit of time reading about the symptoms of COVID, and it seems that the most dangerous period seems to be around 1 week – which is what Tram Anh experienced.

Although Tram Anh is now almost fully recovered, she’s never had such a long period being in bed with high fever and difficulty breathing, despite not being in a category deemed at risk. Overall, after 14 days she is still coughing.

Also, we were quite careful to maintain social distance, but we still caught COVID, which explains why we see such a high contagion rate around the world.

Although Tram Anh had severe symptoms on Day 7, and was sent to the hospital, she still wasn’t tested for COVID. There is a lot of controversies around this topic – and as someone who teach about data-driven decisions, this is quite puzzling we don’t test – but what is very clear is that the number of actual cases in the UK is very seriously underestimated.

Our experience with the NHS

If there was a message from this blog, that would be the incredible support and professionalism we received from the NHS, despite all their challenges. There is no doubt that there is a huge demand on the NHS – for example, it took 15 minutes to be connected to the 999 emergency lines, although we were really at the beginning of the epidemic in the UK.

Despite being seriously understaffed however, the people on the phone were extremely professional. Both ambulance crews were amazing, with huge dedication, and that was exactly the same for the doctors and nurses at the hospital. There is really no words for us to express our gratitude to the amazing health professionals.

It is however very sad to see that these highly dedicated people lack even the most basic resources – from not being tested themselves to having not enough masks and protection. Anything that we can do to support our health system and the incredible health professionals will surely help – for example, we gave them masks and we also registered for NHS volunteers. I’m sure there are a lot of similar initiatives around the world, if you’d like me to list them here, just send me a message.

How to monitor your symptoms

The health systems everywhere are struggling under the volume of patients, and the instructions are usually to stay at home and call only if “your symptoms worsen”. But how do we know if our symptoms worsen? What does it mean exactly?

I am – clearly !- not a doctor, but tried to monitor our symptoms to see if they were improving or worsening. This is what I monitored:

  • Temperature. Normal body temperature is around 37C, fever above 38C, high fever above 39.5C and very high above 41C for an adult. Until 38.5C, we usually just drank a lot of water (because a fever also helps to kill the infection, so I didn’t want to suppress a temperature that wasn’t too high), but above 38.5C, we took paracetamol. (there is a lot of discussion about Ibuprofen, in doubt, we just took Paracetamol)
  • Heart rate. Normal heart rate is around 70 beats per minute. You can easily calculate your heart rate by feeling your pulse like this, or use your smartphone / smartwatch. For me, my heart rate went up to 120 in a couple of hours, and remained above 100 for a whole week. Tram Anh’s was also very high, which is why they decided to bring her to the hospital
  • Respiratory rate. Normal rate is around 12 to 16 per minute. This is easy to calculate by just counting the number of times you exhale every minute. When Tram Anh started to have issues breathing, her breathing went up to 20 then 25 per minute
  • SPO2. This is the quantity of oxygen in the blood. This is less common to monitor at home, but for a respiratory disease like COVID, this could be useful. A normal reading would be above 95%, and those who have a Samsung smartphone can use the Samsung Health app – otherwise you would need an oximeter
  • And of course we continued to monitor the main other symptoms (shortness of breath, cough) although it was more qualitative than quantitative.

This is a blog about finance, so please take this with a pinch of salt – and listen to what your body tells you as the most important signal.

For us, this was by monitoring these readings that we had some peace of mind that we were getting better or worse. We also didn’t want to call the ambulance unless absolutely necessary, and this is why we kept monitoring ourselves at home.

Ideally, you would want to take your measures when you’re in good health, to know what your reference level is.

I have attached a document I used to write down our symptoms – after a few days, it all becomes very hazy, we didn’t remember when we took paracetamol, etc. so that helped us monitor our conditions. Please feel free to print it or just copy it by hand. (It’s a Google doc that can be shared, so no file to download to decrease the risk of digital virus…)

Resources

If you have time at home, Contagion is a film we watched a few years ago, then again with the family in February. This is a very good film which shows how a pandemic spreads, and how we react to this – it’s quite scary actually to see how a movie from 10 years ago could almost be a documentary of today’s situation.

And for those with the children, the Local Authority Education Psychology Service has provided the following links to support anxious children/young people and for worried and concerned parents/carers on communicating with children.

1.     Downloadable A4 side of advice for parents/carers from British Psychological Society ‘Talking to Children about Coronavirus’  https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/talking-children-about-coronavirus

2.     Various helpful sources of information about coronavirus specifically for children https://edpsy.org.uk/blog/2020/coronavirus-covid-19-information-for-children-families-and-professionals/

3.     Coronavirus: Keep it simple, stick to facts – how parents/carers should tell kids – BBC  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-51734855

4.     Atle Dyregrov and Magne Raundalen Clinic for Crisis Psychology, Bergen, Norway advice for talking to children: https://krisepsykologi.no/what-can-we-say-to-children-about-coronavirus/

5.     Carol Gray, well known for her work on ‘Social Stories’ for YP with ASD, has written a Social Story for Pandemics and the Coronavirus  PDF Pandemics and the Coronavirus. I would like to thank our school to sending use these links.

Conclusion

Although we were more prepared than many for the arrival of COVID19 in Europe, we still caught it. Some people will have mild symptoms (like Huy), but others will have more serious symptoms, although they are not in a high risk category (like Tram Anh). Although we were at the beginning of the epidemic, we could see that the health system was already struggling, so please take it seriously and stay safe at home.

This crisis will have very serious health, but also social and economic impact. For those of us who can help – even in the smallest ways – let’s try to support our communities and our society as much as we can.

Stay safe at home and stay healthy. It is the only way that we can stop this pandemic crisis.

PS: for readers of Disruptive Finance, you’d have noticed that my posts are getting less frequent… A lot of things have happened at CFTE and The Disruptive Group, which is great, but running two companies leaves me no time for blogging, which I regret. I use Linkedin much more now, so don’t hesitate to follow me there (just say you come from Disruptive Finance in the message and I’ll connect you).

If you want updates on Disruptive Finance and Fintech:

– You can enter your email address to receive an email whenever I write a new post
– You can also follow me on Twitter here
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Source: http://www.disruptivefinance.co.uk/2020/03/28/we-both-caught-covid19/

Crowdfunding

Digital Banking Challenger Current Reveals that Average Tax Refund Size Is Just Over $2K, Money Sent with Current Pay Increased Nearly 10%

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Current, one of the leading digital banks in the US, reveals that it’s been a busy few weeks at the company as they began receiving tax refunds for thousands of clients five working days faster than regular banks.

Current claims that most of the money is being used for paying back friends and family members and for settling bills, which is “consistent with spending patterns” that the banking challenger saw from the second US government stimulus payments in December of last year.

Current’s management also mentioned that the tax refund season was delayed a bit this year because of stimulus payments. But even though the IRS was not accepting returns until February 12, 2021, Current says this did not impact its ability to receive and credit refunds for its members “five days faster than traditional banks.”

Current further revealed that the spending patterns they’ve seen are “similar to those of the second stimulus payments in December,” when they were the first Fintech challenger to credit payments, and this “reinforces just how many Americans are hurting for cash and still playing catch up nearly a year after the COVID-19 pandemic led to a shift in the workforce and uncertain economic times.”

In just a few weeks into the tax refunds, the majority of the money has reportedly been spent on paying back friends or family members and settling bills, and Current reveals that it has seen “shifting consumer spending patterns”:

  • Spending on “paying back friends, family and paying bills have seen a total 15% increase vs. pre-refund spending for members’ who have received their tax refunds on Current”;
  • In particular, “sending money with Current Pay has increased nearly 10%”;
  • Average tax refund we have seen is “just over $2,000”;

Current’s management added:

“Much like we saw in December, Americans are still hurting for money and refunds and stimulus are stop gap measures helping people make ends meet. We’ll expect to see similar spending patterns with the next round of stimulus payments.”

As reported in January 2021, Current had noted that 2020 was “certainly not the year anyone was expecting,” however, for all the tribulations (not to mention “being in the epicenter of a pandemic” – above all), the company is quite proud that they were able to fulfill their promises or commitments to get their members “faster and better” access to their funds, especially at a time when they may have needed these services the most.

Current claims that it has helped members save over $100 million in overdraft fees in just the past 8 months (as reported in January 2021). The digital bank now claims more than 2 million members. It noted that “A LOT more people joined Current.”

Current members have also been able to earn points at more than 20,000 merchants. Additionally, there are over 30,000 locations where the bank’s members deposited cash.

There are now reportedly over 55,000 in-network free ATMs available to Current members.

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Source: https://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2021/03/172896-digital-banking-challenger-current-reveals-that-average-tax-refund-size-is-just-over-2k-money-sent-with-current-pay-increased-nearly-10/

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Moving Money in 2021 Should be Like Sending an E-mail – Instant, According to Nick Catino from Cross-Border Payments Fintech Wise

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Nick Catino, who is responsible for Policy, Campaigns, and Regulatory Strategy at Wise (formerly TransferWise), notes that payments are the part of finance that consumers experience “most on a day-to-day basis.”

Catino also mentioned that there are certain important initiatives that will help “ensure the financial success” of Canadian consumers and businesses.

Payments Canada, which offers the payments infrastructure that allows Canadian residents, their businesses and their institutions to exchange value, notes that with the introduction of advanced payments methods “comes a need for modernizing existing payments regulations and infrastructure.”

Catino told Payments Canada that while “modernizing payments regulations and infrastructure” might “sound technical,” it is really one of the most “important” financial policy initiatives the Canadian government can lead. He explained that payments are the part of finance that consumers “engage with most” on nearly an everyday basis.

Catino added:

“Much like our mission at Wise, governments should strive to make payments instant, convenient, transparent, and as low cost as possible. Payments modernization will help meet those goals and ultimately help ensure the financial health of Canadians and keep more money in their pockets.”

Responding to a question about how Canadians can take advantage of the benefits of modern payments, and what legislative and regulatory changes are required, Catino revealed that Finance Canada is “leading three initiatives that will have outsized benefits for Canadians.”

He continued:

“There’s the proposed Retail Payments Oversight Framework, which will result in new registration and market conduct requirements for payments companies. Subsequently, these newly regulated companies will be eligible for direct access to the payments system via amendments to the Canadian Payments Act.” 

And then on a “parallel” track is “consumer-directed finance* that is commonly referred to as Open Banking, which will allow users to have greater control over their financial information, Catino added, while noting that these reforms will “require legislation from parliament and the implementation of new regulations.”

In response to a question about who would ultimately benefit from these regulatory changes,  Catino noted:

“Everyone benefits from payments modernization. Real-time payments help consumers avoid hefty fees from overdraft and cheque cashing, while small businesses unlock working capital that would otherwise take days to access. The Retail Payments Oversight Framework will help Canadians better understand the costs and terms of payments, inducing more competition and resulting in lower costs.” 

Catino further noted that the amendments or changes to the Canadian Payments Act will “expand membership and access to the payments system” to Wise and Canadian payments technology firms. This could result in improved services, lower overall costs, and “increased innovation,” Catino claims.

He also mentioned that consumer-directed finance will “allow consumers to efficiently manage their finances, take advantage of tailored financial products and services, and make more sound financial decisions, while small businesses gain access to capital based on cash flow data.” Catino added that the potential benefits of these initiatives are “overwhelming” for consumers and small businesses.

While commenting on the current “pain points” in the cross-border or international payments market for Canadians, Catino remarked:

“Wise was started because cross-border payments are broken – they’re slow, expensive, inconvenient, and riddled with hidden fees. We’re trying to change that. More than 10 million people and businesses globally now use Wise to move six billion dollars every month, but that’s a tiny sliver of the overall market.” 

Catino also mentioned that migrant workers based in Canada are sending remittance payments abroad and are dealing with average fees of 6% according to Statistics Canada. Similarly, small businesses “struggle with high costs and delays when making international payroll or paying and getting paid for goods and services,” Catino confirmed.

He explained that this is why the international community – led by the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development and the World Bank – recently published an extensive report with global remittance policy recommendations.

Catino pointed out that in the “Blueprint for Action,” they “highlighted real-time payments systems, non-bank direct access to payments systems, and transparent pricing (the elimination of hidden exchange rate margins) as critical to spur lower cost and more accessible consumer cross-border payments.”

Catino also noted the Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (CPMI), which is part of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), has published several reports on cross-border or international retail payments “in support of faster, cheaper, more transparent and inclusive services.” The recommendations are “in strong support of payments modernization, including non-bank access to payments systems,” Catino added.

He continued:

“Collectively, these reforms, along with Payments Canada’s forthcoming Real-time Rail payments system, will dramatically modernize and improve the way consumers engage with payments on a day-to-day basis. The initiatives will enable access to innovative financial services and lead to a more competitive marketplace.” 

Notably, Payments Canada’s Real-Time Rail (RTR) should launch at some point in 2022. When questioned about how RTR could help address cross-border issues and what about ISO 20022, Catino noted:

“In 2021, moving money should be like sending an email – instant. The first step to making payments instant globally is to make them instant domestically. For example, Wise has built a cross-border payments infrastructure by integrating – directly where possible – to local payments systems around the world.” 

Catino explained that if we are “directly originating” payments with “real-time rails” on both sides, then we are able to transfer funds “instantly and as low cost as possible.” He added that direct payments access “means no middleman taking a cut and adding friction to the process.” He also mentioned that this is how Wise makes 34% of transfers “instantly” and 53% “within an hour, with an average cost of .69 per cent.”

He further noted:

“Canadians will quickly benefit from faster cross-border payments and lower costs with the implementation of a real-time payments system that allows direct access for payments technology companies.” 

He also mentioned that the ISO 20022 standard is “being used in the development of faster payments systems around the world.” He pointed out that the standardization of message formats and information sharing will help “achieve the goal of instantaneous and lower cost cross-border payments in a global economy.” After it has been fully adopted, it will be “a boon for economic growth, technological innovation, and operational efficiency,” Catino claims.

(Note: you can check out the complete conversation between Payments Canada and Catino here.)

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Source: https://www.crowdfundinsider.com/2021/03/172898-moving-money-in-2021-should-be-like-sending-an-e-mail-instant-according-to-nick-catino-from-cross-border-payments-fintech-wise/

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Blockchain

NEM Rises Following Big Updates and Airdrop Plans

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Blockchain technology is gaining traction in terms of possible mainstream adoption. To attain pioneering status in the auspicious sphere of tokenization, the inconspicuous country of Liechtenstein implemented the disruptive Liechtenstein Blockchain Act in January 2020.

This disruptive approach establishes a legal framework for transactions based on “trustworthy technology” (TT). At Amazing Blocks, we consider blockchain to be this technology and tokenization the embodiment.

We expect this law to fundamentally change the current market state since real world use cases for blockchain are now enabled with full legal compliance.

Legally compliant tokenization of equity and all kinds of assets will play a crucial role in the future of acclaiming mainstream adoption for blockchain.

Liechtenstein is the first country in the world to implement a law that allows for true equity and ownership tokens. They can be, for instance, used as collateral on decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols — the hottest trend in the blockchain space these days. 

First and foremost, we have to take a closer look at the legal requirements of this endeavor. The unique framework of the Blockchain Act empowers the user with the certainty of ownership, as well as the power of disposition of the tokenized assets or rights.

Besides, the framework enables European Union passporting, since Liechtenstein is part of the European Economic Area. Especially the civil rights adjustments have to be mentioned as an outstanding achievement, effectively regulating the direct and seamless transfer of the token from involved party A to B, without friction. 

Technological requirements

A safe transmission plus retention of tokens through a trusted technology (e.g. blockchain) are essential for a smoothly running process. This basically refers to the integrity of the tokens.

The basic principle here is as follows:

  • On one hand we have the TT-Identifier, also called public keys, which uniquely identifies respective tokens and therefore enables their seamless allocation and storage.
  • On the other hand, we have the TT-Key, or a private key, enabling the individual ownership and disposal of tokens. If for instance a key is lost, the legal framework of the TVTG will provide needed assistance in regaining ownership of the token and handling all other uncertainties occurring in this complex, yet efficient process.

These two keys combined with other function-providers, such as the TT-price-service-provider or the “Token Issuer/generator,” consequently are the foundation for an applicable token-economy (“tokenomy”).

Blockchain-based systems inherit a uniquely customized relationship-model, illustrated in Figure 1, which give them a major edge in terms of utility and safety over systems with similar functions.

While the TT-Identifier is of significant value to the token distribution, it is in fact the TT-Protector which aligns the token of the customers to the needed TT-Identifier in the first issuing after generating the tokens or generally when tokens are exchanged. 

Figure 1: Relationship-Model (Source: Nägele 2019)

Yet in the amazing world of blockchain, other mechanisms like smart contracts also contribute to token distribution as the automated legal guidance equally causes token transactions.

Say for instance A ships goods to B and wants the payment initiated instantly when B attains ownership of said goods. Smart contracts integrated into the process could automatically initiate the payment without any further legal framework.

At the arrival of the goods, they are registered and consequently an automated payment takes place through tokens representing the equivalent of the goods in a fiat currency (e.g. stablecoin).

Legally verified transfer of rights

Furthermore, smart contracts enable the legally verified transfer of rights embodied in the form of tokens. Hence, an ownership transfer in the tokenomy will simultaneously also be an ownership transfer in the real world. 

Generally, token transfers make unnecessary paperwork become obsolete and can not only be attributed to a person, but also to machines and intellectual property for instance.

Thus, they can be a major driver in the development and adoption of Internet of Things (IoT). Moreover, the token’s private key can be delegated to a representative, therefore boosting security, who acts on behalf of the actual owner.

Also copies of the key can be made, enabling owners with the authority of disposition, but not the right. The rights embedded into the token will never change, but can be adjusted or transferred.

The rights of certain tokens can even be divided and allocated to several different “sub-tokens” under the umbrella of the original token, consequently providing far more flexibility than traditional assets and rights like securities. 

The “Token Container Model” explained

But how are these entities now actually tokenized? Well, to answer that, we have to dig deeper into the so called Token Container Model (TCM).

Here, the respective token literally acts as a container inheriting a vast amount of different (usually pre-existing) rights. They are all represented through the token on the blockchain based system.

The right provides the owner with an individually suited digital representation of their asset. These tokens generally experience a standardized life-cycle, enabling registered service providers with the Financial Market Authority in Liechtenstein a vast amount of different products to offer along the way.

  • The cycle in general consists of the following elements:
  • Generating the token;
  • Issuing (normally through ETO, STO, IEO, or ICO);
  • Trading against other tokens;
  • Placing the token in an investment portfolio for diversifying purposes. 

Token differentiation

In addition to the above, another distinct differentiation in terms of the tokens has to be made to better grasp the flexibility and uniqueness of Liechtenstein.

While all tokens pride themselves with aspects such as exchangeability, private investment and financial services, security tokens, for instance, are no form of payment unlike regular cryptocurrencies, utility coins and stablecoins, as can be evidently observed in Figure 2.

The latter are usually backed by real world assets like the euro, whose value one unit of them represents. Whereas utility coins, which are mostly issued through ICOs like regular cryptos in general, simply inherit different functions within a blockchain based system.

Yet, they do not actually represent an ownership right or asset and, therefore, their intrinsic value is defined by the importance of the respective system they are utilized in.

Security tokens have thus far mostly been limited to participation certificates and bonds, due to regulatory constraints. However, the Liechtenstein Blockchain Act substantially revolutionizes this by enabling true equity and ownership tokens.

They still belong to the “family” of security tokens, but are unique since true equity and ownership is a disruptive innovation from the legal compliance perspective. Consequently, mainstream adoption is fostered and the worlds of blockchain technology and law bridged . 

Figure 2: Diversity of Token application (Source: Government Principality of Liechtenstein)

Future outlook

Liechtenstein will be an interesting destination for multiple tokenization efforts: avoiding time-consuming and costly efforts, rights and assets can be tokenized in a seamless way.

Workarounds can be jettisoned and this will not only standardize processes but will also decrease costs for tokenization processes significantly. Ultimately, legally compliant, blockchain-based equity will enjoy faster settlement, easier global transferability, high transparency, and easier administration of assets and ownership transferability.

Disclaimer

All the information contained on our website is published in good faith and for general information purposes only. Any action the reader takes upon the information found on our website is strictly at their own risk.

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Source: https://coingenius.news/nem-rises-following-big-updates-and-airdrop-plans/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=nem-rises-following-big-updates-and-airdrop-plans

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Esports5 days ago

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