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Study: Mapping crystal shapes could fast-track 2D materials: Experts call for global effort to clear hurdles to mass production

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Home > Press > Study: Mapping crystal shapes could fast-track 2D materials: Experts call for global effort to clear hurdles to mass production

An array of crystal shapes of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides as imaged with a scanning electron microscope. (Image courtesy of MSNE/Rice University)
An array of crystal shapes of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides as imaged with a scanning electron microscope. (Image courtesy of MSNE/Rice University)

Abstract:
Materials scientists at Rice University and the University of Pennsylvania are calling for a collective, global effort to fast-track the mass production of 2D materials like graphene and molybdenum disulfide.

Study: Mapping crystal shapes could fast-track 2D materials: Experts call for global effort to clear hurdles to mass production


Houston, TX | Posted on July 27th, 2020

In a perspective article published online in Materials Today, journal editor-in-chief Jun Lou and colleagues make a case for a focused, collective effort to address the research challenges that could clear the way for large-scale mass production of 2D materials.

Lou and fellow Rice materials scientists Ming Tang, Jing Zhang and Fan Wang joined Penn’s Vivek Shenoy in describing the potential transformation in 2D materials technology that could result from a systematic, communitywide effort to map the shapes of the 2D crystals that are being grown in labs worldwide via a process known as chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

“Like snowflakes in nature, 2D crystals exhibit a rich variety of morphologies under different growth conditions,” they wrote.

Mapping these unique crystal patterns and compiling the maps in a global database, alongside the recipes for creating each pattern, could unlock a wealth of information “for understanding, diagnosing and controlling the CVD process and environment for 2D material growth,” the researchers wrote.

CVD is a commonly used process for creating thin films, including commercially important materials in the semiconductor industry. In a typical CVD reaction, a flat sheet of material called a substrate is placed in a reaction chamber and gases are flowed through the chamber in such a way that they react and form a solid film atop the substrate.

One goal of the field is developing computer software that can accurately predict the properties of a thin film that will result from the mixing of specific reactant gases under specific conditions. Creating such models is complicated by both an incomplete understanding of the physical and chemical processes that take place during CVD and by the existence of dozens of CVD reactor formats.

Cataloging the shape of crystals produced by CVD experiments could provide materials scientists with important information about their synthesis, in much the same way that mineralogists retrieve valuable clues about the history of Earth based on examination of naturally occurring crystal structures, Lou and colleagues suggested.

“Take the beautiful snowflakes as an example,” the authors wrote. “A perhaps surprising fact to many is that snow crystals can exhibit many different categories of shapes, which depend on the temperature and water supersaturation of the atmosphere in which they are formed.”

The Japanese scientist Ukichiro Nakaya, through extensive observations of snowflakes in both nature and the laboratory, developed a figure known as the Nakaya diagram to help decipher the information in snowflakes. By examining the shapes in a snowflake, and seeing where those shapes lie on Nakaya’s diagram, scientists can determine the exact atmospheric conditions that produced the snowflake, which Nakaya poetically referred to as “a letter from the sky.”

Inspired by Nakaya’s work, Lou and colleagues created a Nakaya-like diagram of 2D crystal patterns that have been produced via CVD and demonstrated how it and other morphology diagrams could be used to infer clues about process variables like gas flow rates and heating temperatures that produced each pattern.

Thanks to advances in real-time imaging and in automated systems that can produce large datasets of crystal structures, the authors said there is “real potential for morphology diagram development to become a common practice and serve as a cornerstone of crystal growth.”

Lou, Tang, Zhang and Wang are members of Rice’s Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering. Lou is a professor and associate department chair. Tang is an assistant professor. Zhang is a postdoctoral research associate, and Fang is a graduate student. Shenoy is Penn’s Eduardo D. Glandt President’s Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering.

The research was supported by the Welch Foundation (C-1716), the National Science Foundation (IIP-1539999) and the Department of Energy (DE-SC0019111).

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About Rice University
Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation’s top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,962 undergraduates and 3,027 graduate students, Rice’s undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is just under 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for lots of race/class interaction and No. 4 for quality of life by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger’s Personal Finance.

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The DOI of the Materials Today paper is: 10.1016/j.mattod.2020.06.012

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SEMI Partners with GLOBALFOUNDRIES to Offer Apprenticeship Program Aimed at Building the Electronics Talent Pipeline

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Home > Press > SEMI Partners with GLOBALFOUNDRIES to Offer Apprenticeship Program Aimed at Building the Electronics Talent Pipeline

Abstract:
SEMI, the industry association serving the global electronics design and manufacturing supply chain, today launched a new collaborative apprenticeship program to make it easier for companies to offer training and for more workers to pursue careers in electronics. The competency-based SEMI Industry Approved Apprenticeship Program (IAAP) is designed to identify skills gaps and deliver targeted training that efficiently meets industry employers’ hiring needs.

SEMI Partners with GLOBALFOUNDRIES to Offer Apprenticeship Program Aimed at Building the Electronics Talent Pipeline


Milpitas, CA | Posted on August 11th, 2020

SEMI developed the IAAP in partnership with GLOBALFOUNDRIES® (GF®), the largest pure-play semiconductor foundry in the U.S. and the world’s leading specialty foundry. Designed to be scaled to meet industry demand for technicians, the program leverages SEMI’s Unified Competency Model (UCM), which was formed with industry input as a new skills standard and is endorsed by the U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration (USDOL-ETA). The UCM is posted on DOL-ETA’s Competency Model Clearinghouse.
“GLOBALFOUNDRIES has long been committed to building educational partnerships that benefit both our employees and the region, particularly in developing a highly skilled workforce to ensure our industry and the U.S. remains at the forefront of innovation for years to come,” said Ron Sampson, senior vice president and general manager of U.S. Fab Operations at GF. “Through SEMI’s new Industry Approved Apprenticeship Program, we look forward to helping our employees advance their careers, while playing an important role in workforce training and boosting the semiconductor manufacturing talent pool.”

“The IAAP is designed to help the microelectronics industry and advanced manufacturers overcome the talent shortage by enabling companies to fill skills gaps more effectively and at lower cost,” said Mike Russo, vice president of Industry Advancement and Government Programs at SEMI. “SEMI will continue to work to ensure the IAAP lays a path for employers to pursue government-registered apprenticeship programs and qualify for reimbursement of related training expenses.”

Hudson Valley Community College (HVCC) will offer the apprenticeship program courses, the first certified under the SEMI Certs program, online. The course curriculum is aligned with UCM to ensure course curriculum supports the development of skills required by the electronics industry.

“We are excited to be a partner in this pilot program that is expected to graduate approximately 50 apprentices by the end of this year and more than 100 apprentices by the end of 2021,” said Roger Ramsammy, president of Hudson Valley Community College. “Hudson Valley’s participation in the SEMI Certs program has ensured our courses are aligned with industry requirements and that participants receive college credits to help them pursue related degrees and support career laddering. In addition, we hope the program will ultimately be a New York State Registered Apprenticeship Program, providing access to tuition reimbursement for Required Technical Training.”

Along with GLOBALFOUNDRIES and HVCC, SEMI partnered with SUNY Polytechnic Institute, the Manufacturing Association of Central New York (MACNY) and the Center for Economic Growth (CEG), a nonprofit economic and business development organization that serves as the primary point of contact for businesses interested in growing in or moving to New York’s eight-county capital region, to develop the apprenticeship program.

The apprentice program marks a milestone in the evolution of SEMI Works™, the first U.S. electronics workforce development program developed under a partnership with the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (NSF-ATE) Program, the USDOL-ETA and academic partner SUNY Polytechnic Institute in New York.

####

About SEMI
SEMI® connects more than 2,400 member companies and 1.3 million professionals worldwide to advance the technology and business of electronics design and manufacturing. SEMI members are responsible for the innovations in materials, design, equipment, software, devices, and services that enable smarter, faster, more powerful, and more affordable electronic products. Electronic System Design Alliance (ESD Alliance), FlexTech, the Fab Owners Alliance (FOA) and the MEMS & Sensors Industry Group (MSIG) are SEMI Strategic Technology Communities, defined communities within SEMI focused on specific technologies. Visit www.semi.org to learn more, contact one of our worldwide offices, and connect with SEMI on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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Materials science researchers develop first electrically injected laser: The diode laser uses semiconducting material germanium tin and could improve micro-processing speed and efficiency at much lower costs

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Home > Press > Materials science researchers develop first electrically injected laser: The diode laser uses semiconducting material germanium tin and could improve micro-processing speed and efficiency at much lower costs

Fisher Yu, University of Arkansas CREDIT
University of Arkansas
Fisher Yu, University of Arkansas CREDIT
University of Arkansas

Abstract:
Materials science researchers, led by electrical engineering professor Shui-Qing “Fisher” Yu, have demonstrated the first electrically injected laser made with germanium tin.

Materials science researchers develop first electrically injected laser: The diode laser uses semiconducting material germanium tin and could improve micro-processing speed and efficiency at much lower costs


Fayetteville, AR | Posted on August 11th, 2020

Used as a semiconducting material for circuits on electronic devices, the diode laser could improve micro-processing speed and efficiency at much lower costs.

In tests, the laser operated in pulsed conditions up to 100 kelvins, or 279 degrees below zero Fahrenheit.

“Our results are a major advance for group-IV-based lasers,” Yu said. “They could serve as the promising route for laser integration on silicon and a major step toward significantly improving circuits for electronics devices.”

The research is sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the findings have been published in Optica, the journal of The Optical Society. Yiyin Zhou, a U of A doctoral student in the microelectronics-photonics program authored the article. Zhou and Yu worked with colleagues at several institutions, including Arizona State University, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and Wilkes University in Pennsylvania. The researchers also collaborated with Arktonics, an Arkansas semiconductor equipment manufacturer.

The alloy germanium tin is a promising semiconducting material that can be easily integrated into electronic circuits, such as those found in computer chips and sensors. The material could lead to the development of low-cost, lightweight, compact and low power-consuming electronic components that use light for information transmission and sensing.

Yu has worked with germanium tin for many years. Researchers in his laboratory have demonstrated the material’s efficacy as a powerful semiconducting alloy. After reporting the fabrication of a first-generation, “optically pumped” laser, meaning the material was injected with light, Yu and researchers in his laboratory continue to refine the material.

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Advance in programmable synthetic materials: Reading sequence of metal atoms in MOFs allows encoding of multiple chemical functions

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Home > Press > Advance in programmable synthetic materials: Reading sequence of metal atoms in MOFs allows encoding of multiple chemical functions

Rods of multivariate MOFs (left) can be programmed with different metal atoms (colored balls) to do a series of chemical tasks, such as controlled drug release, or to encode information like the ones and zeros in a digital computer. CREDIT
UC Berkeley image by Omar Yaghi and Zhe Ji
Rods of multivariate MOFs (left) can be programmed with different metal atoms (colored balls) to do a series of chemical tasks, such as controlled drug release, or to encode information like the ones and zeros in a digital computer. CREDIT
UC Berkeley image by Omar Yaghi and Zhe Ji

Abstract:
Artificial molecules could one day form the information unit of a new type of computer or be the basis for programmable substances. The information would be encoded in the spatial arrangement of the individual atoms – similar to how the sequence of base pairs determines the information content of DNA, or sequences of zeros and ones form the memory of computers.

Advance in programmable synthetic materials: Reading sequence of metal atoms in MOFs allows encoding of multiple chemical functions


Berkeley, CA | Posted on August 11th, 2020

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have taken a step towards this vision. They showed that atom probe tomography can be used to read a complex spatial arrangement of metal ions in multivariate metal-organic frameworks.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline porous networks of multi-metal nodes linked together by organic units to form a well-defined structure. To encode information using a sequence of metals, it is essential to be first able to read the metal arrangement. However, reading the arrangement was extremely challenging. Recently, the interest in characterizing metal sequences is growing because of the extensive information such multivariate structures would be able to offer.

Fundamentally, there was no method to read the metal sequence in MOFs. In the current study, the research team has successfully done so by using atom probe tomography (APT), in which the Bochum-based materials scientist Tong Li is an expert. The researchers chose MOF-74, made by the Yaghi group in 2005, as an object of interest. They designed the MOFs with mixed combinations of cobalt, cadmium, lead, and manganese, and then decrypted their spatial structure using APT.

Li, professor and head of the Atomic-Scale Characterisation research group at the Institute for Materials at RUB, describes the method together with Dr. Zhe Ji and Professor Omar Yaghi from UC Berkeley in the journal Science, published online on August 7, 2020.

Just as sophisticated as biology

In the future, MOFs could form the basis of programmable chemical molecules: for instance, an MOF could be programmed to introduce an active pharmaceutical ingredient into the body to target infected cells and then break down the active ingredient into harmless substances once it is no longer needed. Or MOFs could be programmed to release different drugs at different times.

“This is very powerful, because you are basically coding the behavior of molecules leaving the pores,” Yaghi said.

They could also be used to capture CO2 and, at the same time, convert the CO2 into a useful raw material for the chemical industry.

“In the long term, such structures with programmed atomic sequences can completely change our way of thinking about material synthesis,” write the authors. “The synthetic world could reach a whole new level of precision and sophistication that has previously been reserved for biology.”

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The work was supported by the Center of Excellence for Nanomaterials and Clean Energy Applications at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.

####

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Robert Sanders
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@UCBerkeley

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High-sensitivity atomic force microscopy opens up for photosensitive materials August 7th, 2020

Researchers capture X-ray images with unprecedented speed and resolution: Ghost imaging approach could enable detailed movies of the heart with low-dose x-rays August 7th, 2020

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

Materials science researchers develop first electrically injected laser: The diode laser uses semiconducting material germanium tin and could improve micro-processing speed and efficiency at much lower costs August 11th, 2020

May the force be with you: Detecting ultrafast light by its force: From cell phones to solar cells – research has implications for improvements in a wide range of technologies August 7th, 2020

High-sensitivity atomic force microscopy opens up for photosensitive materials August 7th, 2020

Researchers capture X-ray images with unprecedented speed and resolution: Ghost imaging approach could enable detailed movies of the heart with low-dose x-rays August 7th, 2020

Grants/Sponsored Research/Awards/Scholarships/Gifts/Contests/Honors/Records

Highly sensitive dopamine detector uses 2D materials August 7th, 2020

Study: Mapping crystal shapes could fast-track 2D materials: Experts call for global effort to clear hurdles to mass production July 27th, 2020

‘Blinking” crystals may convert CO2 into fuels: Unusual nanoparticles could benefit the quest to build a quantum computer July 17th, 2020

Membrane technology could cut emissions and energy use in oil refining July 17th, 2020

Source: http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=56293

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