Connect with us

Big Data

The Prefect Way to Automate & Orchestrate Data Pipelines



The Prefect Way to Automate & Orchestrate Data Pipelines

I am migrating all my ETL work from Airflow to this super-cool framework.

By Murallie Thuwarakesh, Data Scientist at Stax, Inc.

Illustration from Undraw


I was a big fan of Apache Airflow. Even today, I don’t have many complaints about it. But the new technology Prefect amazed me in many ways, and I can’t help but migrating everything to it.

Prefect (and Airflow) is a workflow automation tool. You can orchestrate individual tasks to do more complex work. You could manage task dependencies, retry tasks when they fail, schedule them, etc.

I trust workflow management is the backbone of every data science project. Even small projects can have remarkable benefits with a tool like Prefect. It eliminates a significant part of repetitive tasks. Not to mention, it also removes the mental clutter in a complex project.

This article covers some of the frequent questions about Prefect. It includes,

  • a short intro to Prefect’s core concepts;
  • why I decided to migrate from Airflow;
  • Prefect’s incredible features and integration with other technologies, and;
  • how to decide between its cloud vs. on-premise deployment options.

Quickstart Prefect.

Prefect is both a minimal and complete workflow management tool. It’s unbelievably simple to set up. Yet it can do everything tools such as Airflow can and more.

You can use PyPI, Conda, or Pipenv to install it, and it’s ready to rock. More on this in comparison with the Airflow section.

pip install prefect
# conda install -c conda-forge prefect
# pipenv install --pre prefect

Before we dive into use Prefect, let’s first see an unmanaged workflow. It makes understanding the role of Prefect in workflow management easy.

The below script queries an API (Extract — E), picks the relevant fields from it (Transform — T), and appends them to a file (Load — L). It contains three functions that perform each of the tasks mentioned. It’s a straightforward yet everyday use case of workflow management tools — ETL.

Code by the Author.


This script downloads weather data from the OpenWeatherMap API and stores the windspeed value in a file. ETL applications in real life could be complex. But this example application covers the fundamental aspects very well.

Note: Please replace the API key with a real one. You can get one from

You can run this script with the command python app.pywhere is the name of your script file. This will create a new file called windspeed.txt in the current directory with one value. It’s the windspeed at Boston, MA, at the time you reach the API. If you rerun the script, it’ll append another value to the same file.

Your first Prefect ETL workflow.

The above script works well. Yet, it lacks some critical features of a complete ETL, such as retrying and scheduling. Also, as mentioned earlier, a real-life ETL may have hundreds of tasks in a single workflow. Some of them can be run in parallel, whereas some depend on one or more other tasks.

Imagine if there is a temporary network issue that prevents you from calling the API. The script would fail immediately with no further attempt. In live applications, such downtimes aren’t a miracle. They happen for several reasons — server downtime, network downtime, server query limit exceeds.

Also, you have to manually execute the above script every time to update your windspeed.txt file. Yet, scheduling the workflow to run at a specific time in a predefined interval is common in ETL workflows.

This is where tools such as Prefect and Airflow come to the rescue. Here’s how you could tweak the above code to make it a Prefect workflow.

Code by the Author.


The @task decorator converts a regular python function into a Prefect task. The optional arguments allow you to specify its retry behavior. We’ve configured the function to attempt three times before it fails in the above example. We’ve also configured it to delay each retry by three minutes.

With this new setup, our ETL is resilient to network issues we discussed earlier.

To test its functioning, disconnect your computer from the network and run the script with python You’ll see a message that the first attempt failed, and the next one will begin in the next 3 minutes. Within three minutes, connect your computer back to the internet. The already running script will now finish without any errors.

Scheduling workflows with Prefect.

Retrying is only part of the ETL story. Another challenge for many workflow applications is to run them in scheduled intervals. Prefect’s scheduling API is straightforward for any Python programmer. Here’s how it works.

Code by the Author.


We’ve created an IntervalSchedule object that starts five seconds from the execution of the script. We’ve also configured it to run in a one-minute interval.

If you run the script with python and monitor the windspeed.txt file, you will see new values in it every minute.

In addition to this simple scheduling, Prefect’s schedule API offers more control over it. You can schedule workflows in a cron-like method, use clock time with timezones, or do more fun stuff like executing workflow only on weekends. I haven’t covered them all here, but Prefect’s official docs about this are perfect.

The Prefect UI.

Like Airflow (and many others,) Prefect too ships with a server with a beautiful UI. It allows you to control and visualize your workflow executions.

Illustration by the Author.


To run this, you need to have docker and docker-compose installed on your computer. But starting it is surprisingly a single command.

$ prefect server start

Illustration by the Author.


This command will start the prefect server, and you can access it through your web browser: http://localhost:8080/.

However, the Prefect server alone could not execute your workflows. Its role is only enabling a control pannel to all your Prefect activities. Because this dashboard is decoupled from the rest of the application, you can use the Prefect cloud to do the same. We’ll discuss this in detail later.

To execute tasks, we need a few more things. The good news is, they, too, aren’t complicated.

Because servers are only a control panel, we need an agent to execute the workflow. The below command will start a local agent. Instead of a local agent, you can choose a docker agent or a Kubernetes one if your project needs them.

$ prefect agent local start

Illustration by the Author.


Once the server and the agent are running, you’ll have to create a project and register your workflow with that project. To do this, change the line that executes the flow to the following.

Code by the Author.


Now in the terminal, you can create a project with the prefect create project <project name> command. Then rerunning the script will register it to the project instead of running it immediately.

$ prefect create project 'Tutorial'
$ python

Illustration by the Author.


In the web UI, you can see the new Project ‘Tutorial’ is in the dropdown, and our windspeed tracker is in the list of flows. The flow is already scheduled and running. If you prefer, you can run them manually as well.

Illustration by the Author.

Running workflows with parameters.

The workflow we created in the previous exercise is rigid. It queries only for Boston, MA, and we can not change it. This is where we can use parameters. Here’s how we tweak our code to accept a parameter at the run time.

Code by the Author.


We’ve changed the function to accept the city argument and set it dynamically in the API query. Inside the Flow, we create a parameter object with the default value ‘Boston’ and pass it to the Extract task.

If you run the windspeed tracker workflow manually in the UI, you’ll see a section called input. Here you can set the value of the city for every execution.

Illustration by the Author.


This is a convenient way to run workflows. In many cases, ETLs and any other workflow come with run-time parameters.

Why did I decide to migrate from Airflow to Prefect?

Airflow is a fantastic platform for workflow management. It saved me a ton of time on many projects. Yet, we need to appreciate new technologies taking over the old ones. That’s the case with Airflow and Prefect.

Airflow got many things right, but its core assumptions never anticipated the rich variety of data applications that have emerged.

— Prefect Documentation.

What I describe here aren’t dead-ends if you’re preferring Airflow. We have workarounds for most problems. Yet, it’s convenient in Prefect because the tool natively supports them.

Prefect’s installation is exceptionally straightforward compared to Airflow. For trained eyes, it may not be a problem. Yet, for whoever wants to start on workflow orchestration and automation, it’s a hassle.

Airflow needs a server running in the backend to perform any task. Yet, in Prefect, a server is optional. This is a massive benefit of using Prefect. I have many pet projects running on my computer as services. Earlier, I had to have an Airflow server commencing at the startup. Because Prefect could run standalone, I don’t have to turn on this additional server anymore.

Airflow doesn’t have the flexibility to run workflows (or DAGs) with parameters. The workaround I use to have is to let the application read them from a database. This isn’t an excellent programming technique for such a simple task. Prefect’s parameter concept is exceptional on this front.

Prefect allows having different versions of the same workflow. Every time you register a workflow to the project, it creates a new version. If you need to run a previous version, you can easily select it in a dropdown. This isn’t possible with Airflow.

Prefect also allows us to create teams and role-based access controls. Each team could manage its configuration. Authorization is a critical part of every modern application, and Prefect handles it in the best way possible.

Lastly, I find Prefect’s UI more intuitive and appealing. Airflow’s UI, especially its task execution visualization, was difficult at first to understand.

Prefect’s ecosystem and integration with other technologies.

Prefect has inbuilt integration with many other technologies. It eliminates a ton of overhead and makes working with them super easy.

Live projects often have to deal with several technologies. For example, when your ETL fails, you may want to send an email or a Slack notification to the maintainer.

In Prefect, sending such notifications is effortless. You can use the EmailTask from the Prefect’s task library, set the credentials, and start sending emails.

You can learn more about Prefect’s rich ecosystem in their official documentation. In this article, we’ll see how to send email notifications.

To send emails, we need to make the credentials accessible to the Prefect agent. You can do that by creating the below file in $HOME/.prefect/config.toml.

Code by the Author.


Your app is now ready to send emails. Here’s how we send a notification when we successfully captured a windspeed measure.

Code by the Author.


In the above code, we’ve created an instance of the EmailTask class. We’ve used all the static elements of our email configurations during initiating. Then inside the Flow, we’ve used it with passing variable content.

This configuration above will send an email with the captured windspeed measurement. But its subject will always remain ‘A new windspeed captured.’

Perfect Cloud vs. On-Premis Server Deployments.

We’ve already looked into how we can start an on-premise server. Because this server is only a control panel, you could easily use the cloud version instead. To do this, we have few additional steps to follow.

  1. Create a Prefect cloud account.
  2. Generate a key from the API Key Page.
  3. In your terminal, set the backend to cloud: prefect backend cloud.
  4. Also login with the generated key: prefect auth login --key YOUR_API_KEY.
  5. Now, start the agent as usual. prefect agent local start.

In the cloud dashboard, you can manage everything you did on the local server before.

A big question when choosing between cloud and server versions is security. According to Prefect‘s docs, the server only stores workflow execution-related data and voluntary information provided by the user. Since the agent in your local computer executes the logic, you can control where you store your data.

The cloud option is suitable for performance reasons too. With one cloud server, you can manage more than one agent. Thus, you can scale your app effortlessly.

Final Thoughts

Airflow was my ultimate choice for building ETLs and other workflow management applications. Yet, Prefect changed my mind, and now I’m migrating everything from Airflow to Prefect.

Prefect is a straightforward tool that is flexible to extend beyond what Airflow can do. You can run it even inside a Jupyter notebook. Also, you can host it as a complete task management solution.

In addition to the central problem of workflow management, Prefect solves several other issues you may frequently encounter in a live system. Managing teams with authorization controls, sending notifications are some of them.

In this article, we’ve discussed how to create an ETL that

  • retries some tasks as configured;
  • run workflows in a schedule;
  • accepts run-time parameters, and;
  • sends an email notification when it’s done.

We’ve only scratched the surface of Prefects capabilities. I recommend reading the official documentation for more information.

Thanks for reading, friend! It seems you, and I have lots of common interests. I’d love to connect with you on LinkedInTwitter, and Medium.

Not a Medium member yet? Please use this link to become a member. You can enjoy thousands of insightful articles and support me as I earn a small commission for referring you.

Bio: Murallie Thuwarakesh (@Thuwarakesh) is a Data Scientist at Stax, Inc., and a top writer on Medium for Analytics. Murallie shares what he explores in data science every day.

Original. Reposted with permission.


PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
Click here to access.


Big Data

Proximity labeling: an enzymatic tool for spatial biology



In this Forum, we highlight how cutting-edge, proximity-dependent, enzymatic labeling tools, aided by sequencing technology developments, have enabled the extraction of spatial information of proteomes, transcriptomes, genome organization, and cellular networks. We also discuss the potential applications of proximity labeling in the unexplored field of spatial biology in live systems.

PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
Click here to access.


Continue Reading

Big Data

Synthetic biology applications of the yeast mating signal pathway




Central carbon metabolism (CCM)

as the main source of energy, CCM oxidizes carbon through glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.


a cell host or an organism for the production of biochemicals such as enzymes by introducing synthetic modules or devices into the cell.


an assembly of biological parts that enables cells to perform logical functions, such as genetic switches, oscillators, and logic gates.

Convolutional neural network

a class of artificial neural networks with multiple building blocks that automatically and adaptively learn spatial hierarchies of features through back-propagation.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)

a genome-editing tool in which CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9)–guide RNA (gRNA) complexes recognize a protospacer adjacent motif through base-pairing and then cleave the target DNA,

CRISPR activation or interference (CRISPRa/i)

a tool that uses dead Cas protein and gRNA to activate or repress genes, resulting in gene upregulation or downregulation, respectively.

Cubic ternary complex model

an equilibrium model that describes the interactions between receptor and ligand. This model simulates the interactions of G proteins and receptors in both their active and inactive conformations.

G proteins

heterotrimeric G protein complexes are composed of α, β and γ subunits. Replacement of GDP by GTP in Gα causes a conformational change that dissociates the Gβγ subunits, leading to the activation of downstream signaling.

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)

a generic class of versatile, seven transmembrane-domain proteins that regulate a diverse array of intracellular signaling cascades in response to hormones, neurotransmitters, and other stimuli.


a cascade of molecular events that finally lead to fusion of the nuclei and the formation of diploid cells.

Metabolic engineering

a new scientific field that combines multi-gene recombination technology with metabolic regulation and biochemical engineering to overproduce desired products.

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)

a family of serine/threonine kinases that convert extracellular signals into a diverse range of cellular responses.


studies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics that characterize and quantify pools of biological molecules, and together give rise to the field of integrative genetics.


a genetic circuit where oscillation is generated by the inhibition and activation of transcriptional/translational feedback loops.

Pheromone-response element (PRE)

a cis element that is present in multiple copies in the promoters of a variety of pheromone-responsive genes; PREs interact with Ste12 to initiate the transcription of pheromone-induced genes.

Quorum sensing

a cell density-dependent phenomenon in which cells adapt their behavior by synthesizing, secreting, perceiving, and reacting to small diffusible signaling molecules termed autoinducers.

Scaffold protein

proteins that recruit other proteins to form a functional unit, thus enhancing signaling efficiency and fidelity.


a Ste5 mutant that lacks the Gβγ-binding site because its N-terminus has been truncated; Ste5ΔN-CTM is no longer recruited to the plasma membrane following pheromone treatment.

PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
Click here to access.


Continue Reading

Big Data

Biotechnology of functional proteins and peptides for hair cosmetic formulations



  • New cosmetic science.

    Elsevier, 1997

    • Bouillon C.
    • Wilkinson J.

    The science of hair care.

    CRC Press, 2005

    • Pierce J.S.
    • et al.

    Characterization of formaldehyde exposure resulting from the use of four professional hair straightening products.

    J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2011; 8: 686-699

    • Ahmed M.B.
    • et al.

    Neurotoxic effect of lead on rats: relationship to apoptosis.

    Int. J. Health Sci. (Qassim). 2013; 7: 192-199

    • Martins M.
    • et al.

    α-Chymotrypsin catalysed oligopeptide synthesis for hair modelling.

    J. Clean. Prod. 2019; 237117743

    • Tinoco A.
    • et al.

    Fusion proteins with chromogenic and keratin binding modules.

    Sci. Rep. 2019; 9: 14044

    • Cruz C.F.
    • et al.

    Peptide–protein interactions within human hair keratins.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017; 101: 805-814

    • Sajna K.V.
    • et al.

    White biotechnology in cosmetics.

    in: Pandey A. Industrial biorefineries and white biotechnology. Elsevier, 2015: 607-652

  • Role of protein in cosmetics.

    Clin. Dermatol. 2008; 26: 321-325

  • Yoshioka, I. and Kamimura, Y. Seiwa Kasei Co. Ltd. Keratin hydrolyzate useful as hair fixatives, US4279996.

  • Fahnestock, S.R. and Schultz, T.M. EI Du Pont de Nemours and Company. Water-soluble silk proteins compositions for skin care, hair care or hair coloring, US7060260B2.

  • Detert, M. et al. Beiersdorf AG. Hair styling preparations with special protein hydrolysates, EP1878423A2.

    • Barba C.
    • et al.

    Restoring important hair properties with wool keratin proteins and peptides.

    Fibers Polym. 2010; 11: 1055-1061

    • Fernandes M.M.
    • et al.

    Keratin-based peptide: biological evaluation and strengthening properties on relaxed hair.

    Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2012; : 338-346

    • Ribeiro A.
    • et al.

    Potential of human γD-crystallin for hair damage repair: insights into the mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2013; 35: 458-466

  • Ross, V.M. Further preparations of silk proteins, seed oils, monosaccharide, natural botanicals and polysaccharide mixtures in compositions for hair care or hair repair, and skin care and topical treatments, US9023404B2.

    • Cruz C.F.
    • et al.

    Effect of a peptide in cosmetic formulations for hair volume control.

    Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2017; 39: 600-609

  • Edman, W.W. and Klemm, E.J. Shiseido Co. Ltd. Permanent waving compositions, US4798722.

  • Lang, G. et al. LOreal SA. Cosmetic temporary coloring compositions containing protein derivatives, US5192332.

  • Tomita, M. et al. Iwase Cosfa Co. Ltd, Morinaga Milk Industry Co. Ltd. Milk-protein hydrolyzates and compositions for use as hair and skin treating agent, US5314783.

  • Igarashi, S. et al. Kanebo Ltd. Hair coloring composition comprising anti-hair antibodies immobilized on coloring materials, and hair coloring methods, US5597386.

  • Oshika, M. and Naito, S. Kao Corp. Acylated silk proteins for hair care, US5747015.

  • Shah, S.M. Johnson and Johnson Consumer Inc. Heat-safe hair preparation and method of using same, US6156295.

  • Cannell, D. and Nguyen, N. LOreal SA. Composition for treating hair against chemical and photo damage, US6013250.

  • Schultz, T.M. and Tran, H.T. EI Du Pont de Nemours and Company. Modified soy proteins in personal care compositions, US2005/0008604A1.

    • Isnard M.D.
    • et al.

    Development of hair care formulations based on natural ingredients.

    Int. J. Phytocosmet. Nat. Ingred. 2019; 6: 9

    • Tinoco A.
    • et al.

    Keratin-based particles for protection and restoration of hair properties.

    Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2018; 40: 408-419

    • Tinoco A.
    • et al.

    Keratin:Zein particles as vehicles for fragrance release on hair.

    Ind. Crop. Prod. 2021; 159113067

    • Camargo Jr., F.B.
    • et al.

    Prevention of chemically induced hair damage by means of treatment based on proteins and polysaccharides.

    J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2021; ()

    • Malinauskyte E.
    • et al.

    Penetration of different molecular weight hydrolysed keratins into hair fibres and their effects on the physical properties of textured hair.

    Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2021; 43: 26-37

    • Cavallaro G.
    • et al.

    Halloysite/keratin nanocomposite for human hair photoprotection coating.

    ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2020; 12: 24348-24362

    • Baus R.A.
    • et al.

    Strategies for improved hair binding: keratin fractions and the impact of cationic substructures.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020; 160: 201-211

  • Cetintas, S. New hair botox material and the method to apply this material to hair, US2020/0197287A1.

    • Basit A.
    • et al.

    Health improvement of human hair and their reshaping using recombinant keratin K31.

    Biotechnol. Rep. 2018; 20e00288

    • Schulze Zur Wiesche E.
    • et al.

    Prevention of hair surface aging.

    J. Cosmet. Sci. 2011; 62: 237-249

    • Daithankar A.V.
    • et al.

    Moisturizing efficiency of silk protein hydrolysate: silk fibroin.

    Indian J. Biotechnol. 2005; 4: 115-121

    • Fernandes M.
    • Cavaco-Paulo A.

    Protein disulphide isomerase-mediated grafting of cysteine-containing peptides onto over-bleached hair.

    Biocatal. Biotransform. 2012; 30: 10-19

    • Tinoco A.
    • et al.

    Crystallin fusion proteins improve the thermal properties of hair.

    Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2019; 7: 298

    • Wistow G.
    • et al.

    Myxococcus xanthus spore coat protein S may have a similar structure to vertebrate lens βγ-crystallins.

    Nature. 1985; 315: 771-773

  • Azizova, M. et al. Henkel IP and Holding GmbH. Hair treatment composition with naturally-derived peptide identical to human hair, US9505820B2.

    • Cruz C.F.
    • et al.

    Changing the shape of hair with keratin peptides.

    RSC Adv. 2017; 7: 51581-51592

  • Hawkins, G. et al. ELC Management LLC. Compositions and methods for permanent straightening of hair, US9011828B2.

  • Dimotakis, E. et al. LOreal SA. Hair cosmetic and styling compositions based on maleic acid copolymers and polyamines, US2013/0309190A1.

    • Song K.
    • et al.

    Effects of chemical structures of polycarboxylic acids on molecular and performance manipulation of hair keratin Kaili.

    RSC Adv. 2016; 6: 58594-58603

    • Qin X.
    • et al.

    Enzyme-triggered hydrogelation via self-assembly of alternating peptides.

    Chem. Commun. (Camb.). 2013; 49: 4839-4841

    • Yazawa K.
    • Numata K.

    Recent advances in chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses.

    Molecules. 2014; 19: 13755-13774

  • Savaides, A. and Tasker, R. Zotos International Inc. Formulations and methods for straightening and revitalizing hair, US2014/0261518A1.

  • Anthony, M.M. Copomon Enterprises LLC, Keratin Holdings LLC. Method of preparing a hair treatment formulation comprising nanoparticles in solution and method of hair treatment utilizing a treatment formulation comprising nanoparticles in solution, US9078818B1.

  • Chahal, S.P. et al. Croda International PLC. Protein-acrylate copolymer and hair conditioning product comprising said polymer, US9421159B2.

  • Huang, X. et al. EI Du Pont de Nemours and Company. Peptide-based conditioners and colorants for hair, skin and nails, US7220405B2.

  • Slusarewiez, P. Unilever Home and Personal Care USA. Method of coloring hair, US6773462B2.

  • Benson, R.E. et al. EI Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Affinergy LLC. Hair binding peptides and peptide-based hair reagents for personal care, US8273337B2.

  • Chung, Y.J. et al. Peptide exhibiting hair growth promoting activity and/or melanin production promoting activity and use thereof, US10344061B2.

  • Vickers, E.R. Clinical Stem Cells Pty Ltd. Peptides for hair growth, US2019/0091494A1.

    • Günay K.A.
    • et al.

    Selective peptide-mediated enhanced deposition of polymer fragrance delivery systems on human hair.

    ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2017; 9: 24238-24249

    • Bolduc C.
    • Shapiro J.

    Hair care products: waving, straightening, conditioning, and coloring.

    Clin. Dermatol. 2001; 19: 431-436

    • Dias M.F.R.G.

    Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    Int. J. Trichol. 2015; 7: 2

    • Barba C.
    • et al.

    Effect of wool keratin proteins and peptides on hair water sorption kinetics.

    J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2010; 102: 43-48

    • Villa A.L.V.
    • et al.

    Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber.

    BMC Biotechnol. 2013; 13: 15

    • Mancon S.
    • et al.

    Hair conditioning effect of vegetable native protein in shampoo formulations.

    Seifen Ole Fette Wachse J. 2012; 138: 38-42

    • Wang S.
    • et al.

    Modification of wheat gluten for improvement of binding capacity with keratin in hair.

    R. Soc. Open Sci. 2018; 5171216

  • Sahib, S. and Jungman, E. Aquis Hairsciences Inc. Composition for improving hair health, US2020/0069551A1.

    • Antunes E.
    • et al.

    The effects of solvent composition on the affinity of a peptide towards hair keratin: experimental and molecular dynamics data.

    RSC Adv. 2015; 5: 12365-12371

  • Hair: its structure and response to cosmetic preparations.

    Clin. Dermatol. 1996; 14: 105-112

    • Cruz C.
    • et al.

    Human hair and the impact of cosmetic procedures: a review on cleansing and shape-modulating cosmetics.

    Cosmetics. 2016; 3: 26

    • Robbins C.R.

    Chemical composition of different hair types.

    in: Chemical and physical behavior of human hair. Springer, 2012: 105-176

    • Antunes E.
    • et al.

    Insights on the mechanical behavior of keratin fibrils.

    Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016; 89: 477-483

    • Kutlubay Z.
    • Serdaroglu S.

    Anatomy and physiology of hair.

    in: Hair and scalp disorders. IntechOpen, 2017: 13-27

    • Harrison S.
    • Sinclair R.

    Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2004; 2: 180-185

    • Draelos Z.D.

    Hair care: an illustrated dermatologic handbook.

    CRC Press, 2004

    • Takada K.
    • et al.

    Influence of oxidative and/or reductive treatment on human hair (I): analysis of hair-damage after oxidative and/or reductive treatment.

    J. Oleo Sci. 2003; 52: 541-548

    • Kuzuhara A.

    Analysis of structural changes in bleached keratin fibers (black and white human hair) using Raman spectroscopy.

    Biopolymers. 2006; 81: 506-514

    • Wolfram L.J.
    • et al.

    The mechanism of hair bleaching.

    J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 1970; 900: 875-900

    • Bagiyan G.A.
    • et al.

    Oxidation of thiol compounds by molecular oxygen in aqueous solutions.

    Russ. Chem. Bull. 2003; 52: 1135-1141

    • Blasi-Romero A.
    • et al.

    In vitro investigation of thiol-functionalized cellulose nanofibrils as a chronic wound environment modulator.

    Polymers (Basel). 2021; 13: 249

  • PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
    Click here to access.


    Continue Reading

    Big Data

    VW’s 9-month electric vehicle deliveries to China more than triple



    FRANKFURT (Reuters) – Volkswagen’s deliveries of battery-powered electric vehicles to China more than tripled in the first nine months of the year, the carmaker said on Friday, less than two months after it flagged the need to change its e-car strategy there.

    Deliveries of battery electric vehicles (BEV) to the world’s largest car market stood at 47,200 in the January-September period, up from 15,700 in the same period last year.

    “As planned, we significantly accelerated the BEV market ramp-up in China in the third quarter, and we are on track to meet our target for the year of delivering 80,000 to 100,000 vehicles of the ID. model family,” Christian Dahlheim, head of group sales, said.

    Volkswagen Chief Executive Herbert Diess in July said the carmaker had to change its approach to how it markets its BEVs in China after first-half deliveries stood at just 18,285.

    (Reporting by Christoph Steitz; Editing by Maria Sheahan)

    Image Credit: Reuters

    PlatoAi. Web3 Reimagined. Data Intelligence Amplified.
    Click here to access.


    Continue Reading
    Esports5 days ago

    Ill Gotten Gain New World: How to Obtain the Earring

    Esports3 days ago

    The best teams in Hearthstone Mercenaries

    Esports5 days ago

    What is Bullet Stumble in Back 4 Blood?

    Esports5 days ago

    How to Increase Your Corporate Level in NBA 2K22 MyCareer

    Esports5 days ago

    Blizzard Removes “Greenskin” References In World Of Warcraft

    Energy4 days ago

    Dover Announces Acquisition Of LIQAL B.V., A Leading Provider Of LNG And Hydrogen Fueling Solutions

    Esports3 days ago

    How Many Chapters are in the Demon Slayer Game?

    Cleantech5 days ago

    U.S. Secretary Haaland Outlines Ambitious Offshore Wind Leasing Strategy

    Energy4 days ago

    Sigma Lithium Says Technology Will Be Key To Make Lithium Greener And Cheaper At Financial Times Live Commodities Summit

    Esports5 days ago

    Ricochet Unable to Target Cronus and Controller Hacks, Activision Working on Fix

    Esports4 days ago

    What is the Faction Reputation cap in New World?

    Aviation4 days ago

    Ottawa eyes charging airport security with vaccine verification for travellers

    Automotive5 days ago

    Are Racing Slicks Better Than Track Tires On A Typical Street Car?

    Energy5 days ago

    Hydraulic Fluids Market size to grow by USD 580.98 million from 2021 to 2025|Technavio

    Energy5 days ago

    Duke Energy Foundation awards $190,000 in grants to support environmental initiatives in Indiana communities

    Cleantech5 days ago

    Why Are 3 Automakers Still Hyping Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles?

    Gaming4 days ago

    Mobile Casino Apps Explained

    Aviation4 days ago

    Pittsburgh International Airport breaks ground on $1.4 billion new tech-forward terminal

    Biotechnology5 days ago

    Volta Labs: Improving workflows for genetic applications

    Covid195 days ago

    United States commits another 17 million COVID vaccine doses to the African Union