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The Past and Future of Ethereum: A Q&A with ‘Infinite Machine’ Author Cami Russo




Now the second largest cryptocurrency by total value, Ethereum’s existence has been anything but boring. In its five-year history, it has seen the highest of highs during its 2017 bull market as well as lows in 2018 and 2019 that threatened its momentum and adoption.

But while much has been written about Ethereum, until now, its story had gone largely undocumented in its entirety.

Fortunately, former Bloomberg Markets reporter and current founder of The Defiant just published The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-hackers Is Building the Next Internet with Ethereum, a detailed history of Ethereum’s origins, characters and biggest moments.

To celebrate its debut, Camila was kind enough to share a few moments with us and detail some of her key learnings from researching her book.

Welcome Cami.

When did you first start paying attention to Ethereum and why did you find it so captivating?

I first started paying attention to Ethereum in 2017. 

As a markets reporter, what initially drew my attention to Ethereum was that 1) it was the platform supporting most ICOs, and 2) it was outpacing Bitcoin’s gains. The endless possibilities, thanks to the network’s ability to process any computer program, captivated me next. While Bitcoin was meant to be peer-to-peer money, Ethereum was meant to be peer-to-peer everything. 

If Ethereum achieves its purpose, it would bring blockchain technology to a new frontier.

Finally, as I was researching for my book The Infinite Machine, I was also interested in the colorful army of young hackers filling up conference spaces in Singapore, New Delhi, Berlin, and Osaka, programming through the night at hackathons.

Why was now the right time to write ‘The Infinite Machine’?

When I started to write The Infinite Machine in 2018, there had been no book on the history of Ethereum.

This was noteworthy because even with Ethereum’s short history, the network’s impact was already book-worthy. It became the second-largest blockchain after Bitcoin in terms of market capitalization, and beat it in other measures, like number of transactions and more recently, value transacted. 

Additionally, by that time, so many events had already shaped the project, such as Vitalik’s whitepaper, the launch in Miami, debate over how it should be funded, DAO hack, and ICO boom, etc. Amidst this activity, I thought it was time to document and put them in a coherent timeline.  

What is the best elevator pitch for Ethereum that you heard in all of your research?

If Bitcoin is like a pocket calculator, Ethereum is like an iPhone.

What is Ethereum’s core value proposition?

Ethereum supports applications that can be accessed by anyone, anywhere in the world. Most importantly, they don’t rely on third parties and cannot be shut down or censored. Furthermore, while today’s internet isn’t equipped to handle money, Ethereum enables an internet of value.

What are the most interesting applications that you’ve seen on Ethereum?

Automated market makers: AMMs (Uniswap, Bancor) are exchanges that rely on pools of tokens and an automated pricing formula to guarantee that traders are always able to swap between any token pair, no matter how illiquid it is. They were game-changers for decentralized exchanges, allowing anyone to easily and permissionlessly trade ERC20 tokens and ETH using incredibly simple interfaces.

Lending and collateralized borrowing: MakerDAO, Compound Finance and others are enabling anyone to borrow against their digital assets. This is done almost instantly without the need to create an account or interact with anyone. Most of these collateralized loans are being used by traders to buy more crypto. But on the other side of the trade lie lenders who are depositing their crypto and receiving the interest on those loans. Effectively this is enabling anyone in the world to deposit digital assets, including stablecoins pegged to the dollar, like Dai and USDC, and get interest in return, creating something like dollar-based savings accounts.

The ICO craze of 2017 brought unprecedented attention to Ethereum, but it also disappointed a lot of people. What is the legacy of the ICO craze?

The ICO boom of 2017 brought billions of dollars and thousands of people into Ethereum. Unfortunately, part of that money was spent on startups that didn’t deliver or were outright scams, but a good portion was also used to fund today’s leading Ethereum projects (Kyber Network, 0x, Synthetic, Aave, etc.).

ICOs allowed entrepreneurs to fundraise any amount of money, from anyone in the world, without the need to go to VCs and banks, for the first time. It was Ethereum’s first financial application. But incentives were misaligned as startups were able to get several millions of dollars with nothing more than a white paper and no guarantees that they would deliver on their promises. 

Entrepreneurs and investors learned from this experience and are now implementing more sustainable fundraising models, for example via DAOs and governance tokens which require a functioning protocol.

What are your thoughts on the DeFi movement? Will these applications be Ethereum’s killer use case?

Finance is one of the most important industries in the world, yet it runs on ancient rails. It’s beginning to be updated and Ethereum is leading the charge.

DeFi is delivering the cypherpunk dream of a parallel financial system. It’s actually happening; from value transfers, to payments, to lending, borrowing, and trading. All these applications are working right now, on-chain, and are open to anyone.

What do you expect from Ethereum for the rest of 2020 and beyond?

I expect DeFi to continue growing by any metrics – value locked, volume, users, number of projects – at exponential rates. I also expect Eth2 to be rolled out slowly but surely. Finally, Layer 2 solutions will help alleviate increasing demand for those who use Eth1.

Thank you Cami


You can purchase The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-hackers Is Building the Next Internet with Ethereum at and subscribe to The Defiant here.

Additionally, if you are interested in learning more about the growing DeFi movement be sure to join us on Friday, July 31 at 13:00 UTC, when Kraken Editor-At-Large Pete Rizzo will lead an all-star panel designed to introduce clients to the DeFi opportunity.

The session will dive deep into the challenges it’s seeking to solve and explore how traders and investors might position accordingly.

It is for any current or potential traders/investors interested in understanding the roadmap ahead for Ethereum and DeFi and how to best adapt their strategies.

Register here

Additional reading

What is Ethereum?

How To Buy Ethereum?

Kraken Lists COMP, KAVA, and KNC for Trading



TRAMS DEX Propels Global Adoption of DeFi with Automated Market Maker (AMM) protocol





TRAMS DEX Propels Global Adoption of Defi with Automated Market Maker (AMM) protocol, as Industry Leader VIP Guests, Global Participants, and Management Team concludes Webinar Session Marking a Successful First-Phase Launch.


VIP Speakers Unanimously Acknowledge Perfect Market Timing of TRAMS DEX in Decentralized Finance Industry, High Industry Growth Factors, Following 2 Hour-Long Launch Session.

The TRAMS DEX founder and senior management team today concluded a high-impact webinar session as an official launch of its Automated Liquidity Provider protocol, the first of three phases for TRAMS’ Decentralized Finance Business. Industry leader VIP guests and participating members pledge support for open finance and Defi for creating more access to financial products at much lower costs to anyone on demand.

The launch took place in District Singapore, Republic Plaza 9 Raffles Place with a Zoom Webinar hosting a global Defi community and TRAMS DEX protocol members/users community. The discerning VIP panels and participants from ranging continents stencil the much-needed change in the financial sector especially in traditional banking plagued with corruption and scandals where only a small closed and selected groups are the main beneficiaries.

The webinar introduces the protocol with its open finance principles and guides participants into the operations with these key points: TRAMS DEX is one of three key operations from the TRAMS ecosystem with the main operating principle of Decentralized Finance (Defi). TRAMS DEX is an Automated Liquidity Provider that enables better and faster user interactions with digital assets. With the innovation of the Automated Market Maker (AMM) solution, traders can easily exchange digital assets at any time with guaranteed market supplies from the liquidity pool without giving up the custody of their digital assets. As a decentralized exchange, TRAMS DEX is able to create open access opportunities for participation without discrimination and any controlling institution barrier.

At, anyone with an Internet connection and a Web 3.0 wallet can gain access to liquidity where otherwise would be ineligible through traditional finance or banking. TRAMS DEX operates a Decentralized Exchange that offers three (3) impactful functions with a minimal user interface designed for clear navigation.

The first function, global liquidity access or buyable, sellable, or tradable market access. Users of the protocol can easily gain access to “constant” liquidity with a simple crypto assets swap function at a minimal cost of 0.3% transaction fee. Direct wallet connections are automated as well with a few simple clicks. All transactions are secured with blockchain encryptions and conducted on-chain with transaction data records automatically recorded for open access viewing on Ether can in real-time.

The second function, make money from idle assets. TRAMS DEX creates a money-making model for liquidity providers (LPs) on the platform. By supplying idle crypto assets to any pools listed on the protocol, the LP earns a profit share generated from the swapping fees on TRAMS DEX. The liquidity provider profit sharing is proportional to contribution. Profits are calculated at least once every twenty-four hours (24 hrs). True to open finance principles and Defi, participating LPs can withdraw their contribution at any time without any fee or penalty.

Thirdly, earn a high passive income. The TRAMS DEX incentive model lets participants earn high passive income in the form of yields, calculated in APY% (annual percentage yield), simply by staking (or depositing) its native token (TRAMS) on the platform. This encourages participants to remain active on the platform and better maintains constant liquidity reserve. This translates to double benefits for participating LPs, more profits are added on-top of the profit-sharing earning from staking LP tokens on TRAMS DEX.

TRAMS DEX is accessible constantly 24/7 to anyone globally. All associated costs of operations are kept very low and precise by utilizing automated smart contracts and AMM trading algorithms for trade executions and operations. Compared to traditional financial institutions and banks, TRAMS DEX provides better, cheaper, more accurate services.

Bryan Feinberg of Plato Data Intelligence, the Founder/CEO of Etheralabs, commented from New York City via Zoom video call with the support of blockchain as the fundamental architecture of TRAMS DEX and Defi space which offers high data security and transaction transparency for users. As a member of the Blockchain Venture Advisory, he believes Decentralized Finance such as TRAMS DEX has a high adoption rate and direct use case for blockchain applications.

Mamadou Toure, Forbes 10 Most Influential person in Africa and President/CEO of Ubuntu Capital Group, tributes TRAMS DEX for providing access channel to liquidity where traditional banking and capital access are limited to non-existent. He further acknowledged the opportunities TRAMS DEX would create for users world-wide to easily finance business initiatives.

Victor Kong, CEO of VK Capital Digital Funds Pte Ltd endorses William Tien, TRAMS DEX’ Founder/CEO, for his vision and ambition in creating a Decentralized Ecosystem starting with TRAMS DEX following by TRAMS Finance and TRAMS Assets, for phase 2 & 3, respectively, as an alternative to private equity funds for real estates and infrastructure projects with a portfolio size of 1-10 million USD. TRAMS DEX removes the high barrier to entry by drastically reducing mandatory due diligence costs of raising capital, which remains the same as a 50 million USD project. He also credits the intention of listing the ecosystem, TRAMS DEX included, on the London Stock Exchange via reverse IPO within 3-6 months.



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Self-Sovereign Decentralized Digital Identity




Time & Date: Wednesday, Nov 4th, 2020
8:30 AM Eastern Standard Time

Speakers: Marco Aniballi (BlockBlox)
Luke Stokes (FIO, EosDAC)
Alex Puig (Caelum Labs)
Gordon Einstein (CryptoLaw Partners)
Sander de Bruijn (Crypto Entrepreneur)

Zoom Info:


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Kucoin and Revain Announce Partnership




Before deciding to buy or apply for any service, consumers are primarily interested in doing their homework via the ability review via 3rd Party Objectivity based on what other people are thinking.

This is especially true for the blockchain universe. The success of Bitсoin and Ethereum has given rise to thousands of young projects that are as complex as they are innovative.

In order not to get lost in multiple offers of wallets, exchanges, and cryptocurrencies, Internet users are starting to look for reviews to guide their decision-making process.

The project began to use blockchain to keep all reviews unchanged. This gives trust to the community and allows users to learn with the ability to interact with both projects that interest them and the communities they represent.

Trust can play an extremely important role for serious companies. The KuCoin and Revain projects have started cooperation for the common benefit of both communities. The Revain Widget implemented on the main page of one of the leading exchanges allows visitors to read and write reviews directly on the platform.

Companies that have already achieved success should understand that the review widget increases a conversion rate and provides additional traffic.

And there are other pluses as well

For example, why would you buy products on a mystery shopping service if you can simply read a ready-made review on the Revain website?

And it will be fair, fast and, most importantly, it’s free.

It’s not a surprise when blockchain technologies are used in the crypto community. But the Revain Project doesn’t intend to stop there and has serious plans to expand the topic on which the writers will write reviews.

It’s important for people that the review includes pros and cons.

This could stem from concerns about fake reviews, and an underlying assumption that balanced reviews feel more authentic than reviews that are overly or exclusively positive.

Consumers want retailers to have better technology, offer more services, and establish better personal connections. Consumers think about what good shopping experience looks like in the first place. Therefore, when people read or write a review, they pay attention not only to the facts but also to the feelings that appeared after the purchase from the company to which the review was then written.

When there are feelings, it is important to preserve a zone of trust and comfort

The usual advertising channels carry information about the product and the brand. But they do not contain the emotions of other buyers. The buyer chooses where he will share his buying experience.

And it is especially important that the credibility of the review that is written on the seller’s website does not reach heaven. It is very important to have an independent platform, the need for which has been ripening for a long time in the Internet community.

Therefore, reviews are written on the Revainplatform. You can display these reviews on your website using a simple widget. Thus, customers will see the independence of the review and at the same time, they can read it without leaving your site.

Of course, there were sites for reviews, they exist now and will continue to appear. But a project like Revain meets the expectations of ordinary people and businesses as much as possible. After all, reviews cannot be deleted or falsified because of blockchain. The hash of each review is kept for centuries.

Because of this, some reviews may seem funny as their authors decided to add some new facts or correct mistakes later. I recommend visiting and reading such reviews. A very interesting experience.


Source: Rinat Arslanov has been the Co-Founder and CEO of Revain since its inception. He describes his passion for Revain as a life project for him. He is currently doing his Ph.D. at Plekhanov Russian University of Economics and is expected to complete his doctorate in 2022.

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