ORLANDO — An alleged close approach between satellites from OneWeb and SpaceX led to a meeting between the companies and the Federal Communications Commission, but the companies don’t completely agree on what resulted from that discussion.
OneWeb officials said in early April that they had to move one of their satellites to avoid a close approach with a SpaceX Starlink satellite. The OneWeb satellite, OneWeb-0178, was one of 36 satellites launched March 25 on a Soyuz rocket from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia. As the spacecraft was raising its orbit, it was projected to come close to Starlink-1546, a satellite launched in September 2020 and currently in an orbit of about 450 kilometers.
OneWeb said that initial estimates of the potential conjunction provided by the U.S. Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron (SPCS) March 30 projected that the two satellites would come within about 60 meters of each other, with a 1.3% chance of a collision, on April 3. Chris McLaughlin, head of government affairs for OneWeb, told The Verge, which first reported about the conjunction, that SpaceX disabled the automated collision avoidance system on that Starlink satellite to allow the OneWeb satellite to maneuver safely.
McLaughlin, though, later told The Wall Street Journal that SpaceX informed the company it couldn’t do anything to avoid a collision and thus switched off the automated system on that satellite. “SpaceX has a gung-ho approach to space,” he told the newspaper, comparing Starlink satellites to electric cars produced by Tesla, which, like SpaceX, is led by Elon Musk: “They launch them and then they have to upgrade and fix them, or even replace them altogether.”
SpaceX did not publicly comment on those reports, but did arrange a meeting with both OneWeb and the FCC’s International Bureau, which regulates communications satellites. That April 20 meeting, according to a filing SpaceX made with the FCC later that day, discussed the satellite conjunction and SpaceX’s own assessment of the event.
“Despite recent reports to the contrary, the parties made clear that there was no ‘close call’ or ‘near miss,’” SpaceX stated. “SpaceX and OneWeb agreed that they had conducted a successful coordination, resulting in a positive outcome.”
SpaceX included in its filing its chronology of the conjunction, discussing email exchanges and phone calls between the companies. In one call April 2, SpaceX noted that LeoLabs, which tracks objects using its network of radars, predicted a probability of collision well below the threshold of 1-in-100,000 used to decide whether to perform a maneuver. A comparison of orbital data between OneWeb and SpaceX briefly showed a higher probability of collision, including the 1.3% chance of collision reported, but SpaceX said OneWeb acknowledged it underestimated the uncertainty in its orbital projections.
In a second call, less than two hours later, OneWeb decided it wanted to perform a collision avoidance maneuver because it could not wait for additional data. OneWeb asked SpaceX to turn off the automated collision avoidance system on Starlink-1546, which SpaceX did, and OneWeb then performed a maneuver of OneWeb-0178 on April 3.
By the time of the maneuver, though, the probability of a collision had already become insignificant based on refined orbital data. “In other words, the probability of collision was already below any threshold that required a maneuver and kept dropping,” SpaceX stated.
The actual close approach, based on data from 18 SPCS, was 1,120 meters. LeoLabs, using its own data, estimated a close approach of 1,072 meters.
“SpaceX expressed its disappointment to the Commission that OneWeb’s officials chose to publicly misstate the circumstances of the coordination,” SpaceX stated in its filing. “SpaceX was therefore grateful that OneWeb offered in the meeting with the Commission to retract its previous incorrect statements.”
OneWeb, though, has yet to make such a retraction. Contacted about the SpaceX filing, OneWeb spokesperson Katie Dowd referred SpaceNews to OneWeb’s own FCC filing on April 21, in response to the one from SpaceX.
“OneWeb made no such offer to retract any previous statements made to the press,” the company said in the filing by its legal firm, Sheppard Mullin. “OneWeb simply noted during the meeting that press coverage can sometimes be erroneous in certain respects – a fact noted by SpaceX itself when requesting the FCC meeting in the first place. OneWeb stands by its story as reported to the press.”
OneWeb added that SpaceX did not respond to requests for comment for those earlier news reports. Dowd said that OneWeb did not plan to comment further on the matter.
OneWeb did say in its filing that it found the “exchange of facts and data between the engineering teams for SpaceX and OneWeb to be outstanding” in the meeting with the FCC. “As demonstrated yesterday during the discussion, OneWeb is committed to full cooperation with SpaceX and all other satellite operators on physical coordination of satellites.”
“Coordination did not work very well”
This is not the first controversy involving a close approach between a Starlink satellite and another spacecraft. In September 2019, the European Space Agency had to maneuver its Aeolus satellite when it determined a Starlink satellite would pass too close to it. ESA complained that it had problems coordinating with SpaceX, which the company blamed on a confluence of factors that it subsequently addressed.
“This was actually indeed a close call, and coordination did not work very well,” recalled Rolf Densing, ESA director of operations, during an April 19 press briefing as part of the 8th European Conference on Space Debris.
That has since improved. “We are, ever since, in close contact with SpaceX. I must say they are very cooperative,” he said. “We have, on a bilateral basis, found a modus vivendi with close cooperation on how to avoid this ever happening again.”
This latest incident comes as SpaceX seeks permission from the FCC to modify its existing license to lower the orbits of 2,825 satellites authorized by that license from altitudes of more than 1,000 kilometers to about 550 kilometers, joining the 1,584 satellites already approved to operate in the lower orbit. SpaceX has called the proposed change a “safety upgrade” of its constellation since, at the lower orbits, satellites will have shorter lifetimes.
That proposal faces strong opposition from a number of other companies, including OneWeb, Viasat, Hughes Network Systems and Amazon, who argue that the change would have effects ranging from spectrum interference with other satellite systems to effectively making it impossible for other satellite constellations to operate in similar orbits.
Those companies, and SpaceX, have made a series of claims and counterclaims in filings attached to the FCC docket about SpaceX’s license modification. SpaceX, in its April 20 filing, argued that OneWeb used the publicity surrounding the close approach to meet with FCC commissioners, “demanding unilateral conditions placed on SpaceX’s operations.” OneWeb said on April 14 it met with one FCC commissioner, Nathan Simington, and his staff, proposing that SpaceX be required “to closely coordinate collision avoidance events with other operators and not rely solely on its automated system.”
An argument from another satellite operator appeared to make its way into the April 21 Senate confirmation hearing for Bill Nelson, the nominee for NASA administrator. “Do you think we need rules and policies to ensure that large commercial constellations are designed and operated in a way that ensures a very low aggregate collision risk level over their lifetimes?” Sen. Cynthia Lummis (R-Wyo.) asked him.
That specific terminology echoes a proposal made by Viasat to the FCC April 12 as a condition for granting SpaceX’s license modification. “SpaceX should be required to design, deploy, and operate its modified 4,408-satellite constellation so the aggregate collision risk posed by the entire constellation does not exceed a suitable limit over its 15-year license term,” Viasat proposed.
“Yes, ma’am,” Nelson replied, but then broadly discussed the general threats posed by orbital debris, including debris created by a 2007 Chinese antisatellite weapons test, rather than the risk from Starlink or other commercial constellations.
Asked by Lummis what level of risk NASA would be willing to accept from commercial space activities, Nelson called for development of active debris removal technologies to dispose of failed satellites. “If it’s dead, then there ought to be a provision for getting it down,” he said. “That’s something that’s already started and it ought to be accelerated.”
SpaceX has faced the most scrutiny for its satellite constellation, but even ESA’s Densing suggests the company is not as bad as its critics make it out to be. “It looks at first glance like Elon Musk is the evil guy, because he is polluting space,” he said. “Actually, space is there for everybody. I must say, I’m actually a bit jealous. I must congratulate him on this great idea of starting this megaconstellation.”
Ariane 5 issue could delay JWST
WASHINGTON — Ongoing work to address a problem seen on two previous Ariane 5 launches has kept that launch vehicle grounded for months and could delay the high-profile launch of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope later this year.
The Ariane 5, one of the world’s most reliable launch vehicles, last launched in August 2020, placing two communications satellites and Northrop Grumman’s Mission Extension Vehicle 2 into geostationary transfer orbit. The long hiatus in launches led to speculation there was an issue with the rocket.
In a statement to SpaceNews, Arianespace acknowledged that “post-flight analyses conducted on two recent Ariane 5 launches have indicated the occurrence of a less than fully nominal separation of the fairing, however with no adverse impact on the Ariane 5 flights in question.”
The company did not elaborate on the problem, but industry sources familiar with the issue said that, on both the August 2020 launch and the previous Ariane launch in February 2020, the separation of the faring induced vibrations into the payload stack well above acceptable limits. Neither incident damaged any of the payloads, but raised concerns about the effect on future missions, including JWST.
“We have decided to conduct a set of additional checks with RUAG and ArianeGroup to ensure the best level of quality and reliability; the progress of these investigations remains positive,” Arianespace said. Ruag, which manufactures the Ariane 5 payload fairings, did not respond to a request for comment about the status of that work.
Arianespace declined to give a schedule for upcoming Ariane 5 launches, saying the only date it was publicizing was for its next mission, a Soyuz vehicle carrying another set of OneWeb satellites scheduled for launch May 27. However, NASA officials said there are two Ariane 5 launches scheduled before the JWST launch, which the agency had been publicizing an Oct. 31 date for.
The first of those two Ariane 5 missions is scheduled to carry the Eutelsat Quantum and Star One D2 satellites for operators Eutelsat and Embratel Star One, respectively. In its latest earnings statement May 11, Eutelsat said the launch of Eutelsat Quantum has slipped from the late second quarter of this year to the third quarter, but did not offer a more specific launch date.
At a May 11 media event about JWST, Greg Robinson, program director for the telescope at NASA Headquarters, confirmed there were two Ariane 5 launches ahead of JWST. “They’re going through the process of getting the rocket ready for the upcoming launch, the first of three,” he said. “Once they launch, we’ll be able to launch in about four months after that.”
That would suggest JWST will miss its Oct. 31 launch date, although perhaps only by weeks. An Ariane 5 launch of Eutelsat Quantum and Star One D2 at the beginning of the third quarter, or early July, would allow for a launch of JWST in early November, four months later.
Unlike planetary missions, JWST does not have to launch in a narrow window. “We have launch windows almost virtually every day,” Bill Ochs, JWST project manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said at the event. “We have multiple, multiple opportunities for launch.”
At an April 27 Space Transportation Association webinar, Steve Jurczyk, at the time NASA acting administrator, also suggested a delay in the JWST launch. “There are two Ariane 5 launches before the JWST launch,” he said. “They’ve slipped to the right a little bit.” He said NASA was closely following both preparations of JWST as well as the status of the Ariane 5 manifest.
The current situation is ironic because, for much of JWST’s development, the Ariane 5 had been considered the least risky aspect of the $8.8 billion space telescope. The vehicle typically launched several times a year, and last suffered a total launch failure in 2002. JWST itself, meanwhile, suffered extensive technical problems that delayed its launch by years and added billions to its cost.
At the May 11 media event, though, project officials said final preparations of the spacecraft are going well, and that it should be ready for shipment to French Guiana by late August, a schedule that would support an Oct. 31 launch.
The margin in that schedule has been gradually diminishing, as expected. “When we ship, the schedule margin will be pretty close to zero, but still on plan,” Robinson said, noting there are no “liens” on the schedule for the remaining work before shipment. “Right now we’re in a really good place.”
“We’re getting pretty close to the goal line,” he added. “We just need to punch it over.”
Senate bill would direct NASA to select a second HLS company
WASHINGTON — An amendment to a Senate bill would require NASA to select a second company for its Human Lander System program, a provision some fear could upend the overall effort to return humans to the moon as soon as 2024.
The Senate Commerce Committee approved in a markup session May 12 a NASA authorization bill as an amendment to the Endless Frontier Act, a bill that would establish a new technology directorate for the National Science Foundation. The amendment was one of dozens considered by the committee during the session, which ultimately approved the bill on a 24–4 vote.
The amendment, known as the Space Preservation and Conjunction Emergency (SPACE) Act of 2021, is a version of a similar bill the Senate considered in 2020 but was not enacted. As the name suggests, it addresses issues associated with space traffic management, including directing the Office of Space Commerce to handle civil space traffic management responsibilities.
The amendment, though, also includes a NASA authorization for fiscal year 2021 similar to one the Senate approved at the end of 2020. A new provision in that amendment covers “competitiveness within the Human Landing System program,” the NASA program to fund development of crewed lunar landers. NASA awarded a single HLS “Option A” contract to SpaceX April 16 valued at $2.89 billion to develop a lander based on the company’s Starship vehicle and to fly a single demonstration mission.
The amendment directs NASA to fund development of “not fewer than 2 entities” in the HLS program no later than 30 days after the bill is enacted. It would authorize a total of $10.032 billion for the program, although funding would have to be appropriated separately, and on an annual basis.
The language has raised questions about how it would be implemented. It is unclear how the agency would select a second provider, as it could not run a new procurement within 30 days. Selecting one of the losing Option A bidders, Blue Origin or Dynetics, based on their original proposals could prompt a protest from the other company or from SpaceX, according to industry sources. The Government Accountability Office is reviewing protests filed by Blue Origin and Dynetics about NASA’s selection of SpaceX for the single HLS award, with a decision due by Aug. 4.
“By purchasing commercial services to take astronauts from lunar orbit to land on the surface of the moon, we will ensure a robust deep space transportation system is in place as we learn to live and work on another world for the benefit of all. NASA is unable to comment on the proposed amendment due to ongoing litigation of the recent Human Landing System selection,” the agency said in a statement to SpaceNews, referring to the GAO protests.
Neither that provision nor the overall amendment was discussed by the committee during its markup. However, the chair of the committee, Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.), has previously made clear she was disappointed that NASA, citing budget constraints, selected only one company for HLS Option A awards.
“I have to say I was surprised last week about the Human Landing System development contract,” Cantwell said at the April 21 confirmation hearing for Bill Nelson’s nomination to be NASA administrator. Nelson, during the hearing, committed to accelerating a competition for a future lunar landing services, but Cantwell pushed for faster action. “I think there needs to be redundancy, and it has to be clear in this process that it can’t be redundancy later. It has to be redundancy now.”
There is no guarantee that this language will make it into the final version of the bill, assuming it passes both the House and Senate. Efforts to pass NASA authorization legislation of any kind in recent years have foundered because of disagreements between the House and Senate and the relatively low priority of such legislation.
NASA has started planning for those follow-on service contracts, known as Lunar Exploration Transportation Services (LETS). NASA issued a request for information April 28, seeking feedback on a proposed broad agency announcement that NASA plans to issue this summer before the overall LETS procurement.
That broad agency announcement, known as Appendix N of the Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program, would support initial risk reduction work for the later LETS procurement. At a May 3 industry day, Lisa Watson-Morgan, NASA HLS program manager, said the agency hopes to issue a formal request for proposals in June and make selections between August and October.
The awards, though, will be no more than about $15 million each, and have periods of performance of only 7 to 12 months. “The funding is TBD,” she said. “We think we are able to award a few at $15 million.”
The later LETS award could include some funding for design, development, testing and evaluation work, although specific details remain uncertain, Watson-Morgan said. The contracts would cover at least six missions starting in the late 2020s, she said, with at least two missions per contractor.
Space Force looking to deploy radar satellites to track moving targets on the ground
Raymond: The Space Force and the Air Force are “actively working” on concepts for the deployment of GMTI satellites
WASHINGTON — The U.S. Air Force wants to use small radar satellites to track moving objects on the ground and the Space Force will help to make it happen, chief of space operations Gen. John Raymond said May 12.
A project to look at the use of radar satellites for GMTI — short for ground moving target indicator — has been pursued in secret since 2018 by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office. Raymond said this effort will be discussed more openly to allow more participation from the commercial space industry.
“We’re building a ‘GMTI from space’ program,” Raymond said at the McAleese & Associates annual defense conference. He revealed that the Space Force and the Air Force are “actively working” on concepts for the deployment of GMTI satellites.
The Air Force currently uses large aircraft known as JSTARS — or Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System — that are equipped with radar sensors to discriminate targets against the ground clutter. JSTARS require large crews and the Air Force for years has been concerned about its aircraft and operators being vulnerable to enemy air-defense missiles when flying over combat zones.
Raymond said GMTI from space is about “doing the JSTARS mission without being tied to an airplane in a contested environment.”
Radar satellites and surveillance from space in general has been the purview of the National Reconnaissance Office. Raymond said there are growing demands for tactical level ISR (intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) and this will become a “growth area” for the Space Force. He said systems can be deployed at lower cost as satellite and launch services are now more affordable.
He said the Space Force will work with the Air Force and the intelligence community “in a complementary way, not competing.”
“We’ll leverage commercial more than we’ve done in the past,” Raymond said.
The commander of the Space Force’s Space and Missile Systems Center Lt. Gen. John Thompson said the GMTI project is an example of the service’s push to declassify and increase transparency.
Speaking May 12 at a Mitchell Institute event, Thompson said he could not discuss details of the GMTI project but underscored the opportunities that it creates for the government to take advantage of privately funded technologies.
A Space Force spokesperson said the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office began identifying space-based GMTI technologies in 2018 with a goal to deploy a new system before JSTARS aircraft are taken out of service.
“The space-based GMTI system will replace a portion of the JSTARS sensing capability,” the spokesperson said. “The space-based GMTI system will surpass the range limitations of current air platforms and will provide capabilities in contested and non-contested environments.” This effort is “another way to harness data from the space domain” and use it in support of military operations.
The Air Force in 2011 started a five-year study that looked at options for replacing the aging fleet of 17 airliner-size JSTARS. Initially it was leaning toward selecting a new airplane but then leaders realized a new JSTARS would be useless in conflicts against adversaries that have advanced air defenses.
The deployment of space radar for military use was tried before albeit unsuccessfully. The Air Force in the late 1990s teamed up with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Reconnaissance Office to develop a constellation of radar remote-sensing satellites that would provide global coverage. The project was nixed in the 2000 budget. The Air Force and the NRO teamed on another space radar demonstration project but it did not materialize due to lack of congressional support.
Arqit raising $400 million with a SPAC to launch quantum encryption satellites in 2023
TAMPA, Fla. — British quantum technology encryption startup Arqit is raising $400 million in the space industry’s latest SPAC deal, supporting the launch and construction of two satellites in 2023 to protect against growing hacking threats.
The fundraising comes as the FBI investigates a ransomware attack that closed a U.S. pipeline providing a significant portion of gasoline and jet fuel to the East Coast, highlighting a need to bolster cyberdefenses.
Arqit’s merger with Centricus Acquisition Corp., a publicly traded SPAC (special purpose acquisition company), values the combined group at $1.4 billion.
That makes Arqit the first space company unicorn — a startup valued more than $1 billion — to emerge from the U.K., according to Mark Boggett, CEO of venture capital firm Seraphim Capital that invested in Arqit before the transaction.
It is the “first of many new ones to come,” Boggett added.
The corporate entity for the combined company will be called Arqit Quantum Inc, headquartered in the Cayman Islands and listed on the Nasdaq stock exchange, if the deal closes as expected by the end of the third quarter of 2021. Arqit will remain a U.K. operating and tax-paying company.
U.S.-based launch startup Virgin Orbit, which is developing an air-launched rocket, injected $5 million into Arqit’s SPAC deal.
Virgin Orbit will conduct two launches for the company to low Earth orbit (LEO) beginning in 2023. It has a history of investing in startups that buy its launch services.
Investment firms Sumitomo Corporation of Japan and Heritage Group of the U.S. also participated in Arqit’s PIPE, or private investments in public equity — a mechanism for companies to raise money from a select group of investors outside the market. The PIPE secured $70 million in total.
Arqit is not disclosing who is building its satellites, which will support quantum encryption technology it calls QuantumCloud. The startup says its technology will secure communications links of any networked device against hacking, including attacks from a quantum computer.
“This transaction will give Arqit the ability to establish itself as a leader in the encryption space – the prospect of the threat from quantum computing will serve to accelerate the broad adoption of Arqit technology,” Centricus CEO Garth Ritchie said in a statement.
“This is a deep tech company which is many years ahead of the market. Arqit has protected its IP by remaining in stealth mode whilst filing over 1,000 claims on more than a dozen patent applications.”
David Williams, previously a CEO for British satellite operator Avanti Communications, heads Arqit.
U.K. space unicorn
The startup has received funding from the British government in addition to venture capital investments while it was under stealth mode.
“Arqit’s business combination transaction represents a huge moment for the UK spacetech ecosystem,” Boggett told SpaceNews in an email.
He said five-year old Arqit will be the first U.K-based space technology company to merge with a U.S. publicly listed SPAC.
Seraphim first backed Arqit in its seed round in 2018, and Boggett said it has invested in every funding round since.
Arqit’s QuantumCloud software generates an unlimited number of encryption keys at the end point of customer devices to protect against hacks.
The system currently relies on terrestrial communications infrastructure to deliver this capability from source keys that originate in data centers.
However, Arqit plans to use satellites to create a backbone of secure keys within data centers around the world.
QuantumCloud uses symmetric encryption that Arqit says is better suited for an increasingly connected world, compared with public key infrastructure (PKI) that is used to encrypt most of the world’s communications.
Its current customers include the U.K. government, European Space Agency, British telecoms company BT and Sumitomo.
Arqit said satellite operator Iridium Communications and aerospace and defense giant Northrop Grumman are among those testing its technology.
Virgin Orbit will launch the first two satellites with its LauncherOne system, set to carry a mix of defense and commercial cubesats in its next mission in June.
The LauncherOne rocket reached orbit on its second flight Jan. 17.
Virgin Orbit said it is in talks about a further set of launches after the initial program, potentially out from Spaceport Cornwall in the U.K. where it will start operations in 2022.
Arqit’s deal comes during a challenging time for the SPAC investment vehicle, which had seen a flurry of space deals before slowing down amid increasing regulatory scrutiny.
On April 12, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) released guidance on SPAC accounting practices. Specifically, these concern the treatment of warrants, which give investors the option to buy shares at specific prices in the future, in a company’s accounting books.
The move has been adding complexity and delays for many space companies looking to use SPACs for a relatively quick cash boost to support their typical sky-high project costs.
The number of new SPACs has significantly slowed down across all industries in recent weeks as businesses and investors wait to see how the changes shake out.
Virgin Orbit had reportedly been considering joining the SPAC trend before the SEC released its guidance.
Virgin Galactic, the space tourism venture that used to be its sister company, had to delay its financial results following the new guidelines. Even though Virgin Galactic completed its SPAC deal in 2019, sparking the current trend, it still has outstanding warrants in the market.
Eight space SPACs have now announced mergers since Virgin Galactic’s 2019 deal. Of these, seven aim to close this year.
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