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Report:  Charles S. Gascon / As More States Legalize Marijuana, Economics Comes into Play

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The topic of marijuana (cannabis) legalization moved into headlines following Colorado’s and Washington’s decisions to permit recreational use of the drug in 2012. Yet, these changes reflect nearly 50 years of evolution in drug policy.1

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • More states are legalizing marijuana for medical or recreational use, and this movement has created a patchwork of laws and policies on how the drug is treated.
  • Among the states that allow the medical use of marijuana, laws can vary greatly in terms of the medical conditions that can be treated by the drug.
  • Policymakers face complex decisions on how to regulate marijuana. For example, the goal of maximizing revenue may conflict with the goal of reducing recreational use.

FULL REPORT

By

Charles S. Gascon

Monday, May 18, 2020

The topic of marijuana (cannabis) legalization moved into headlines following Colorado’s and Washington’s decisions to permit recreational use of the drug in 2012. Yet, these changes reflect nearly 50 years of evolution in drug policy.1

The relaxation of state laws on the possession and use of marijuana can be traced back to 1973, when Oregon became the first state to decriminalize the possession of modest quantities of marijuana, with a maximum penalty of a $100 fine. Then, in 1996, California approved marijuana usage for medical purposes. As of January 2020, about half of the states and numerous local jurisdictions have decriminalized possession to varying degrees, and 33 states currently have policies that allow patients to use marijuana if they qualify based on their medical diagnosis.2

Data for recreational-use states do indicate growth in legal sales and use. For example, in Colorado, monthly recreational sales were between $10 million and $20 million in early 2012; these sales have stabilized to around $90 million per month in 2018, or around $1 billion per year (just under $200 per person per year).3 Reported marijuana usage by adults in Colorado rose from 10.4% in 2011-12 to 18.1% by 2017-18.4

Notable increases in usage after legalization are also evident in Washington and Oregon; in fact, Oregon had the second highest usage rate in the country in 2017-18, with 20% of adults using marijuana at least one time in the past month. In contrast, national usage has been only slowly increasing, up from 7.1% in 2011-12 to 9.8% in 2017-18. Longer-term trends indicate that daily marijuana use by all adults has remained relatively stable and at low levels since 2000; some subgroupings put daily rates at below 3%.

A Closer Look at the Eighth District States

Marijuana is treated differently among the seven states that are part of the Eighth Federal Reserve District:5

  • Three states (Illinois, Missouri and Mississippi) have decriminalized personal possession of marijuana to some degree.
  • Three states (Arkansas, Illinois and Missouri) currently have or will have medical marijuana programs in 2020.
  • Illinois has allowed sales of marijuana for recreational use.
  • Three states (Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee) continue to criminalize all possession of marijuana.

Adult marijuana use across these seven states is near or below the national average, with 2016-17 estimates ranging from 7.9% in Kentucky to 9.6% in Indiana.

On Jan. 1, 2020, Illinois became the first state in the Eighth District to allow the sale of marijuana for recreational use. January sales reached just under $41 million. Assuming no growth in sales, annually this is $480 million, or about $12 per capita. The Colorado experience suggests sales are likely to exceed this amount, assuming adequate supply.

The year 2020 also marked the addition of Missouri as a state allowing sales of medical marijuana. The table below summarizes key statistics of the medical markets in the three District states that allow these sales; it provides a snapshot of the supply and demand in the market in each respective state. Assuming similar demographics and medical needs in these states, varying state policies explain the different outcomes.

State First Year of Medical Marijuana Initial Number of Patients Current Number of Patients Number of Licensed Dispensaries in Operation Average Number of Patients per Dispensary in Operation
Illinois 2015 2,663 76,939 55 1,399
Arkansas 2017 5,459 15,466 6 2,578
Missouri (estimate) 2020 21,000* [46,319; 128,070**] 192 [241; 667]
* Reported number of preregistered patients
** The lower-bound estimate is based on the average share of population registered as patients (0.8%) across all U.S. states where medical marijuana is legal, and the higher-bound estimate is based on the maximum share in any state, which is Colorado at 2.1%.
NOTES: Arkansas has 32 licensed dispensaries, but only six are operating. The Missouri figure for licensed dispensaries in operation assumes every approved license applicant will operate a dispensary.
SOURCES: Arkansas Department of Health, 2019; Illinois Department of Public Health, 2019; Haslag, Crader and Balossi; and author’s calculations.

Initial patient enrollment in Illinois (2,663) and Arkansas (5,459) has steadily increased over time and at similar growth rates. Although Arkansas’ population is only a quarter of the population of Illinois, initial enrollment was more than twice as high. In contrast, initial reports for Missouri (with a population around half of Illinois’) indicated that over 21,000 patient cards were issued in 2019, well before the program came into effect.6

One reason for different enrollment rates is the differences in qualifying medical conditions among these states. For example, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the top condition of qualifying patients for medical marijuana in Illinois at over 20% in 2019. In Arkansas, intractable pain, which is not included in the Illinois program, is the top qualifying condition at over 30%, whereas PTSD was reported by only 12% of qualifying patients. In Missouri, the list of qualifying conditions appears to be broader than for both Illinois and Arkansas by including:

  • “a chronic medical condition that is normally treated with prescription medication that could lead to physical or psychological dependence” and
  • “in the professional judgment of a physician, any other chronic, debilitating or other medical condition.”7

State governments are also responsible for determining the supply in the market and approving facilities to grow, produce and dispense marijuana to patients. Missouri has licensed many more dispensaries than both Illinois and Arkansas, meaning Missouri will maintain a system with the fewest patients per dispensary when they start operating this year. Fewer patients per dispensary could result in smaller establishments with lower revenue per store or, if fixed costs are high enough, some licensed dispensaries deciding not to operate. For example, in Arkansas, only six of the 32 licensed dispensaries are in operation because of a range of regulatory and market challenges.

Do Policies Align with Economic Theory?

While public discourse surrounding the legalization of marijuana often revolves around perceptions toward recreational drug use, an economic argument supporting (or opposing) legalization can be made regardless of one’s moral standing on use.

The medical use of marijuana raises the question of potential medical benefits and costs. One could view any drug from the same lens by asking, do the potential benefits from appropriate use of the drug outweigh the costs or risk of abuse? What makes the medical marijuana market unique to those of other drugs (e.g., prescription narcotics) is how it is treated by policymakers. For example, states typically do not subject prescription drugs to state sales taxes, while medical marijuana has been subjected to both state sales and excise taxes. Therefore, medical marijuana is taxed more like alcohol or tobacco than a medical drug.

The recreational use of any drug may create social costs, such as long-term health problems, injuries, accidents, unemployment, vagrancy and crime.8 As a result of these social costs, the free-market price is likely too low and therefore consumption is too high. Policymakers can attempt to solve this problem in two ways: first is criminal enforcement, which increases the cost of supplying drugs, reducing supply in the market and subsequently pushing up prices. Second is taxation on purchases, which reduces the quantity demanded in the market by increasing the price. In theory, both policies could achieve the same outcome of reducing drug use to a socially optimal level.

Policymakers face the difficult task of taking this theory to practice. Enforcement requires determining the most efficient techniques and the severity of penalization. Policymakers must also account for the adverse consequences of incarceration. On the other hand, taxation requires determining the optimal tax rate, which may vary for different types of consumers. Again, there may be a cost of enforcing this tax on those who seek to avoid payment.9 For both policies, the main challenge is determining the social cost of drug use, which ultimately determines the degree of necessary enforcement or taxation.

Conclusions

Research is still needed to understand the economic impact of recent state policy changes, and differences across states provide researchers with many real-world “experiments” to study. However, with marijuana remaining illegal at the federal level, these firms face additional challenges in operating their businesses, such as lack of access to banking networks or developing interstate supply chains.

While legal marijuana has been touted as a means for improving the fiscal position of states through lowering enforcement expenditures and generating additional tax revenue, the reality is much more complex. First, taxation on medical marijuana use is inconsistent with tax policies on other drugs used in medical treatment. Over time one would expect these policies to converge if a consensus emerges on acceptable medical use. Second, increases in tax revenue from recreational sales likely overstate the fiscal impact or could be short-lived. Consumers are likely to spend a greater share of their income on marijuana and less on other taxable goods, such as alcohol.10 Furthermore, states may use the new tax revenue source as a replacement for existing revenue sources (or future revenue increases).11 Third, as is the case with many types of “sin taxes”—taxes on products such as alcohol, tobacco and the lottery—individuals in lower income brackets are generally more likely to consume these products, thereby producing a regressive tax policy. Fourth, the reliance on sin taxes for revenue creates an incentive for policymakers to set a tax rate that maximizes revenue as opposed to a higher tax rate that would reduce consumption.12


Olivia Wilkinson, a research associate at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, provided research assistance.

Endnotes

  1. As of January 2020, eleven states and Washington, D.C., permit the sale of marijuana for adult recreational use. Marijuana sale and use remain illegal under federal law.
  2. See NORML webpage for a current list.
  3. See Felix and Chapman for an analysis on Colorado. It is important to note that a portion of these sales could be to nonresidents.
  4. This is defined as use over the past month. See National Survey on Drug Use and Health, State Estimates.
  5. Headquartered in St. Louis, the Eighth Federal Reserve District includes all of Arkansas and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee.
  6. See Edwards.
  7. See Missouri’s “Frequently Asked Questions for Physicians.”
  8. See Becker, Murphy and Grossman. The model is designed to apply to any illegal drug, so this assumption means there is no socially beneficial (i.e., medical) case for use. Even with this assumption, the authors find taxation is the preferred policy of enforcement.
  9. When determining which market outcome is the most efficient, an important consideration is the elasticity of supply and demand for drugs. If demand is inelastic (i.e., because the drug is highly addictive), enforcement may be optimal because consumers will still purchase close to the same amount even with higher taxes. See Becker, Murphy and Grossman for a complete discussion.
  10. See Anderson.
  11. See Dadayan for a historical perspective and review of tax policies.
  12. For example, in the extreme case in which optimal consumption is zero, the optimal tax rate would be excessively high, and consumption (and tax revenue) would be near zero.

References

Anderson, Patrick. “Blue Smoke and Seers: Measuring Latent Demand for Cannabis Products in a Partially Criminalized Market.” Business Economics, January 2020, Vol. 55, No. 1.

Arkansas Department of Health and the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. “Medical Marijuana: 2019 Fiscal Year Report.” 2019.

Becker, Gary; Murphy, Kevin; and Grossman, Michael. “The Market for Illegal Goods: The Case of Drugs.” Journal of Political Economy, February 2006, Vol. 114, No. 1.

Dadayan, Lucy. “States’ Addiction to Sins: Sin Tax Fallacy.” National Tax Journal, December 2019, Vol. 72, No. 4.

Edwards, Greg. “Missouri Medical Marijuana Patients Far Exceed Projections.” St. Louis Business Journal, Dec. 3, 2019.

Felix, Alison; and Chapman, Sam. “The Economic Effects of the Marijuana Industry in Colorado.” Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Rocky Mountain Economist, April 2018.

Haslag, Joseph; Crader, G. Dean; and Balossi, William. “Missouri’s Medical Marijuana Market: An Economic Analysis of Consumers, Producers, and Sellers.” Report for Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, 2019.

Illinois Department of Public Health. “Annual Progress Report: Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Patient Program Act.” 2019.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Charles S. GasconCharles Gascon is a regional economist and a senior coordinator in the Research Division at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. His focus is studying economic conditions in the Eighth District. He joined the St. Louis Fed in 2006. Read more about the author and his research.

Also: see analysis by Marijuana Moment

Federal Reserve Bank Highlights Economic Potential And Health Impacts Of Marijuana Legalization

Source: https://cannabislaw.report/report-charles-s-gascon-as-more-states-legalize-marijuana-economics-comes-into-play/

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Irish start-up raises funds to get farmers to grow hemp using drones

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An Irish start-up has just raised $5.3 million (€4.5 million) in financing to provide loans to farmers in Ireland and across the world to encourage them to grow hemp for use in cannabidiol (CBD) products.

Co Meath-based Greenheart CBD, which was founded by Paul Walsh and Mark Canavan two years ago, uses drones and artificial intelligence to help maximise crop cultivation by continually monitoring plant health.

The company, which previously secured a government licence to grow hemp with farmers in Co Wicklow, has developed a number of organic CBD products for consumers that have full traceability “from seed to shelf”.

CBD is the lesser-known compound found in the cannabis sativa plant; its more famous sibling, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the active ingredient in marijuana.

Having recently signed a major distribution contract with Uniphar to distribute its products, the company is now looking to expand its supply chain. It has managed to grow, in retail terms, $12 million worth of crop so far from 10 acres in Ireland but now wants to secure more hemp, particularly from the developing world.

Cannabis association

Despite the growing popularity of CBD products, many farmers find it difficult to obtain financing from banks for hemp production due to its connection with cannabis. Greenheart is therefore stepping in to lend directly to them via smart contracts, which are built on blockchain technology.

Farmers essentially sign up for a package that allows them to start growing hemp immediately. As well as seeds, they get a drone and other smart technology that allows them to produce the purest crop at a decent yield. Greenheart then buys the crop from them.

The drones are used to continually monitor the health of the crop, and they have retractable arms that can remove weeds, pick buds and so on.

“There hasn’t really been an upgrade in terms of technology in agriculture since the introduction of the tractor but I believe that drone technology could change everything,” said Mr Walsh.

A typical loan to a farmer using the company’s lending model could be anywhere between $500 to $50,000 over five years, with interest at 5 per cent. Greenheart estimates that a farmer in the developing world might typically realise $1,500 per annum from existing cash crops but that they could get $2,500 per crop cycle from an acre of CBD cultivation.

Full traceability

According to Mr Walsh, its model could transform the livelihoods of farmers while also giving the company access to the highest-quality hemp, while consumers get full traceability of products that aren’t harmful to the environment.

“Greenheart CBD has committed itself to making a difference in today’s world with a unique and original approach to helping smallholders climb from the poverty trap,” said Liam Robertson, chief executive of Alphabit Fund, which has led the $5.3 million fundraiser.

The company is shortly to publicly launch the Greenheart Punt, a digital token that can be bought and sold. The €5.3 million raised has come from investors buying some of these tokens with others to be made available more widely shortly. One punt is equivalent to $0.10 with 150 million tokens minted in total.

Those who have tokens will be able to use them to access Greenheart products at a significant discount. Money raised via the punt will also help the company finance the purchasing of new land for CBD production, and go towards building a decortication plant to enable an expansion into other product lines, including insulation materials and bio-plastics.

Greenheart is already in profit and has secured over 2,500 customers since it launched in January 2020.

Source : https://www.irishtimes.com/business/agribusiness-and-food/irish-start-up-raises-funds-to-get-farmers-to-grow-hemp-using-drones-1.4534453

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4 Tips to Market Your Marijuana Dispensary

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Even Marijuana Needs Marketing

Marijuana has become a household name. It has already turned that page of history when speaking about weed or smoking it was considered illegal and was punishable. Nowadays, people have a more accepting attitude to the preferences of others and many of them advocate for diversity of opinions and choices. Marijuana, cannabis, and weed, in general, have always been the subject of hot debates, but one thing is clear. People need them for various reasons. Some use marijuana to get that feeling of satisfaction, to feel happy, while others opt for it for recreational purposes. This means that the owners of marijuana dispensaries and shops already have a long-developed customer base. The only thing remaining is to target them carefully and market your product correctly to win their loyalty and trust.

Tip #1. Personal Values

Surprisingly, personal values play a significant role in choosing marijuana over other types of relaxing and recreational activities. Studies have shown that young adults, especially, highly value their health and well-being. However, as this period is probably the most stressful among the others in the human lifespan, young adults very often need something to unwind and have some rest. For these purposes, they can choose weed. Research has shown that young adults consider marijuana healthier than alcohol, and it has become an essential part of their emotional wellness.

Tip #2. Teach New Ways

This can be very applicable to adults and baby boomers. Thinking that marijuana can be interested only to youngsters is the very right step to cutting down a large part of your potential buyers. It turns out that baby boomers have been also interested in marijuana for years; however, they refrained from using it due to societal constraints. As a result, the boomers might not be very well aware of the new and healthier ways to consume marijuana. The best approach here is to advertise and educate boomers on the health benefits of it. On the other hand, it would be great to train your staff to be welcoming to boomers. The latter usually seek information and are very keen on learning and trying something new.

Tip #3. Use Personas in Your Marketing

Personas are a very powerful tool when it comes to marketing. When you do market research, you will see that certain population groups are especially interested in your product. Those groups can be broken down into subgroups based on their gender, occupation, location, etc. For each of them, you can create a persona – a representative figure which accumulates the interests and the motives of these groups in one person. You can name her or him the way you want; the important thing here is that you can consider that persona’s internal frame of reference every time you present a new product. You can use him or her to find out whether that new offer will work for that particular group or not. Based on various reasons, like the frequency of their purchases or benefits they want to get, you can come up with something even better.

Tip #4. Use customized items.

Using custom-printed items would do a great favor to any marijuana dispensary. It is something that helps stand out and promote your business without putting much time and effort into creating something new. Ganjaprint, an all-inclusive store of custom-branded promotions for dispensaries and smoke shops provides a big variety of lighters, bags, matches, grinders, jars and rolling papers, and much more. The best thing about Ganjaprint is that the dispensary-owner can order its logo to be printed on any product, which will make it more recognizable and would differentiate it among the others. For example, Ganjaprint has already come up with designs for refillable custom clipper lighters with a 72-hour rush print offered. Using their website, you can order these lighters or any item that you want choosing the colors and the location.

Marijuana’s Four

By carefully using the tips above any shop owner can make sure that he/she targets the right audience and communicates the products in the right way. On one hand, knowing your customers and speaking in their language would serve the need to win their hearts. On the other hand, applying for the services of Ganjaprint and ordering your unique items will help your product be in use longer than any alternative to it.

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Cannabis

4 Tips to Market Your Marijuana Dispensary

Avatar

Published

on

Even Marijuana Needs Marketing

Marijuana has become a household name. It has already turned that page of history when speaking about weed or smoking it was considered illegal and was punishable. Nowadays, people have a more accepting attitude to the preferences of others and many of them advocate for diversity of opinions and choices. Marijuana, cannabis, and weed, in general, have always been the subject of hot debates, but one thing is clear. People need them for various reasons. Some use marijuana to get that feeling of satisfaction, to feel happy, while others opt for it for recreational purposes. This means that the owners of marijuana dispensaries and shops already have a long-developed customer base. The only thing remaining is to target them carefully and market your product correctly to win their loyalty and trust.

Tip #1. Personal Values

Surprisingly, personal values play a significant role in choosing marijuana over other types of relaxing and recreational activities. Studies have shown that young adults, especially, highly value their health and well-being. However, as this period is probably the most stressful among the others in the human lifespan, young adults very often need something to unwind and have some rest. For these purposes, they can choose weed. Research has shown that young adults consider marijuana healthier than alcohol, and it has become an essential part of their emotional wellness.

Tip #2. Teach New Ways

This can be very applicable to adults and baby boomers. Thinking that marijuana can be interested only to youngsters is the very right step to cutting down a large part of your potential buyers. It turns out that baby boomers have been also interested in marijuana for years; however, they refrained from using it due to societal constraints. As a result, the boomers might not be very well aware of the new and healthier ways to consume marijuana. The best approach here is to advertise and educate boomers on the health benefits of it. On the other hand, it would be great to train your staff to be welcoming to boomers. The latter usually seek information and are very keen on learning and trying something new.

Tip #3. Use Personas in Your Marketing

Personas are a very powerful tool when it comes to marketing. When you do market research, you will see that certain population groups are especially interested in your product. Those groups can be broken down into subgroups based on their gender, occupation, location, etc. For each of them, you can create a persona – a representative figure which accumulates the interests and the motives of these groups in one person. You can name her or him the way you want; the important thing here is that you can consider that persona’s internal frame of reference every time you present a new product. You can use him or her to find out whether that new offer will work for that particular group or not. Based on various reasons, like the frequency of their purchases or benefits they want to get, you can come up with something even better.

Tip #4. Use customized items.

Using custom-printed items would do a great favor to any marijuana dispensary. It is something that helps stand out and promote your business without putting much time and effort into creating something new. Ganjaprint, an all-inclusive store of custom-branded promotions for dispensaries and smoke shops provides a big variety of lighters, bags, matches, grinders, jars and rolling papers, and much more. The best thing about Ganjaprint is that the dispensary-owner can order its logo to be printed on any product, which will make it more recognizable and would differentiate it among the others. For example, Ganjaprint has already come up with designs for refillable custom clipper lighters with a 72-hour rush print offered. Using their website, you can order these lighters or any item that you want choosing the colors and the location.

Marijuana’s Four

By carefully using the tips above any shop owner can make sure that he/she targets the right audience and communicates the products in the right way. On one hand, knowing your customers and speaking in their language would serve the need to win their hearts. On the other hand, applying for the services of Ganjaprint and ordering your unique items will help your product be in use longer than any alternative to it.

source link:platodata

 

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Cannabiz Media Client Spotlight – Shield Compliance | Cannabiz Media

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Shield Compliance is a comprehensive compliance management platform for banking cannabis-related businesses. The company’s focus is on transforming the way cannabis banks and legal marijuana financial institutions manage risk, comply with regulations, and satisfy operational demands across the United States.

Cannabiz Media recently spoke with Tony Repanich, President and Chief Operating Officer at Shield Compliance, to learn more about how he and his team use the Cannabiz Media License Database to support their business development, data intelligence, and license verification processes.

Why Does Shield Compliance Subscribe to the Cannabiz Media License Database?

Shield Compliance subscribes to the Cannabiz Media License Database for access to reliable industry intelligence and licensing data for the cannabis industry. “We rely on the Cannabiz Media License Database to bring information into our platform,” shares Tony Repanich. “It’s an important part of our license verification process and our licensed data set.”

Thanks to the reliable data in the Cannabiz Media platform, Tony and his team save a significant amount of the time and frustration previously required to find the data they need to do their jobs. 

Tony explains, “There are a lot of states that make it very difficult to get information about the licenses they’ve issued and the enforcement actions they’ve undertaken. Where we can get direct state integration to get data, we do that. However, where we need an additional uplift in terms of boots on the street or boots on the phone and keyboard to get the information from states that are more difficult to deal with, we rely on the Cannabiz Media License Database to bring that information into our platform.”

Bottom-line, Tony says, “The Cannabiz Media team has done a great job bringing together that information and having diligence around filling those gaps.”

What’s Next for Shield Compliance?

A big focus for Shield Compliance in the near future is its new onboarding solution. Tony explains, “We brought our new onboarding solution to market at the end of 2020, and it’s really helping our bankers streamline the onboarding process and creating a much better client experience. We’re really excited to get that in front of more bankers this year.”

With more states legalizing cannabis and launching new cannabis programs, Shield Compliance is focusing on future trends and the evolving industry. “We’re having a lot more conversations with bankers that we’ve never talked to in the past, like New York and New Jersey,” Tony shares. “We’re also having a lot more conversations with bankers about their willingness and ability to lend, which is great for the industry.”

For more information about Shield Compliance and to hear additional insights from Tony Repanich, follow the link and listen to Cannabiz Media’s recent Cannacurio podcast episode featuring Tony as the special guest.

To learn more about how subscribing to the Cannabiz Media License Database can help your business like it helps the team at Shield Compliance, follow the link and schedule a free demo.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.cannabiz.media/blog/cannabiz-media-client-spotlight-shield-compliance

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