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Should police officers be required to live in the cities they patrol? There’s no evidence it matters

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Protests that have swept the country in the wake of George Floyd’s death have prompted calls to limit police funding, hold officers accountable for dangerous restraints — and even limit where they can live.

Some activists want officers to be required to live in the cities they patrol, arguing it will make officers more culturally competent, diversify police forces and improve community relations.

“It’s a plus if we have officers who live in the city, they grew up in the city, they have a stake in the city because it’s home,” said Kenyatta Johnson, a member of Philadelphia’s City Council, which introduced a bill Thursday to restore the city’s police residency requirement. “It goes a long way to building community trust.”

But no recent research shows residency requirements improve relations between cops and the residents they’re sworn to protect.

“Throughout our research, we have never encountered a shred of evidence that requiring or incentivizing police officers to live in the communities in which they work has any positive effect on the quality of policing,” Communities United Against Police Brutality, a Twin Cities-based organization, says on its website.

Instead, law enforcement experts and community activists say lawmakers should focus on measures such as ending the use of no-knock warrants and chokeholds, which have led to recent deaths of African Americans.

‘The major stumbling block’:Powerful police unions stand in the way of structural reform, experts say

A peaceful vigil at the George Floyd memorial at the Cup Foods Market at the intersection of E. 38th Street and Chicago Ave on Monday, June, 1, 2020. George Floyd died in police custody on May 25, 2020 at this location.

The rise of residency requirements

Residency requirements for municipal employees — including teachers, police officers and firefighters — arose during the machine politics of the 19th century but fell out of fashion in the early 20th century, according to Peter Eisinger, a professor emeritus at the New School in New York City.

The policy had a renaissance in the U.S. during the 1970s. By 1980, nearly two-thirds of all cities with more than 250,000 residents had such laws, according to Eisinger’s 1980 study. At the time, cities were looking for ways to improve the diversity of the municipal workforce and limit white flight to the suburbs.

“People began to think that the municipal workforce, particularly police and teachers, ought to reflect the communities they serve,” Eisinger said. “The idea of a municipal workforce coming into the city from the suburbs smacked of colonialism. You had white employees coming in from the suburbs to teach largely minority schools.”

But residency requirements weren’t all about community relations. Many were introduced as a way of capturing the spending and taxes that local employees generate — the “local coffer theory,” Eisinger said.

As the policies spread, some fought them. In 1976, a Philadelphia firefighter who was fired after he moved to New Jersey challenged the city’s requirement, but the United States Supreme Court upheld it.

For Black mayors:Police reforms are a personal mission

Police associations and unions have argued residency requirements limit the talent pool and breed corruption. In 2010, Philadelphia’s police union got the city to allow officers to reside outside city limits if they had been on the force for at least five years. The percentage of officers who live outside the city has risen since then, though most still live in Philadelphia.

Some city employees have flouted residency requirements. In March, the head of the police union for Kansas City, Missouri, alleged some officers were circumventing its rule by renting trailers in the city and keeping their real homes elsewhere. 

Though these rules have become less popular in recent years, some major cities still have them. Some policies give employees time to move into the city after they’re hired. Others allow officers to move out after a certain period of time. Some offer perks to those living in the city, such as additional points on entrance exams.

In a 2015 report on 21st-century policing, a federal task force recommended police departments institute “residency incentive programs” that provide officers housing in public housing neighborhoods as long as they fulfill public safety duties within the neighborhood.

An essential qualification? Or a distraction?

María Quiñones Sánchez, a member of the Philadelphia City Council who supports the residency requirement, said residency should factor into determining who’s qualified to serve a community. She and Johnson said their constituents have been demanding it.

“If you work for a government in a particular city, you should be a member of that community,” said Sánchez, who places residency requirements among her top five police reforms. “Who is qualified if not someone who is a member of an historically marginalized community? Don’t you want more people speaking different languages?”

But none of the seven law enforcement experts who spoke to USA TODAY could point to contemporary research showing residency requirements have a positive effect on police officer performance or community relations.

“Outside of when there’s a snowstorm and people live 50 miles away, that’s not an issue,” said Steve Nasta, a lecturer at John Jay College of Criminal Justice who spent more than three decades with the New York City Police Department. 

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When the Minneapolis City Council considered taking up residency requirements in 2017, the group Communities United Against Police Brutality recommended against it.

“We frequently hear from members of the community that they would not want to live in the same neighborhood as officers who have arrested, harassed or perhaps even abused them,” Michelle Gross, president of the group, wrote in a letter to the council.

Dave Bicking, a board member of the group, called residency requirements “a distraction from real reform.”

A 1999 study even found that residency requirements affected citizens’ perceptions of the police negatively.

“In the little research we’ve seen, it’s not clear that the residency requirement would improve community relations,” said Sarah Greenman, a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Hamline University in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Chuck Wexler, executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum, said cities have been moving away from residency requirements.

“At a time when the policing profession is being challenged is the time to get the best applicants from wherever they live and wherever they decide to reside,” Wexler said. He argued the cost of living in large cities has made it difficult for officers to find housing there, and that officers may prefer their children attend schools in the suburbs.

Opinion:George Floyd laid to rest, but America must keep fighting to reform policing

Armored members of the Minneapolis State Patrol stand guard in an intersection in front of burned out buildings in the Third Precinct of Minneapolis.

Even within cities, cops may live in separate neighborhoods

For about 100 years, Chicago has required police officers to live in the city, but that policy has been enforced sporadically. In 2010, about 88% of officers lived in the city. According to the Chicago Sun-Times in 2017, dozens of police officers had resigned or been reprimanded for residency issues since 1981.

The makeup of the Chicago police force today is not proportional to the demographics of the city as a whole, with a greater share of white officers than city residents. The city has suffered a number of notoriously corrupt cops and high-profile police-involved killings. In many neighborhoods, tensions between the police and residents run high.

Even within the city, officers tend to live in clusters outside their districts. Sunday, at a peace march in the South Side neighborhood of Chatham, which is predominantly African American, organizers railed against officers who live in the mostly white neighborhood of Beverly, just a few miles away.

Tamar Manasseh, who runs a community anti-violence initiative called Mothers Against Senseless Killing in the city’s Englewood neighborhood, argues that police residency requirements may be effective only if they require officers to live in the neighborhoods where they work.

“They need to live amongst the people they patrol, and all the sensitivity training in the world isn’t going to do anything for you,” Manasseh said. “You’d be less likely to crack a head if you know where they live and they know where you live. People who eat dinner with each other don’t kill each other.”

Defund police in schools?:How the movement got momentum after George Floyd’s death

Demonstrators march against racism and police brutality and to defund th Minneapolis Police Department on June 6, 2020 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. - Demonstrations are being held across the US following the death of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, while being arrested in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

How many cops live in the cities they patrol?

The most recent publicly available data suggests that in general, a majority of officers don’t live in the cities where they work, though the data is more than a decade old. 

On average, 31 percent of police officers were residents of the cities and towns they patrolled, according to a USA TODAY examination of U.S. Census data for 2006 to 2010 for 745 cities and towns. 

At the time, disparities in officer residency varied based on several factors, including the size and racial makeup of the cities and the race of the officer.

Larger cities tended to have higher percentages of officers who lived within the city limits. Some of them, such as Chicago and Philadelphia, required officers to live within the city or within a certain radius.

White police officers tended to live in the cities where they worked when those cities were majority-white, according to the USA TODAY analysis. White officers were also more likely to reside outside the city than their Black or Latino counterparts.

Overall, in communities where the nonwhite population was less than 10%, the average police residency rate was about 47%. But in majority nonwhite cities, it was only 27%.

In Minneapolis, where George Floyd died in police custody, just 8% of officers lived in the city in 2017, according to the Star-Tribune. Minneapolis police did not respond to a public-records request for an updated figure.

In New York City, which allows officers to live in one of the five boroughs or six approved counties, a far higher percentage of officers (61%) resided in the city, according to Census data. But, as in Minneapolis, there was a racial divide: More than three quarters of New York City’s Black and Latino officers lived in the city while less than half of the city’s white officers did.

Protesters take a knee at Borough Hall as part of a solidarity rally calling for justice over the death of George Floyd, and to highlight police brutality nationwide, Tuesday, June 9, 2020, in the Brooklyn borough of New York.

More ‘research-backed options’ for police reform

There are better options for police reform — ones backed by research — than residency requirements, Greenman said. Several randomized studies have looked at the effect of having officers reinforce principles of procedural justice, such as representation, consistency and impartiality, in their interactions with people.

“When this is done, people are more likely to view the police as legitimate, have satisfaction with the police, accept the decisions that are made, and obey the law in the future,” Greenman said.

This week, Communities United Against Police Brutality outlined dozens of research-backed options that center on police accountability, training and data collection. Among them: requiring police officers to carry their own professional liability insurance; ensuring badges are visible and legible; and prosecuting excessive force, investigator misconduct and perjury.

Residency requirements were not an element of the sweeping package of police reforms that congressional Democrats proposed this week. Instead, the legislation aims to bolster police accountability through dashboard and body cameras, track aggressive officers with checkered pasts, end no-knock warrants and chokeholds, and limit the transfer of military weaponry to police departments.

In Minneapolis, activists and researchers collaborating under the banner of MPD150, which conducted a 150-year review of the police department, are calling for the abolition of police, an institution that the group says is founded in violence, corruption and white supremacy.

“What we have seen over the course of our historical research,” the group said, “is that reforms of any kind are ineffective for a number of reasons.”

Source: http://rssfeeds.usatoday.com/~/627247946/0/usatoday-newstopstories~Should-police-officers-be-required-to-live-in-the-cities-they-patrol-Theres-no-evidence-it-matters/

Forex

New method of investment: Copy trading, or copy trading as it was originally called

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These are busy days for those who have a certain level of savings in the economy. Because already sharp movements occur in the Turkish lira because of their very high rates of investment to translate the uncertainties in Turkey in recent times with a certain amount of savings. This enables people to turn to different investment methods.

If you are looking for a dynamic investment method and still do not know where to start, we will have a profitable suggestion for you. A type of investment, originally called “Forex copy trading”, and another name that can be translated as copy investment in Turkish is social investment. It can be a good entry-level choice for those who do not know exactly how and how to invest in investment vehicles.

The basic logic of copy trading is to imitate the investments of successful investors in the exchange you want to enter. It’s that simple. Anyway, the name of this investment concept is therefore determined as copy investment.

According to one of the studies conducted in recent years, this type of investment is increasingly taking up a place in the market. The copy investment market will reach an amount of € 70 billion by the end of 2025, according to researches.

To start copy trading, the first thing to do is to choose a reliable and profitable investment platform. At this point, the next step in choosing a reliable investment platform is  Forex Copy Trading

that is, to be able to follow reliable investors for copy investment. Therefore, the choice of platform is very important at this point.

A Close Look at Copy Investment

In short, it is important that copy investment or social investment platforms allow experienced investors to copy their investments directly. Here, when you find such an investment exchange, the investment made in this way is also called “auto investment” because you invest your own account directly into the account of the experienced investor.

You can invest in the form of copy investment in the BIST 100, crypto money exchanges and even foreign exchanges. It is a method that can be followed even for foreign currency deposits. However, it will require serious research at the stage of determining the investors you will follow in the first place.

How Exactly to Invest in Copy?

In fact, there are two popular ways to do this.

Following the Investors’ Strategies One to One

Whichever exchange you are investing in, you can learn the investments made by the really experienced names of that stock exchange with a good research and make these investments one by one.

Benefits:

Simple System: The investment you will make in this way will be a very simple and easy-to-use investment type. This is the reason why it is called auto investment as a type of investment that you can directly imitate the investments of expert investors in the field.

Flexibility: You can follow this type of investment from any digital device. It is a very flexible method as you will do the same no matter where you are, as soon as you hear about the direct investment of the person you follow, as there is no subject to think about.

Choosing a strategy is very easy: All you have to do is find the best in the field with the right research. Once you find it, it will be very easy to determine your strategy.

Transaction Fees: Most successful traders will charge you a certain fee to return their investments. These fee claims create an additional cost. However, you can manage your funds with the confidence that there will be no additional fees or expenses for the investment.

Let others follow your investment. For this, create an investment strategy.

Here you will be the one followed. Of course, this has certain advantages and disadvantages.

Your strategies will directly affect the market: Since you will be the person who will determine the strategy, whatever strategy you follow, the strategy you will follow will be a strategy that will affect the market completely.

You will also get the reward for your labor outside of profits: In this way, you will have to spend all your work on this work. However, you will get more than your followers for your efforts.

You will set the rules of the game: However, doing these operations will require both very serious experience and serious work.

Of course, it would be useful for you to carefully investigate whether there is a method to follow completely. However, it is possible to say that you can carry out such transactions with peace of mind with detailed analysis on the leading quality investment and stock exchange platforms such as AMarkets.

 

 

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Coinpedia

Ethereum Price Smashed $2000, $3000 Incoming At Lightning Speed!

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Ethereum Price (ETH) May Hit $10,000 This Cycle!

The Ethereum price that is known to maintain a stable price movement, finally broke the previous ATH to form a new one. It took more than a months time to regain its lost position above $2000, yet sustained successfully. 

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The price took more time than expected to break the $2000 barrier, yet $3000 may be approaching at rocket speed. As predicted by founder of Gokhstein Media, David Gokhstein, the next stop for the ETH price is around $3,900. 

With the continued bullish trend and intensified rally, the price is expected to surge to the highest levels. According to an analyst and Crypto Youtuber, Young and Investing, the Ethereum price may hit $10,000 within the current bull run.

With the accelerated bull run, many analysts believe Ethereum could lead the market instead of Bitcoin too. Therefore providing a huge opportunity for the altcoins to boom within the ETH bull rally. 

Is Altcoin-Season On the Cards?

Many altcoins normally pop-up with the surge in the price of the second dominant crypto Ethereum. Currently, ETH price is trading around its new all time high around $2152 and expected to fly high. Therefore, many small cap altcoins are expected to rise from ashes and pump more than 50x or even 100x also.

Many analysts believe the Altcoin Season of 2021 is on the way and is expected to be the greatest season ever. According to a popular analyst, XRPcryptowolf, the season will reach its peak during the summer.

Moreover, the coins which are believed to be dead or not performing are also expected to rise. One of the analysts, MC also has given a brief idea on which all coins might pump in the current AltSeason.

Collectively, the breakout of Ethereum price has led to initialization of the most awaited AltSeason of 2021. The ETH price rally is expected to intensify in the coming days, that might smash $10,000 soon.

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Trade with the Official CFD Partners of AC Milan
Source: https://coinpedia.org/ethereum/ethereum-price-to-surge-to-3000-soon/

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Coinpedia

Lark Davis Addresses 3 Most Common Criticisms Tagged With Cardano

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Popular New Zealand-based crypto analyst Lark Davis pointed out the three criticisms faced by the Cardano project

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Cardano Is Overvalued

He says that Cardano’s biggest use case right now is staking. The current price of Cardano is based on speculation rather than real demand for the token based on usefulness and need among developers and users.

Right now, the basic economics that will drive future demand are simply not there. Also there’s nothing wrong or unusual about this. This is a fairly normal occurrence. We see that a lot with various assets, where the price of an asset can rise far higher than its value should be based on where it is now simply because of strong support from the market and it’s future predictions.

Even if cardano’s price is overvalued right now does not really mean that it will plunge or go down in the near future. Davis says that in such situations the opposite is likely to happen. The higher the market cap, the more serious an investment it is in the eyes of many investors, which makes the market cap go even higher and become even more serious.

Also Read : Top reasons why Cardano(ADA) Price is Poised For Massive Surge!

Nothing Is Built on Cardano

According to Lark Davis this statement is not technically true as he feels that few things are built on cardano but it lacks an ecosystem. He also states that it’s an incredibly dishonest critique of Cardano in his opinion because it is hard to have an ecosystem when there’s no smart contract functionality.

“Smart contracts are coming. The testnet is due in late April. Smart contracts are then scheduled to come on the mainnet around August… I think we’ll have at least a few dozen applications by Q1 of next year.“

Cardano Is Too Slow in Its Development

Davis says it’s fair to hope Cardano’s speed of development to pick up pace, especially considering the moderately fast rise of other projects with robust and successful ecosystems such as Elrond (EGLD) and Avalanche (AVAX).

Luckily cardano has a growing community and enthusiastic users who are willing to support the smart contracts from the day one of it’s launch. With such an optimistic community if cardano promises to deliver an ecosystem that mints people money, then it’s obvious for users and developers to eventually join this massive ADA community.

“I personally think that Cardano will prove the haters wrong this year, and that they will deliver a powerful and interesting blockchain that will become a big part of the cryptocurrency ecosystem…“

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Source: https://coinpedia.org/altcoin/criticisms-tagged-with-cardano/

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CHZ Price | Chiliz Price Surged 650% in March, What’s Next for the Coin?

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The pseudonymous head of Coin Bureau who goes by the name guy, predicts that this coin has the potential to attract many users into the crypto space.

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Chiliz price has skyrocketed last month by 650% in value, making it a very important month for the cryptocurrency. In the last week, however, a pattern reversal occurred, with CHZ being overwhelmingly denominated by sellers. Things are shifting, though, as CHZ price rises once more. 

Read more : Chiliz Price Rose Like a Monster, Is It the Start of a ‘Low Cap Season’?

Chiliz is a cryptocurrency that can be used on sports and entertainment sites. Chiliz can be used like any other digital currency, but it is most commonly used on Socios.com, a website where investors and fans can use CHZ to receive exclusive rewards from their favourite teams. Special behind-the-scenes access and voting rights are among the perks.

It is worth noting that CHZ has established partnerships with top football clubs spread across the world, including FC Barcelona, AC Milan, and Juventus.

Guy says that,

“Have you been searching for that killer app that has the potential to open the floodgates and bring hundreds and millions of people into crypto? That elusive unicorn would likely be valued at a pretty penny, which means if you got into it at the right time, you could post some truly insane gains. What if that project combined NFTs, sports, and crypto? That’s the type of rocket fuel that could send it to the stratosphere… That would be Chiliz.”

I really like Chiliz as a project, the concept, and how they’re seemingly paving the way for unique digital sports memorabilia with NFTs in real-time. I also really love the idea of attaching tangible team-related perks to NFTs. That way, they have tangible real-world value and this should drive future demand.”

As of the time of publication, Chiliz price was $0.511948, with a 24-hour trading volume of $930,154,829. CHZ price also went up 1.5% over the last 24 hours. Besides, it has a circulating supply of 5.3 billion CHZ coins and a max supply of 8.89 billion.

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Trade with the Official CFD Partners of AC Milan
Source: https://coinpedia.org/altcoin/chz-price-chiliz-price-sentiments/

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