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The Racial Wealth Gap in America: Asset Types Held by Race

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Footprint of Highways in American Cities

Driving on the open road is a defining feature of the American experience, made possible by coast-to-coast highways. It defined a generation of life and ingrained the automobile into the urban fabric of American cities, for better and worse.

Today’s animations show how highways reshaped the downtown cores of six American cities and created new patterns of urban life. But first, some background information on the creation of the interstate system.

The Interstate Highway System

The U.S. Interstate System was created on June 29, 1956, when Dwight Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act. It would eventually run 46,876 miles, cost $521 billion and take 36 years to complete.

Map of the US Interstate System

From San Diego to Bangor, the interstate highway system connected Americans and opened up the country to commerce and geographic mobility like never before, but for all its benefits, this new transportation network ripped through established patterns of urban and town life, creating a new era of urban development.

The Legacy of Highways: The Suburbs and Inner Cities

The vast geography of continental America helped to entrench personal mobility and freedom into American society. Highways and automobiles accelerated this lifestyle and even changed the shape of entire cities.

According to Prof. Nathaniel Baum-Snow of the University of Toronto, between 1950 and 1990, the population of central cities in the U.S. declined by 17% despite a population growth of 72% in larger metropolitan areas during the same period. Baum-Snow posits that, had the interstate highway system not been built, central cities’ populations would have increased 8%.

Firms followed the workers to the suburbs, but the highways system also created additional benefits for these firms. Cross-country road access freed manufacturing from ports and downtown rail hubs, while allowing economies to operate across larger distances, altering the dynamics of typical urban economies.

Faced with this new reality, inner cities struggled in years to come.

Inner Cities

The introduction of highways created an increase in the supply of land for development through faster commutes to outlying areas. In 1950, half of all jobs were located in central cities. By 1990, less than one-third of urban jobs were located in the core of American cities.

“Not TV or illegal drugs but the automobile has been the chief destroyer of American communities.” Jane Jacobs, Author The Death and Life of Great American Cities

Benefits of new development accrued to the outer areas while the construction of the highways in inner cities displaced largely low-income communities, segregated neighborhoods, increased the amount of air and noise pollution, devalued surrounding properties, and removed access to jobs for those without a car, further concentrating poverty.

Before and After: Six American Cities

A bird’s eye view of six American cities reveals what was and what is now. By overlaying existing highways over the neighborhoods they replaced, it becomes clear how much interstate construction drastically altered America’s urban landscape.

Oakland
Public opposition to the construction of I-980 was so strong that developers abandoned the project in 1971, only to complete it over a decade later.

Miami Highway
The I-95 carved through Miami’s largely black Overtown neighborhood. The construction of a single highway cloverleaf resulted in 20 square blocks being demolished, displacing over 10,000 people in that community.

Providence Highway
The I-95 comprised unconnected segments between 1957 and 1965 through the densest urban areas in a deliberate effort to prevent premature suburbanization and to revitalize the downtown core.

Cincinnati Highway
The I-71 cuts downtown Cincinnati off from its waterfront and a massive freeway interchange forced the destruction of dozens of blocks west of downtown.

Detroit highway construction
Freeway construction transformed Detroit between 1951 and 2010. Previously, its downtown had been surrounded by a high-density street grid. Today, it’s totally encircled by freeways.

Rochester Highway
Rochester is one of many cities opting to undertake freeway removal projects.

As the dotted line above shows, the “moat” surrounding downtown is slowly being removed. The city used reclaimed land from the Inner Loop freeway to construct three mixed-use developments that include below-market-rate units.

The Future of Urban Living: Do Highways Matter?

A new era of living is reconsidering the impacts of these highways on urban centers. As property values rise and existing housing stock is pressured, there are growing concerns over the environmental impacts of suburban life. As a result, urban planners and residents are looking to revitalize city cores and re-purpose land occupied by burdensome slabs of highway concrete.

Since 1987, there have been more than 20 urban highway segments removed from downtown cores, neighborhoods and waterfronts, mostly in North America. The pace of removals has picked up significantly and an additional 10 highways are now planned for removal in the United States.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, American cities have seen their traffic plummet. Rush-hour trips into cities are taking nearly half the time while some are not even commuting at all.

While this situation is likely temporary, it is offering a moment for reflection of how cities operate and whether the car should be at the center of urban planning.

*Hat tip to Shane Hampton, whose 60 Years of Urban Change compilation served as inspiration for this article. Visit that page for many more examples of highway impact on cities.

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/racial-wealth-gap/

Visual Capitalist

Visualizing All of Earth’s Satellites: Who Owns Our Orbit?

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SpaceX 358 USA Planet Labs, Inc. 246 USA Spire Global Inc. 89 USA Iridium Communications, Inc. 78 USA OneWeb Satellites 74 United Kingdom SES S.A. 51 Luxembourg Intelsat S.A. 36 USA ORBCOMM Inc. 35 USA DoD/US Air Force 33 USA EUTELSAT Americas 33 Multinational Ministry of Defense 33 Egypt Globalstar 32 USA European Space Agency (ESA) 26 ESA O3b Networks Ltd. 20 United Kingdom Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. 15 China Gonets Satcom 15 Russia Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation 15 Japan Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.) 14 Canada Echostar Corporation (entire payload leased from Telesat Canada Ltd.) 13 Canada INMARSAT, Ltd. 13 United Kingdom Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co. 13 China Aerospace Corporation 12 USA DirecTV Latin America/Intelsat 12 Brazil PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) 11 USA Aprize Satellite 10 Canada International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) 10 Russia Swarm Technologies 9 USA Satellogic S.A. 8 Argentina Spacety Aerospace Co. 8 China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. 7 China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) 7 China GeoOptics Inc. 7 USA Riyadh Space Research Institute 7 Saudi Arabia Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. 6 Multinational Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. 6 China Embratel Star One 6 Brazil Guodian Gaoke 6 China Sirius XM Holdings 6 USA Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. 6 United Kingdom Beijing Space View Technology 5 China BlackSky Global 5 USA Gazprom Space Systems 5 Russia Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd. 5 China Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom) 5 Australia RapidEye AG 5 Germany APT Satellite Holdings Ltd. 4 China Broadcasting Satellite System Corp. 4 Japan exactEarth 4 Canada Fleet Space Technologies 4 Australia Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat – Spain) 4 Spain Hispasat 4 Spain ICEYE Ltd. 4 Finland Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) 4 South Korea KT Corporation 4 South Korea Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT) 3 United Arab Emirates Astro Digital 3 USA Avanti Communications, PLC 3 United Kingdom Dauria Aerospace 3 Russia German Orbital Systems 3 Germany HawkEye 360 3 USA HEAD Aerospace 3 China Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd. 3 Greece Maxar Technologies Inc. 3 USA MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd. 3 Malaysia Nagoya University and Daido University 3 Japan PT Telkomunikasi 3 Indonesia Russian Federal Space Agency 3 Russia Samara State Aerospace University, SGAU 3 Russia Sky and Space Global, UK 3 United Kingdom Space-Communication Ltd. 3 Israel Telenor Satellite Broadcasting 3 Norway Thaicom Public Company Ltd. 3 Thailand Turksat 3 Turkey Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc. 3 USA AISTech 2 Spain Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO) 2 Multinational ArSat 2 Argentina Astrocast 2 Switzerland Bigelow Aerospace 2 USA China Electronic Technology Group 2 China Elbit Systems 2 Israel German Aerospace Center (DLR) 2 Germany Ghalam LLP 2 Kazakhstan Hiber Global 2 Netherlands Hughes Space and Communications Co. 2 USA Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firm 2 China/Germany JSC KazSat 2 Kazakhstan Kepler Communications 2 Canada Mobile Satellite Ventures 2 USA/Canada NanoAvionics 2 Lithuania NBN Co (operated by Optus) 2 Australia SpaceQuest 2 USA Spot Image 2 France/Belgium/Sweden SRI International 2 USA Thuraya Satellite Communications 2 United Arab Emirates Tiger Innovations 2 USA University of California 2 USA ViaSat, Inc. 2 USA Weathernews, Inc. 2 Japan XM Satellite Radio USA 2 USA 1Worldspace 1 USA ACME AtronOmatic (MyRadar) 1 Germany Aerospace Corporation 1 USA AgilSpace 1 Singapore Airbus 1 ESA Alibaba 1 China Astranis 1 USA Astro Live Experiences 1 Japan ATL (Advanced Technology of Laser) 1 Hungary Axelspace 1 Japan Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) 1 Indonesia Beijing Future Navigation Technology Co. Ltd. 1 China Beijing Landview Mapping Information Technology Co. Ltd (BLMIT) 1 China Beijing ZeroG Technology Co. Ltd. 1 China Bulsatcom 1 Bulgaria Canon Electronics 1 Japan Capella Space 1 USA Changchun Institute of Optics 1 China Chengdu Guoxing Aerospace Technology Co. Ltd. 1 China China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) 1 China Ciel Satellite Group 1 Canada DigitalGlobe Corporation 1 USA Earthi/Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. 1 United Kingdom Es’hailSat 1 Qatar Exseed Space 1 India Fossa Systems 1 Spain GalaxySpace 1 China GasTianta and GZH-HNJ BDS AGR Co., Ltd. 1 China General Atomics – Electromagnetic Systems Group 1 USA GHGSat, Inc. 1 Canada Global Eagle Entertainment 1 USA GomSpace ApS 1 Denmark Harris Corporation 1 USA Helios Wire 1 USA Hera Systems 1 USA Hisdesat 1 Spain Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation) 1 USA/Japan Horizons 2 Satellite, LLC (Intelsat, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation) 1 USA/Japan ImageSat International, NV/Ministry of Defense 1 Israel Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) 1 India iQPS 1 Japan iSky Technology 1 Czech Republic Italian Defense Ministry/Telespazio 1 Italy LightSquared 1 USA Link Space Aerospace Technology 1 China MDA Corporation 1 Canada Microspace Rapid Pvt Ltd. 1 Singapore Momentus 1 USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/SES Americom (SES [Société Européenne des Satellites (SES)]) 1 USA National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (JPN) 1 Japan NigComSat 1 Nigeria Northwest Nazarene University 1 USA NSLComm 1 Israel OHB Italia 1 Italy Orbital Micro Systems Ltd. 1 USA Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)/PakSat International 1 Pakistan Planetary Resources 1 USA PT Indosat 1 Indonesia PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara 1 Indonesia Qiansheng Exploration Technology Co. Ltd. 1 China Reaktor Space Lab 1 Finland Regional African Satellite Communications Organization (RASCOM) 1 Multinational SatRevolution 1 Poland Shanghai Lizheng Satellite Application Technology 1 China Singapore Telecommunications Ltd. (SingTel)/Chunghwa Telecom Co. Ltd. 1 Singapore/Taiwan Sky Mexico 1 Mexico SkyFox Labs 1 Czech Republic Space Logistics LLC 1 USA Space OK (Shanghai Ok Space Co Ltd.) 1 China SpacePharma 1 Switzerland Sputnix Ltd. 1 Russia Stara Space 1 USA Surrey Space Center 1 United Kingdom Telebras/Brazilian Air Force 1 Brazil TerraStar Corporation 1 USA Turkmenistan Ministry of Communications/SSI-Monaco 1 Turkmenistan/Monaco UK Government/Surrey Satellite Technologies 1 United Kingdom University of Vigo/Alén Space 1 Spain UnseenLabs 1 France Utah State University 1 USA WildBlue Communications 1 USA Xinwei Telecom Technology Company 1 China Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA Aerospace Corporation USA AISTech Spain Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT) United Arab Emirates Al Yah Satellite Communications Co. (YAHSAT) United Arab Emirates Aprize Satellite Canada Aprize Satellite USA/Argentina Aprize Satellite USA/Argentina Aprize Satellite USA/Argentina Aprize Satellite USA/Argentina Aprize Satellite Argentina Argentina Aprize Satellite Argentina Argentina Aprize Satellite Argentina Argentina Aprize Satellite Argentina Argentina APT Satellite Holdings Ltd. China APT Satellite Holdings Ltd. China APT Satellite Holdings Ltd. China Arab Satellite Communications Org. (ASCO) Multinational ArSat Argentina Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. Multinational Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. Multinational Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. Multinational Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. Multinational Asia Broadcast Satellite Ltd. Multinational Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. China Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. China Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. China Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. China Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. China Astro Digital USA Astro Digital USA Astrocast Switzerland Avanti Communications, PLC United Kingdom Avanti Communications, PLC United Kingdom Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Commsat Technology Development Co. Ltd. China Beijing Space View Technology China Beijing Space View Technology China Beijing Space View Technology China Bigelow Aerospace USA BlackSky Global USA BlackSky Global USA BlackSky Global USA BlackSky Global USA Broadcasting Satellite System Corp. Japan Broadcasting Satellite System Corp. Japan Broadcasting Satellite System Corp./Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd. China China Electronic Technology Group China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China China Satellite Communication Corp. (China Satcom) China Dauria Aerospace Russia/USA Dauria Aerospace Russia/USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DirecTV, Inc. USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA DoD/US Air Force USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC USA Echostar Satellite Services, LLC/Intelsat USA Elbit Systems Israel Embratel Star One Brazil Embratel Star One Brazil Embratel Star One Brazil Embratel Star One Brazil Embratel Star One Brazil European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA European Space Agency (ESA) ESA EUTELSAT Americas Multinational EUTELSAT Americas Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. Multinational EUTELSAT S.A. — leased from Loral Skynet Satellite Services (Loral Global Alliance) Multinational EUTELSAT S.A./Es’hailSat Multinational EUTELSAT S.A./Nilesat Multinational EUTELSAT S.A./Nilesat Multinational exactEarth Canada exactEarth Canada exactEarth Canada Fleet Space Technologies Australia Fleet Space Technologies Australia Fleet Space Technologies Australia Gazprom Space Systems Russia Gazprom Space Systems Russia Gazprom Space Systems Russia Gazprom Space Systems Russia GeoOptics Inc. USA GeoOptics Inc. USA GeoOptics Inc. USA GeoOptics Inc. USA GeoOptics Inc. USA GeoOptics Inc. USA German Aerospace Center (DLR)/Infoterra Germany German Orbital Systems Germany German Orbital Systems Germany Ghalam LLP Kazakhstan Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Globalstar USA Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Gonets Satcom Russia Guodian Gaoke China Guodian Gaoke China Guodian Gaoke China Guodian Gaoke China Guodian Gaoke China HawkEye 360 USA HawkEye 360 USA HEAD Aerospace China HEAD Aerospace China Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd. Greece Hellas-Sat Consortium Ltd./INMARSAT Greece/United Kingdom Hiber Global Netherlands Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat – Spain) Spain Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat – Spain) Spain Hispamar (subsidiary of Hispasat – Spain) Spain Hispasat Spain Hispasat Spain Hispasat Spain HughesNet leased from Echostar Technologies, LLC USA ICEYE Ltd. Finland ICEYE Ltd. Finland ICEYE Ltd. Finland INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd. United Kingdom INMARSAT, Ltd./European Space Agency (ESA) United Kingdom/ESA Innovation Academy for Microsatellites, Chinese Academy of Sciences/unnamed German firm China/Germany Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A. USA Intelsat S.A./Sky Perfect JSAT Corp. USA International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia International Organization of Space Communications (Intersputnik) Russia Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA Iridium Communications, Inc. USA JSC KazSat Kazakhstan Kepler Communications United Kingdom Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) South Korea KT Corporation South Korea KT Corporation South Korea KT Corporation/Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD) South Korea Maxar Technologies Inc. USA Maxar Technologies Inc. USA MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Ministry of Defense Russia Mobile Satellite Ventures USA/Canada Nagoya University and Daido University Japan Nagoya University and Daido University Japan NanoAvionics Lithuania NBN Co (operated by Optus) Australia Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd. China Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd. China Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd. China Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Co. Ltd. China O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom O3b Networks Ltd. United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom OneWeb Satellites United Kingdom Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom) Australia Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom) Australia Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom) Australia Optus Communications (Parent: Singapore Telecom)/Australian Ministry of Defense Australia ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA ORBCOMM Inc. USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.) USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/DirecTV, Inc. USA PanAmSat (Intelsat S.A.)/Sky Perfect JSAT Corp. USA/Japan Planet Labs, Inc. USA Planet Labs, Inc. USA Planet Labs, Inc. USA Planet Labs, Inc. 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Argentina Satellogic S.A. Argentina Satellogic S.A. Argentina Satellogic S.A. Argentina Satellogic S.A. Argentina SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Luxembourg SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Netherlands SES S.A. Sweden SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. USA SES S.A. — total capacity leased to subsidiary of EchoStar Corp. USA SES S.A./EchoStar Satellite Services, LLC Luxembourg SES S.A./Gogo USA Sirius XM Holdings USA Sirius XM Holdings USA Sirius XM Holdings USA Sirius XM Holdings USA Sirius XM Holdings USA Sky and Space Global, UK United Kingdom Sky and Space Global, UK United Kingdom Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/DSN Corp. Japan Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation/Kacific Japan/Singapore Space-Communication Ltd. Israel Space-Communication Ltd. Israel SpaceQuest, Ltd. USA Spacety Aerospace Co. China Spacety Aerospace Co. China Spacety Aerospace Co. China Spacety Aerospace Co. China Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research Institute China Spacety Aerospace Co./Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research Institute China Spacety Aerospace Co./ThrustMe China/France SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA SpaceX USA Spire Global Inc. 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Canada Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.) Canada Telesat Canada Ltd. (BCE, Inc.)/APT Satellite Holdings Ltd. Canada Thaicom Public Company Ltd. Thailand Thaicom Public Company Ltd. Thailand Thuraya Satellite Communications United Arab Emirates Tiger Innovations USA Turksat Turkey Turksat Turkey Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc. USA Tyvak Nanosatellite Systems, Inc. USA University of California USA ViaSat, Inc. USA Weathernews, Inc. Japan XM Satellite Radio USA USA Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co. China Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co. China Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co. China Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Co. Ltd. China

Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/visualizing-all-of-earths-satellites/

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Visual Capitalist

Beijing Bounces Back: China Posts Positive Q3 Growth Numbers

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The Briefing

  • The Chinese economy grew by 4.9% year-on-year in the third quarter of 2020.
  • Growth for the first three quarters of 2020 is now up 0.7% from a year ago.

China Posts Positive Q3 Growth Numbers

China became the first major economy to return to its pre-virus growth trajectory, posting positive growth numbers in Q2 2020. Now, China’s National Bureau of Statistics has reported third-quarter GDP growth that is up 4.9% from a year ago.

The Road to Recovery

Like the rest of the world, China’s economy took a hit when pandemic-induced lockdowns shut down businesses and factories across the country.

However, the world’s second largest economy was one of the first to put COVID-19 restrictions in place, which could explain why it was the first major country to report growth as stores and factories began to reopen post-lockdown.

Here’s a look at China’s GDP growth in recent times:

Quarter China GDP Annual Growth Rate
Q3 2017 6.9%
Q4 2017 6.8%
Q1 2018 6.9%
Q2 2018 6.9%
Q3 2018 6.7%
Q4 2018 6.5%
Q1 2019 6.4%
Q2 2019 6.2%
Q3 2019 6.0%
Q4 2019 6.0%
Q1 2020 -6.8%
Q2 2020 3.2%
Q3 2020 4.9%

Are These Numbers Good?

Many countries around the world see China as a barometer of what post COVID-19 recovery could potentially look like, so new quarterly numbers have taken on some significance.

Not only did China show a speedy recovery—its initial bounce-back was also higher than predicted. While experts had projected a 2.4% increase between April and June, China’s National Bureau of Statistics reported a 3.2% rise.

Though the 4.9% increase reported in Q3 is good news for China, it still falls short of predictions from Chinese economists of 5.2% growth in the third quarter.

Is it an upward trajectory from here, or will China’s economy experience another dip? The experts have varying opinions, but the majority are relatively optimistic.

If China’s COVID-19 cases remain under control, it’s possible that growth is on the horizon.

Where does this data come from?

Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China
Details: This data was released on October 18th, 2020.

Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/beijing-bounces-back-china-posts-positive-q3-growth-numbers/

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Visual Capitalist

The Top Struggles of Remote Workers

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Published

on

The Briefing

  • The Chinese economy grew by 4.9% year-on-year in the third quarter of 2020.
  • Growth for the first three quarters of 2020 is now up 0.7% from a year ago.

China Posts Positive Q3 Growth Numbers

China became the first major economy to return to its pre-virus growth trajectory, posting positive growth numbers in Q2 2020. Now, China’s National Bureau of Statistics has reported third-quarter GDP growth that is up 4.9% from a year ago.

The Road to Recovery

Like the rest of the world, China’s economy took a hit when pandemic-induced lockdowns shut down businesses and factories across the country.

However, the world’s second largest economy was one of the first to put COVID-19 restrictions in place, which could explain why it was the first major country to report growth as stores and factories began to reopen post-lockdown.

Here’s a look at China’s GDP growth in recent times:

Quarter China GDP Annual Growth Rate
Q3 2017 6.9%
Q4 2017 6.8%
Q1 2018 6.9%
Q2 2018 6.9%
Q3 2018 6.7%
Q4 2018 6.5%
Q1 2019 6.4%
Q2 2019 6.2%
Q3 2019 6.0%
Q4 2019 6.0%
Q1 2020 -6.8%
Q2 2020 3.2%
Q3 2020 4.9%

Are These Numbers Good?

Many countries around the world see China as a barometer of what post COVID-19 recovery could potentially look like, so new quarterly numbers have taken on some significance.

Not only did China show a speedy recovery—its initial bounce-back was also higher than predicted. While experts had projected a 2.4% increase between April and June, China’s National Bureau of Statistics reported a 3.2% rise.

Though the 4.9% increase reported in Q3 is good news for China, it still falls short of predictions from Chinese economists of 5.2% growth in the third quarter.

Is it an upward trajectory from here, or will China’s economy experience another dip? The experts have varying opinions, but the majority are relatively optimistic.

If China’s COVID-19 cases remain under control, it’s possible that growth is on the horizon.

Where does this data come from?

Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China
Details: This data was released on October 18th, 2020.

Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/top-struggles-of-remote-workers/

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