Connect with us

Nano Technology

Towards single-species selectivity of membranes with subnanometre pores

Avatar

Published

on

  • 1.

    Elimelech, M. & Phillip, W. A. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment. Science 333, 712–717 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 2.

    Werber, J. R., Osuji, C. O. & Elimelech, M. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes. Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 1–15 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  • 3.

    Werber, J. R., Deshmukh, A. & Elimelech, M. The critical need for increased selectivity, not increased water permeability, for desalination membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 3, 112–120 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Park, H. B., Kamcev, J., Robeson, L. M., Elimelech, M. & Freeman, B. D. Maximizing the right stuff: The trade-off between membrane permeability and selectivity. Science 356, 1138–1148 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Werber, J. R. & Elimelech, M. Permselectivity limits of biomimetic desalination membranes. Sci. Adv. 4, eaar8266 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Werber, J. R., Porter, C. J. & Elimelech, M. A path to ultraselectivity: Support layer properties to maximize performance of biomimetic desalination membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, 10737–10747 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    Ritt, C. L., Werber, J. R., Deshmukh, A. & Elimelech, M. Monte carlo simulations of framework defects in layered two-dimensional nanomaterial desalination membranes: implications for permeability and selectivity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53, 6214–6224 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 8.

    Homaeigohar, S. & Elbahri, M. Graphene membranes for water desalination. NPG Asia Mater. 9, e427 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Luo, T., Abdu, S. & Wessling, M. Selectivity of ion exchange membranes: A review. J. Memb. Sci. 555, 429–454 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Zhang, H. et al. Ultrafast selective transport of alkali metal ions in metal organic frameworks with subnanometer pores. Sci. Adv. 4, eaaq0066 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Li, X. et al. Fast and selective fluoride ion conduction in sub-1-nanometer metal-organic framework channels. Nat. Commun. 10, 2490 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Alvarez, P. J. J., Chan, C. K., Elimelech, M., Halas, N. J. & Villagrán, D. Emerging opportunities for nanotechnology to enhance water security. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 634–641 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Sadeghi, I., Kaner, P. & Asatekin, A. Controlling and expanding the selectivity of filtration membranes. Chem. Mater. 21, 7328–7354 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    Nghiem, L. D. et al. Extraction and transport of metal ions and small organic compounds using polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs). J. Memb. Sci. 281, 7–41 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    Thiruraman, J. P. et al. Angstrom-size defect creation and ionic transport through pores in single-layer MoS2. Nano Lett. 18, 1651–1659 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    Radha, B. et al. Molecular transport through capillaries made with atomic-scale precision. Nature 538, 222–225 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Jones, E., Qadir, M., van Vliet, M. T. H., Smakhtin, V. & Kang, S. The state of desalination and brine production: A global outlook. Sci. Total Environ. 657, 1343–1356 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Campione, A. et al. Electrodialysis for water desalination: A critical assessment of recent developments on process fundamentals, models and applications. Desalination 434, 121–160 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    Faucher, S. et al. Critical knowledge gaps in mass transport through single-digit nanopores: A review and perspective. J. Phys. Chem. C. 123, 21309–21326 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Wijmans, J. G. & Baker, R. W. The solution-diffusion model: a review. J. Memb. Sci. 107, 1–21 (1995).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Mukherjee, P. & Sengupta, A. K. Ion exchange selectivity as a surrogate indicator of relative permeability of ions in reverse osmosis processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 1432–1440 (2003).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Epsztein, R., Cheng, W., Shaulsky, E., Dizge, N. & Elimelech, M. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the difference between chloride and nitrate rejection in nanofiltration. J. Memb. Sci. 548, 694–701 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Sata, T. Studies on anion exchange membranes having permselectivity for specific anions in electrodialysis – Effect of hydrophilicity of anion exchange membranes on permselectivity of anions. J. Memb. Sci. 167, 1–31 (2000).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Cheng, W. et al. Selective removal of divalent cations by polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofiltration membrane: Role of polyelectrolyte charge, ion size, and ionic strength. J. Memb. Sci. 559, 98–106 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Collins, F. C. Activation energy of the Eyring theory of liquid viscosity and diffusion. J. Chem. Phys. 26, 398–400 (1957).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Eyring, H. Viscosity, plasticity, and diffusion as examples of absolute reaction rates. J. Chem. Phys. 4, 283–291 (1936).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Ewell, R. H. & Eyring, H. Theory of the viscosity of liquids as a function of temperature and pressure. J. Chem. Phys. 5, 726–736 (1937).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Zwolinski, B. J., Eyring, H. & Reese, C. E. Diffusion and membrane permeability. J. Phys. Colloid Chem. 53, 1426–1453 (1949).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Castillo, L. F. Del, Mason, E. A. & Viehland, L. A. Energy-barrier models for membrane transport. Biophys. Chem. 9, 111–120 (1979).

    Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Sogami, M. et al. Application of the transition state theory to water transport across cell membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Biomembr. 1511, 42–48 (2001).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Babu, J. S. & Sathian, S. P. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and transition state theory to evaluate solid-liquid interfacial friction in carbon nanotube membranes. Phys. Rev. E 85, 051205 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Epsztein, R., Qin, M., Shaulsky, E. & Elimelech, M. Activation behavior for ion permeation in ion-exchange membranes: Role of ion dehydration in selective transport. J. Memb. Sci. 580, 316–326 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Latorre, R. & Miller, C. Conduction and selectivity in potassium channels. J. Membr. Biol. 71, 11–30 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Wang, J. H., Robinson, C. V. & Edelman, I. S. Self-diffusion and structure of liquid water. III. Measurement of the self-diffusion of liquid water with H2, H3 and O18 as tracers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 466–470 (1953).

    Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    Venkataraman, L., Klare, J. E., Nuckolls, C., Hybertsen, M. S. & Steigerwald, M. L. Dependence of single-molecule junction conductance on molecular conformation. Nature 442, 904–907 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 36.

    Pati, R. & Karna, S. P. Current switching by conformational change in a π-σ-π molecular wire. Phys. Rev. B – Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 69, 155419 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Weigelt, S. et al. Chiral switching by spontaneous conformational change in adsorbed organic molecules. Nat. Mater. 5, 112–117 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 38.

    Daasbjerg, K. et al. Evidence for large inner reorganization energies in the reduction of diaryl disulfides: Toward a mechanistic link between concerted and stepwise dissociative electron transfers? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1750–1751 (1999).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 39.

    Pophristic, V., Goodman, L. & Guchhait, N. Role of lone-pairs in internal rotation barriers. J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 4290–4297 (1997).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 40.

    Sharma, R. R., Agrawal, R. & Chellam, S. Temperature effects on sieving characteristics of thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes: Pore size distributions and transport parameters. J. Memb. Sci. 223, 69–87 (2003).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 41.

    Luo, J. & Wan, Y. Effects of pH and salt on nanofiltration-a critical review. J. Membr. Sci. 438, 18–28 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Nghiem, L. D., Schäfer, A. I. & Elimelech, M. Role of electrostatic interactions in the retention of pharmaceutically active contaminants by a loose nanofiltration membrane. J. Memb. Sci. 286, 52–59 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Epsztein, R., Shaulsky, E., Dizge, N., Warsinger, D. M. & Elimelech, M. Role of ionic charge density in Donnan exclusion of monovalent anions by nanofiltration. Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, 4108–4116 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 44.

    Richards, L. A., Schäfer, A. I., Richards, B. S. & Corry, B. The importance of dehydration in determining ion transport in narrow pores. Small 8, 1701–1709 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    Marcus, Y. Thermodynamics of solvation of ions. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 87, 2995–2999 (1991).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Ben-Amotz, D., Raineri, F. O. & Stell, G. Solvation thermodynamics: Theory and applications. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6866–6878 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 47.

    Sahu, S., Di Ventra, M. & Zwolak, M. Dehydration as a universal mechanism for ion selectivity in graphene and other atomically thin pores. Nano Lett. 17, 4719–4724 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 48.

    Richards, L. A., Schäfer, A. I., Richards, B. S. & Corry, B. Quantifying barriers to monovalent anion transport in narrow non-polar pores. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 11633–11638 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 49.

    Zwolak, M., Wilson, J. & Di Ventra, M. Dehydration and ionic conductance quantization in nanopores. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 454126 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  • 50.

    Tansel, B. Significance of thermodynamic and physical characteristics on permeation of ions during membrane separation: Hydrated radius, hydration free energy and viscous effects. Sep. Purif. Technol. 86, 119–126 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 51.

    Sata, T., Yamaguchi, T. & Matsusaki, K. Effect of hydrophobicity of ion exchange groups of anion exchange membranes on permselectivity between two anions. J. Phys. Chem. 99, 12875–12882 (1995).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 52.

    Hannesschlaeger, C., Horner, A. & Pohl, P. Intrinsic membrane permeability to small molecules. Chem. Rev. 119, 5922–5953 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 53.

    De Gier, J., Mandersloot, J. G., Hupkes, J. V., McElhaney, R. N. & van Veek, W. P. On the mechanism of non-electrolyte permeation through lipid bilayers and through biomembranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 233, 610–618 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  • 54.

    Noy, A. Kinetic model of gas transport in carbon nanotube channels. J. Phys. Chem. C. 117, 7656–7660 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 55.

    Boo, C. et al. High performance nanofiltration membrane for effective removal of perfluoroalkyl substances at high water recovery. Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, 7279–7288 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 56.

    DuChanois, R. M., Epsztein, R., Trivedi, J. A. & Elimelech, M. Controlling pore structure of polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofiltration membranes by tuning polyelectrolyte-salt interactions. J. Memb. Sci. 581, 413–420 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 57.

    Farrokhzad, H., Darvishmanesh, S., Genduso, G., Van Gerven, T. & Van Der Bruggen, B. Development of bivalent cation selective ion exchange membranes by varying molecular weight of polyaniline. Electrochim. Acta 158, 64–72 (2015).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 58.

    Vaselbehagh, M., Karkhanechi, H., Takagi, R. & Matsuyama, H. Surface modification of an anion exchange membrane to improve the selectivity for monovalent anions in electrodialysis – experimental verification of theoretical predictions. J. Memb. Sci. 490, 301–310 (2015).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 59.

    Epsztein, R., Nir, O., Lahav, O. & Green, M. Selective nitrate removal from groundwater using a hybrid nanofiltration–reverse osmosis filtration scheme. Chem. Eng. J. 279, 372–378 (2015).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 60.

    Zhou, Y. & MacKinnon, R. The occupancy of ions in the K+ selectivity filter: Charge balance and coupling of ion binding to a protein conformational change underlie high conduction rates. J. Mol. Biol. 333, 965–975 (2003).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 61.

    Doyle, D. A. et al. The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science 280, 69–77 (1998).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 62.

    Morais-Cabral, Ä. H., Kaufman, A. & Mackinnon, R. Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K+ channel-Fab complex at 2.0 Å resolution. Nature 414, 43–48 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  • 63.

    Gouaux, E. & MacKinnon, R. Principles of selective ion transport in channels and pumps. Science 310, 1461–1465 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 64.

    Barboiu, M. Encapsulation versus self-aggregation toward highly selective artificial K+ channels. Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 2711–2718 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 65.

    Gilles, A. & Barboiu, M. Highly selective artificial K+ channels: An example of selectivity-induced transmembrane potential. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 426–432 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 66.

    Glasstone, S., Laidler, K. J. & Eyring, H. The Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1941).

  • 67.

    Eyring, H. The activated complex and the absolute rate of chemical reactions. Chem. Rev. 17, 65–77 (1935).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 68.

    Kopec, W. et al. Direct knock-on of desolvated ions governs strict ion selectivity in K+ channels. Nat. Chem. 10, 813–820 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 69.

    Schoch, R. B., Han, J. & Renaud, P. Transport phenomena in nanofluidics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 839–883 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 70.

    Abraham, J. et al. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 546–550 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 71.

    Li, W., Wu, W. & Li, Z. Controlling interlayer spacing of graphene oxide membranes by external pressure regulation. ACS Nano 12, 9309–9317 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 72.

    Simon, G. P. et al. Ion transport in complex layered graphene-based membranes with tuneable interlayer spacing. Sci. Adv. 2, e1501272 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  • 73.

    Chen, L. et al. Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing. Nature 550, 1–4 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • 74.

    Joshi, R. K. et al. Precise and ultrafast molecular sieving through graphene oxide membranes. Science 343, 752–754 (2014).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 75.

    Choi, W. et al. Diameter-dependent ion transport through the interior of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nat. Commun. 4, 2397 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • 76.

    Tunuguntla, R. H. et al. Enhanced water permeability and tunable ion selectivity in subnanometer carbon nanotube porins. Science 357, 792–796 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 77.

    Ali, S., Rehman, S. A. U., Luan, H. Y., Farid, M. U. & Huang, H. Challenges and opportunities in functional carbon nanotubes for membrane-based water treatment and desalination. Sci. Total Environ. 646, 1126–1139 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 78.

    Li, F., Li, L., Liao, X. & Wang, Y. Precise pore size tuning and surface modifications of polymeric membranes using the atomic layer deposition technique. J. Memb. Sci. 385–386, 1–9 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  • 79.

    Chen, P. et al. Atomic layer deposition to fine-tune the surface properties and diameters of fabricated nanopores. Nano Lett. 4, 1333–1337 (2004).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 80.

    Spichiger-keller, U. E. Ionophores, ligands and reactands. Anal. Chim. Acta 400, 65–72 (1999).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 81.

    Ovchinnikov, Y. A. Physico‐chemical basis of ion transport through biological membranes: ionophores and ion channels. Eur. J. Biochem. 94, 321–336 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 82.

    Ammann, D. et al. Preparation of neutral ionophores for alkali and alkaline earth metal cations and their application in ion selective membrane electrodes. Helv. Chem. Acta 58, 1535–1548 (1975).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 83.

    Bowman-James, K. Alfred Werner revisited: The coordination chemistry of anions. Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 671–678 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 84.

    Kang, S. O., Begum, R. A. & Bowman-James, K. Amide-based ligands for anion coordination. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 7882–7894 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 85.

    Prets, E., Badertscher, M., Welti, M., Morf, W. E. & Simon, W. Design features of ionophores for ion selective electrodes. Pure Appl. Chem. 60, 567–574 (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  • 86.

    Almeida, M. I. G. S., Cattrall, R. W. & Kolev, S. D. Recent trends in extraction and transport of metal ions using polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs). J. Memb. Sci. 415–416, 9–23 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • 87.

    Sheng, C., Wijeratne, S., Cheng, C., Baker, G. L. & Bruening, M. L. Facilitated ion transport through polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing metal-binding ligands. J. Memb. Sci. 459, 169–176 (2014).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 88.

    Toutianoush, A., El-Hashani, A., Schnepf, J. & Tieke, B. Multilayer membranes of p-sulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine and their use for selective enrichment of rare earth metal ions. Appl. Surf. Sci. 246, 430–436 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 89.

    Acar, E. T., Buchsbaum, S. F., Combs, C., Fornasiero, F. & Siwy, Z. S. Biomimetic potassium-selective nanopores. Sci. Adv. 5, eaav2568 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 90.

    Fang, A., Kroenlein, K., Riccardi, D. & Smolyanitsky, A. Highly mechanosensitive ion channels from graphene-embedded crown ethers. Nat. Mater. 18, 76–81 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 91.

    Richards, L. A., Richards, B. S., Corry, B. & Schäfer, A. I. Experimental energy barriers to anions transporting through nanofiltration membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 1968–1976 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 92.

    Sigurdardottir, S. B., DuChanois, R. M., Epsztein, R., Pinelo, M. & Elimelech, M. Energy barriers to anion transport in nanofiltration membranes: role of intra-pore diffusion. J. Memb. Sci. 603, 117921 (2020).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 93.

    Khavrutskii, I. V., Gorfe, A. A., Lu, B. & McCammon, J. A. Free energy for the permeation of Na+ and CI- ions and their Ion-pair through a zwitterionic dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer by umbrella integration with harmonic fourier beads. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1706–1716 (2009).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 94.

    Gao, P., Hunter, A., Summe, M. J. & Phillip, W. A. A method for the efficient fabrication of multifunctional mosaic membranes by inkjet printing. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 19772–19779 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 95.

    Rajesh, S., Yan, Y., Chang, H. C., Gao, H. & Phillip, W. A. Mixed mosaic membranes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly for ionic separations. ACS Nano 8, 12338–12345 (2014).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 96.

    Malmir, H. et al. Induced charge anisotropy: A hidden variable affecting ion transport through membranes. Matter 2, 735–750 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 97.

    Haji-Akbari, A. Forward-flux sampling with jumpy order parameters. J. Chem. Phys. 149, 072303 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • 98.

    Tu, K. L., Nghiem, L. D. & Chivas, A. R. Coupling effects of feed solution pH and ionic strength on the rejection of boron by NF/RO membranes. Chem. Eng. J. 168, 700–706 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 99.

    Somrani, A., Hamzaoui, A. H. & Pontie, M. Study on lithium separation from salt lake brines by nanofiltration (NF) and low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO). Desalination 317, 184–192 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 100.

    Saraf, A., Johnson, K. & Lind, M. L. Poly(vinyl) alcohol coating of the support layer of reverse osmosis membranes to enhance performance in forward osmosis. Desalination 333, 1–9 (2014).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 101.

    Nicolini, J. V., Borges, C. P. & Ferraz, H. C. Selective rejection of ions and correlation with surface properties of nanofiltration membranes. Sep. Purif. Technol. 171, 238–247 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 102.

    Qi, S. et al. Polymersomes-based high-performance reverse osmosis membrane for desalination. J. Memb. Sci. 555, 177–184 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 103.

    Richards, L. A., Vuachère, M. & Schäfer, A. I. Impact of pH on the removal of fluoride, nitrate and boron by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis. Desalination 261, 331–337 (2010).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 104.

    Jeong, B. H. et al. Interfacial polymerization of thin film nanocomposites: A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J. Memb. Sci. 294, 1–7 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 105.

    Hong, S. U., Malaisamy, R. & Bruening, M. L. Optimization of flux and selectivity in Cl-/SO42- separations with multilayer polyelectrolyte membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 283, 366–372 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 106.

    Mukherjee, D., Kulkarni, A. & Gill, W. N. Flux enhancement of reverse osmosis membranes by chemical surface modification. J. Memb. Sci. 97, 231–249 (1994).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 107.

    Harrison, C. J., Le Gouellec, Y. A., Cheng, R. C. & Childress, A. E. Bench-scale testing of nanofiltration for seawater desalination. J. Environ. Eng. 133, 1004–1014 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 108.

    Giagnorio, M. et al. Achieving low concentrations of chromium in drinking water by nanofiltration: membrane performance and selection. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25, 25294–25305 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 109.

    Redondo, J. A. & Frank, K. F. Sea water applications with FILMTEC reverse osmosis membranes from small to large plants in 10 years. Desalination 82, 31–49 (1991).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 110.

    Arena, J. T., McCloskey, B., Freeman, B. D. & McCutcheon, J. R. Surface modification of thin film composite membrane support layers with polydopamine: Enabling use of reverse osmosis membranes in pressure retarded osmosis. J. Memb. Sci. 375, 55–62 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 111.

    Al-Zoubi, H., Hilal, N., Darwish, N. A. & Mohammad, A. W. Rejection and modelling of sulphate and potassium salts by nanofiltration membranes: neural network and Spiegler-Kedem model. Desalination 206, 42–60 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 112.

    Widjaya, A., Hoang, T., Stevens, G. W. & Kentish, S. E. A comparison of commercial reverse osmosis membrane characteristics and performance under alginate fouling conditions. Sep. Purif. Technol. 89, 270–281 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 113.

    Malaisamy, R., Talla-Nwafo, A. & Jones, K. L. Polyelectrolyte modification of nanofiltration membrane for selective removal of monovalent anions. Sep. Purif. Technol. 77, 367–374 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 114.

    Wang, K. Y., Chung, T. S. & Qin, J. J. Polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes applied in forward osmosis process. J. Memb. Sci. 300, 6–12 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 115.

    Freger, V., Arnot, T. C. & Howell, J. A. Separation of concentrated organic/inorganic salt mixtures by nanofiltration. J. Memb. Sci. 178, 185–193 (2000).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 116.

    Nilsson, M., Trägårdh, G. & Östergren, K. The influence of sodium chloride on mass transfer in a polyamide nanofiltration membrane at elevated temperatures. J. Memb. Sci. 280, 928–936 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 117.

    Tsuru, T., Izumi, S., Yoshioka, T. & Asaeda, M. Temperature effect on transport performance by inorganic nanofiltration membranes. AIChE J. 46, 565–574 (2000).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 118.

    Tsuru, T., Ogawa, K., Kanezashi, M. & Yoshioka, T. Permeation characteristics of electrolytes and neutral solutes through titania nanofiltration membranes at high temperatures. Langmuir 26, 10897–10905 (2010).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 119.

    Sharma, R. R. & Chellam, S. Temperature and concentration effects on electrolyte transport across porous thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes: Pore transport mechanisms and energetics of permeation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298, 327–340 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 120.

    Snow, M. J. H., de Winter, D., Buckingham, R., Campbell, J. & Wagner, J. New techniques for extreme conditions: high temperature reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Desalination 105, 57–61 (1996).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 121.

    Saltonstall, C. W. Jr Practical aspects of sea water desalination by reverse osmosis. Desalination 18, 315–320 (1976).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 122.

    Li, L., Dong, J. & Nenoff, T. M. Transport of water and alkali metal ions through MFI zeolite membranes during reverse osmosis. Sep. Purif. Technol. 53, 42–48 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 123.

    Mehdizadeh, H., Dickson, J. M. & Eriksson, P. K. Temperature effects on the performance of thin-film composite, aromatic polyamide membranes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28, 814–824 (1989).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 124.

    Connell, P. J. & Dickson, J. M. Modeling reverse osmosis separations with strong solute‐membrane affinity at different temperatures using the finely porous model. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 35, 1129–1148 (1988).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 125.

    Chen, J.-Y., Nomura, H. & Pusch, W. Temperature dependence of membrane transport parameters in hyperfiltration. Desalination 46, 437–446 (1983).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 126.

    Lonsdale, H. K., Merten, U. & Riley, R. L. Transport properties of cellulose acetate osmotic membranes. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 9, 1341–1362 (1965).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 127.

    Reid, C. E. & Kuppers, J. R. Physical characteristics of osmotic membranes of organic polymers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2, 264–272 (1959).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 128.

    Gary-Bobo, C. M. Effect of geometrical and chemical constraints on water flux across artificial membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 57, 610–622 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • 129.

    Gary-Bobo, C. M. Role of hydrogen-bonding in nonelectrolyte diffusion through dense artificial membranes. J. Gen. Physiol. 54, 369–382 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • 130.

    Badessa, T. & Shaposhnik, V. The electrodialysis of electrolyte solutions of multi-charged cations. J. Memb. Sci. 498, 86–93 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 131.

    Freger, V. et al. Diffusion of water and ethanol in ion-exchange membranes: Limits of the geometric approach. J. Memb. Sci. 160, 213–224 (1999).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 132.

    Kumar, M., Grzelakowski, M., Zilles, J., Clark, M. & Meier, W. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 20719–20724 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 133.

    Borgnia, M. J., Kozono, D., Calamita, G., Maloney, P. C. & Agre, P. Functional reconstitution and characterization of AqpZ, the E. coli water channel protein. J. Mol. Biol. 291, 1169–1179 (1999).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 134.

    Corry, B. Designing carbon nanotube membranes for efficient water desalination. J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 1427–1434 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 135.

    Song, C. & Corry, B. Intrinsic ion selectivity of narrow hydrophobic pores. J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 7642–7649 (2009).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 136.

    Williams, C. D. & Carbone, P. Selective removal of technetium from water using graphene oxide membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 3875–3881 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 137.

    Sahu, S. & Zwolak, M. Ionic selectivity and filtration from fragmented dehydration in multilayer graphene nanopores. Nanoscale 9, 11424–11428 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 138.

    Konatham, D., Yu, J., Ho, T. A. & Striolo, A. Simulation insights for graphene-based water desalination membranes. Langmuir 29, 11884–11897 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 139.

    Zwolak, M., Lagerqvist, J. & Di Ventra, M. Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 128102 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  • 140.

    Arrhenius, S. A. Über die Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit bei der Inversion von Rohrzucker durch Säuren. Z. Phys. Chem. 4, 226–248 (1889).

    Google Scholar 

  • 141.

    Eyring, H. The theory of absolute reaction rates. Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 41–48 (1938).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 142.

    Kramers, H. A. Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions. Physica 7, 284–304 (1940).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 143.

    Hanggi, P. 50 years after Kramers. Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251–341 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  • 144.

    Wynne-Jones, W. F. K. & Eyring, H. The absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases. J. Chem. Phys. 3, 492–502 (1935).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 145.

    Garrett, B. C. Variational transition state theory. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 35, 159–189 (1984).

    Google Scholar 

  • Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-020-0713-6

    Nano Technology

    Charcoal a weapon to fight superoxide-induced disease, injury: Nanomaterials soak up radicals, could aid treatment of COVID-19

    Avatar

    Published

    on

    Home > Press > Charcoal a weapon to fight superoxide-induced disease, injury: Nanomaterials soak up radicals, could aid treatment of COVID-19

    Artificial enzymes made of treated charcoal, seen in this atomic force microscope image, could have the power to curtail damaging levels of superoxides, toxic radical oxygen ions that appear at high concentrations after an injury. (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)
    Artificial enzymes made of treated charcoal, seen in this atomic force microscope image, could have the power to curtail damaging levels of superoxides, toxic radical oxygen ions that appear at high concentrations after an injury. (Credit: Tour Group/Rice University)

    Abstract:
    Artificial enzymes made of treated charcoal could have the power to curtail damaging levels of superoxides, radical oxygen ions that are toxic at high concentrations.

    Charcoal a weapon to fight superoxide-induced disease, injury: Nanomaterials soak up radicals, could aid treatment of COVID-19


    Houston, TX | Posted on July 2nd, 2020

    The nanozymes developed by a Texas Medical Center team are highly effective antioxidants that break down damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in abundance in response to an injury or stroke.

    The researchers suggested the materials, described in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Applied Nano Materials, could aid treatment of COVID-19 patients.

    The biocompatible, highly soluble charcoal is a superoxide dismutase, and was synthesized and tested by scientists at Rice University, the University of Texas Health Science Center’s McGovern Medical School and the Texas A&M Health Science Center.

    Superoxide dismutases, or SODs, dismantle ROS into ordinary molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. In the project co-led by Rice chemist James Tour, previous materials were successfully tested for their ability to activate the process, including graphene quantum dots drawn from coal and polyethylene glycol-hydrophilic carbon clusters made from carbon nanotubes.

    They have now found oxidized charcoal nanoparticles are not only effective antioxidants but can also be made from an activated carbon source that is inexpensive, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-certified and already being used in humans to treat acute poisoning.

    “That these nanozymes are made from a GMP source opens the door for drug manufacturers,” said Tour, who led the project with A&M neurologist Thomas Kent and UTHealth biochemist Ah-Lim Tsai. “While coal was effective, an issue is that it can have a variety of toxic metallic elements and impurities that are not consistent across samples. And the clusters made from carbon nanotubes are very expensive.”

    The disclike nanozymes are prepared from powdered, medical-grade charcoal oxidized by treatment with highly concentrated nitric acid. The nanozymes teem with oxygen-containing functional groups that bust up superoxides in solution.

    Tour noted the nanozymes are able to pass through the membranes of cells’ mitochondria to quench a major source of free radicals without killing the cells themselves. “We published a paper on this recently,” he said. “This seems to be really important to why these work so well in traumatic brain injury and stroke.”

    The researchers noted it may be worthwhile to study the application of their nanozymes to treat the cytokine storms — an excessive immune system response to infection — suspected of contributing to tissue and organ damage in COVID-19 patients.

    “While speculative that these particles will be helpful in COVID-19, if administration is timed correctly, they could reduce the damaging radicals that accompany the cytokine storm and could be further chemically modified to reduce other injury-causing features of this disease,” Kent said.

    Gang Wu, an assistant professor of hematology at McGovern, and Rice graduate student Emily McHugh are co-lead authors of the study. Co-authors are Vladimir Berka, a senior research scientist at McGovern; Rice graduate students Weiyin Chen, Zhe Wang and Jacob Beckham; Rice undergraduate Trenton Roy; and Paul Derry, an assistant professor at Texas A&M’s Institute of Biosciences and Technology.

    Tour is the T.T. and W.F. Chao Chair in Chemistry as well as a professor of computer science and of materials science and nanoengineering at Rice. Kent is the Robert A. Welch Chair Professor in the Institute of Biosciences and Technology at Texas A&M-Houston Campus and an adjunct chemistry professor at Rice and at Houston Methodist Hospital. Tsai is a professor of hematology at UTHealth.

    The National Institutes of Health and the Welch Foundation supported the research.

    ####

    About Rice University
    Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation’s top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,962 undergraduates and 3,027 graduate students, Rice’s undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is just under 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for lots of race/class interaction and No. 4 for quality of life by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger’s Personal Finance.

    Follow Rice News and Media Relations via Twitter @RiceUNews.

    For more information, please click here

    Contacts:
    Jeff Falk
    713-348-6775

    Mike Williams
    713-348-6728

    Copyright © Rice University

    If you have a comment, please Contact us.

    Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

    Bookmark:
    Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

    Related Links

    Read the abstract at:

    Coal could yield treatment for traumatic injuries:

    Nano-antioxidants prove their potential:

    Tour Group at Rice:

    Thomas Kent:

    Ah-Lim Tsai:

    Gang Wu:

    Related News Press

    News and information

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

    Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    Graphene/ Graphite

    Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

    Transparent graphene electrodes might lead to new generation of solar cells: New roll-to-roll production method could enable lightweight, flexible solar devices and a new generation of display screens June 8th, 2020

    Graphene nanotubes help to prevent losses at grain elevators June 2nd, 2020

    Oriented hexagonal boron nitride foster new type of information carrier May 22nd, 2020

    Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    A Tremendous Recognition’ Engineer Jonathan Klamkin earns prestigious award from DARPA June 23rd, 2020

    Fluorocarbon bonds are no match for light-powered nanocatalyst: Rice U. lab unveils catalyst that can break problematic C-F bonds June 22nd, 2020

    Possible Futures

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

    Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    Nanomedicine

    Cellulose for manufacturing advanced materials: A review of the scientific literature made at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) highlights the potential of hybrid materials based on cellulose nanocrystals June 26th, 2020

    Wearable patch may provide new treatment option for skin cancer June 18th, 2020

    Tiny pump builds polyrotaxanes with precision: Artificial molecular pump gives precise control for materials design June 12th, 2020

    UTEP researchers help bring biofriendly materials to drug design for neuro disorders June 5th, 2020

    Discoveries

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

    Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    Announcements

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

    Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

    Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

    Process for ‘two-faced’ nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

    Grants/Sponsored Research/Awards/Scholarships/Gifts/Contests/Honors/Records

    The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

    A Tremendous Recognition’ Engineer Jonathan Klamkin earns prestigious award from DARPA June 23rd, 2020

    Fluorocarbon bonds are no match for light-powered nanocatalyst: Rice U. lab unveils catalyst that can break problematic C-F bonds June 22nd, 2020

    Excitons form superfluid in certain 2D combos: Rice University researchers find ‘paradox’ in ground-state bilayers June 15th, 2020

    Quantum Dots/Rods

    UTEP researchers help bring biofriendly materials to drug design for neuro disorders June 5th, 2020

    Oxford Instruments Asylum Research Releases a New Application Note Introducing Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) June 3rd, 2020

    FSU researchers discover new structure for promising class of materials April 24th, 2020

    Development of new photovoltaic commercialization technology: The cause for efficiency degradation in an actual operating environment has been identified, with proposal of material processing method for improving performance stability April 10th, 2020

    Nanobiotechnology

    Cellulose for manufacturing advanced materials: A review of the scientific literature made at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) highlights the potential of hybrid materials based on cellulose nanocrystals June 26th, 2020

    Wearable patch may provide new treatment option for skin cancer June 18th, 2020

    Prodigiosin-based solution has selective activity against cancer cells: A new nanoformulation was described by Kazan University’s Bionanotechnology Lab in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology June 12th, 2020

    Tiny pump builds polyrotaxanes with precision: Artificial molecular pump gives precise control for materials design June 12th, 2020

    Source: http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=56231

    Continue Reading

    Nano Technology

    Microscopic structures could further improve perovskite solar cells

    Avatar

    Published

    on


    Jul 03, 2020 (Nanowerk News) Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells (Energy & Environmental Science, “Anisotropic carrier diffusion in single MAPbI3 grains correlates to their twin domains”). An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these electron highways could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful. Along microscopic structures in perovskite solar cells electrons can move faster Along microscopic structures in perovskite solar cells electrons can move faster. (Image: MPI for Polymer Research) When solar cells convert sunlight into electricity, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light. Traditionally, this light-absorbing material is silicon, but perovskites could prove to be a cheaper alternative. The electrons excited by the sunlight are collected by special contacts on the top and bottom of the cell. However, if the electrons remain in the material for too long, they can lose their energy again. To minimize losses, they should therefore reach the contacts as quickly as possible. Microscopically small structures in the perovskites – so-called ferroelastic twin domains – could be helpful in this respect: They can influence how fast the electrons move. An international research group led by Stefan Weber at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz discovered this phenomenon. The stripe-shaped structures that the scientists investigated form spontaneously during the fabrication of the perovskite by mechanical stress in the material. By combining two microscopy methods, the researchers were able to show that electrons move much faster parallel to the stripes than perpendicular to them. “The domains act as tiny highways for electrons,” compares Stefan Weber.

    Possible applications in light-emitting diodes and radiation detectors

    For their experiments, the researchers first had to visualize the stripe-shaped domains. They succeeded in doing this with a piezo force microscope (PFM). Five years ago, Weber and his colleagues discovered the domains for the first time in a perovskite crystal using this method. “Back then, we already wondered whether the structures had an influence on the operation of a perovskite solar cell,” Weber explains. “Our latest results now show that this is the case.” The breakthrough came when the researchers compared their PFM images with data obtained from another method called photoluminescence microscopy. “Our photoluminescence detector works like a speed trap,” explains Ilka Hermes, researcher in Weber’s group and first author of the study. “We use it to measure the speed of electrons in different directions at the microscopic level.” Hermes discovered that along the stripes the electrons moved about 50 to 60 percent faster than perpendicular to them. “If we were able to make the stripes point directly to the electrodes, a perovskite solar cell could become much more efficient”, concludes Hermes. With the new results, not only solar cells could be improved. Other optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes or radiation detectors could also benefit from directed charge transport. “In general, it is an advantage if we can direct the electrons in the right direction,” explains Stefan Weber. The researchers’ idea: to put perovskite crystals under mechanical stress during their production. This so-called strain engineering would enable an optimized orientation of the electron highways.

    Source: https://feeds.nanowerk.com/~/629438054/0/nanowerk/agwb~Microscopic-structures-could-further-improve-perovskite-solar-cells.php

    Continue Reading

    Nano Technology

    How to get rid of the coffee-stain effect

    Avatar

    Published

    on


    Jul 03, 2020 (Nanowerk News) Previously, researchers of the University of Twente discovered that the well-known coffee-stain effect is caused by a remarkable mechanism, showing avalanche-like behavior of particles in a fluid. In their latest paper, they now show how to prevent the ring-shaped coffee-stain and get a uniform distribution of the particles instead. The ‘coffee-stain’ effect is a well-known effect in physics and daily life: a dark-coloured edge remains when a fluid, containing particles, evaporates. This is caused by an ‘avalanche’ of particles moving to the outer edge, UT scientists showed in an earlier publication. In inkjet and 3D printing, this is an undesired effect. The effect can be suppressed by modifying the surface using an oily layer, researchers now show in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (“Evaporating droplets on oil-wetted surfaces: suppression of the coffee-stain effect”). coffee stain effect In the coffee stain effect, the particles are concentrated in one or more rings. (Image: University of Twente) Earlier work of the UT research group shows that if a particle-laden droplet evaporates, the particles start moving to the edge of the droplet. At first, this is a slow and regular movement, but as soon as the droplet loses height by evaporation, the particles rush to the edge disorderly, like in an avalanche. After full evaporation of the liquid, a dark ring remains. In fact, the diameter of the droplet already dictates this processs very early. How can we prevent this, is the question, because in many cases a homogeneous distribution is required and not a ring-shaped dark area. An oil-wetted surface is the answer, the new results show.

    From homogeneous distribution to ‘coffee-eye’

    In this case as well, the droplet has an edge, but this is limited by a layer of oil that does not evaporate. It also prevents the water at the droplet’s edge from evaporating fast. This, in turn, prevents particles from all moving to the edge. They even move the other way: from the edge inside the droplet. Once all water is evaporated, the particles are all over the surface and not just in a ring. The researcher also saw another effect, when the oily layer entirely covers the droptlet. In that case, a concentration of particles is formed, a so-callend nano-eye or ‘coffee eye’. This could even be a desired effect as well, in some applications, like in nanoparticle assembly. Through adding some surfactant to the droplet, the final particle deposition can be manipulated, from the concentrated ‘coffee-eye’ to a homogeneous distribution. The Physics of Fluids group has a long-term research relationship with printer manufacturer Océ, now calledCanon Production Printing. This company already adds a special layer to the substrate (like paper) before the droplets of the printer drop on it: the new research results are very valuable for improving the processes. For other application areas, the new insights and improved control are valuable too, like 3D printing and surface patterning. Better insights in the way liquids evaporate on a surface, may also provide more knowledge about the way viruses like corona are transferred from one person to another. The research was done in the Physics of Fluids group and the Max Planck Center for Complex Fluid Dynamics. A week before publication, the main author of the paper, Yaxing Li (Anhui 1991) successfully defended his PhD thesis ‘Evaporating multicomponent droplets.’

    Source: https://feeds.nanowerk.com/~/629437586/0/nanowerk/agwb~How-to-get-rid-of-the-coffeestain-effect.php

    Continue Reading
    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain23 seconds ago

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain24 seconds ago

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain26 seconds ago

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain27 seconds ago

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain43 seconds ago

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Cannabis19 mins ago

    Longitudinal studies on cannabis

    Cannabis41 mins ago

    Illinois and Indiana Compared

    Cannabis46 mins ago

    Cannabis Grow, Sensor Push set up, Low Stress Training, and Transplant

    Cannabis49 mins ago

    Alien RDWC PRO GROW 2 1kg plants hydroponic system cannabis

    Cannabis50 mins ago

    Rose gardening: 6 simple tips to grow roses at home | Life hacks

    Cannabis52 mins ago

    Cobbler CBD Flower Fern Valley Farms

    Cannabis56 mins ago

    Grow Cannabis – Airflow – by Jorge Cervantes

    Cannabis57 mins ago

    WEED – Charlotte’s Web Story Medicated Marijuana and Epilepsy

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    Hemp Industry Assoc names executive director, partners with industrial hemp group

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    FinCEN Guidance: How To Hemp

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    Docufraud Canada Advises Provincial Court of British Columbia Announcement “Be Prepared To Proceed”

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    Australia: NT Farmers Association Promoting Hemp Cultivation

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    Paper: Medical cannabis in the UK: From principle to practice

    Business Insider1 hour ago

    Donald Trump Jr.’s girlfriend Kimberly Guilfoyle tests positive for COVID-19

    Cannabis1 hour ago

    South African Cannabis Activist Murdered In Robbery

    Blockchain2 hours ago

    Japan witnessed significant growth in the blockchain industry in 2020.

    Cannabis2 hours ago

    São Paulo Court Grants Couple Right to Grow Cannabis for Children Care

    Cannabis2 hours ago

    Sweden: Survey Says 65% Of Swedes Support Medical Cannabis

    Blockchain2 hours ago

    Abra CEO: Cardano’s “Shelley” upgrade is good as it spurs competition in crypto

    Blockchain2 hours ago

    $4 Billion OneCoin Crypto Ponzi Scheme Promoter in Singapore To Pay $72,000 Fine

    Blockchain2 hours ago

    The Five Most Malicious Ransomwares Demanding Crypto to Watch Out For

    Cannabis2 hours ago

    Pictured – Inside the Midlands’ biggest cannabis farms

    Blockchain2 hours ago

    Cardano Founder Roasts EOSIO over Voice Launch as ADA Tops at 19-Month High

    BBC2 hours ago

    Mount Rushmore: Trump denounces ‘cancel culture’ at 4 July event

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Cannabis3 hours ago

    Virginia lawmaker looks to legalize marijuana in special session

    Cyber Security4 hours ago

    Worldwide Endpoint Security Software Market Shares Report Reveals CrowdStrike is Shaping the Endpoint Market

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain4 hours ago

    Last Time Bitcoin Volatility Was This Low, BTC Surged by 25% in 24 Hours

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Blockchain4 hours ago

    Whale: Before the Next Bitcoin Bull Run, Expect an Altcoin “Extinction Event”

    CNBC4 hours ago

    Kimberly Guilfoyle, Trump campaign official and girlfriend of president’s son, tests positive for coronavirus

    Cyber Security4 hours ago

    LinkedIn iOS App Caught Reading Clipboard With Every Keystroke, Says it is a Bug

    Blockchain4 hours ago

    AT&T Faces Lawsuit Over Alleged SIM Swapping Leading to Massive Cryptocurrency Theft 

    Blockchain4 hours ago

    Bitcoin [BTC] Price Prediction Model Sees Next All-Time High in 474 Days

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Cannabis4 hours ago

    Moncton-based Organigram lays off 220 workers, will cultivate less cannabis than expected

    venezuela-raises-petrol-prices-mandates-support-for-petro-at-gas-stations-3.jpg
    Cannabis4 hours ago

    Moncton-based Organigram lays off 220 workers, will cultivate less cannabis than expected

    Cyber Security5 hours ago

    Spyse – A Cybersecurity Search Engine For Pentesters

    Trending