Connect with us

Nano Technology

Quantum tomography of an entangled three-qubit state in silicon

Published

on

  • 1.

    Nielsen, M. A. & Chuang, I. L. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).

  • 2.

    Dicarlo, L. et al. Preparation and measurement of three-qubit entanglement in a superconducting circuit. Nature 467, 574–578 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 3.

    Neeley, M. et al. Generation of three-qubit entangled states using superconducting phase qubits. Nature 467, 570–573 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Häffner, H. et al. Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions. Nature 438, 643–646 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Neumann, P. et al. Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond. Science 323, 1326–1330 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Pla, J. J. et al. A single-atom electron spin qubit in silicon. Nature 489, 541–544 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    Pla, J. J. et al. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon. Nature 496, 334–338 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 8.

    Veldhorst, M. et al. An addressable quantum dot qubit with fault-tolerant control-fidelity. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 981–985 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Zajac, D. M. et al. Resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins. Science 359, 439–442 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Yoneda, J. et al. A quantum-dot spin qubit with coherence limited by charge noise and fidelity higher than 99.9%. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 102–106 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Watson, T. F. et al. A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon. Nature 555, 633–637 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Huang, W. et al. Fidelity benchmarks for two-qubit gates in silicon. Nature 569, 532–536 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Yang, C. H. et al. Silicon qubit fidelities approaching incoherent noise limits via pulse engineering. Nat. Electron. 2, 151–158 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    Yang, C. H. et al. Silicon quantum processor unit cell operation above one Kelvin. Nature 580, 350–354 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    Petit, L. et al. Universal quantum logic in hot silicon qubits. Nature 580, 355–359 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    James, D. F. V., Kwiat, P. G., Munro, W. J. & White, A. G. Measurement of qubits. Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Vandersypen, L. M. K. et al. Interfacing spin qubits in quantum dots and donors—hot, dense, and coherent. npj Quantum Inf. 3, 34 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Veldhorst, M., Eenink, H. G. J., Yang, C. H. & Dzurak, A. S. Silicon CMOS architecture for a spin-based quantum computer. Nat. Commun. 8, 1766 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    Yoneda, J. et al. Quantum non-demolition readout of an electron spin in silicon. Nat. Commun. 11, 1144 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Xue, X. et al. Repetitive quantum non-demolition measurement and soft decoding of a silicon spin qubit. Phys. Rev. X 10, 021006 (2020).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Qiao, H. et al. Coherent multi-spin exchange coupling in a quantum-dot spin chain. Phys. Rev. X 10, 31006 (2020).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Zajac, D. M., Hazard, T. M., Mi, X., Nielsen, E. & Petta, J. R. Scalable gate architecture for densely packed semiconductor spin qubits. Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 054013 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Angus, S. J., Ferguson, A. J., Dzurak, A. S. & Clark, R. G. Gate-defined quantum dots in intrinsic silicon. Nano Lett. 7, 2051–2055 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Elzerman, J. M. et al. Single-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dot. Nature 430, 431–435 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Sigillito, A. J., Gullans, M. J., Edge, L. F., Borselli, M. & Petta, J. R. Coherent transfer of quantum information in silicon using resonant SWAP gates. npj Quantum Inf. 5, 110 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Takeda, K., Noiri, A., Yoneda, J., Nakajima, T. & Tarucha, S. Resonantly driven singlet-triplet spin qubit in silicon. Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 117701 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Tokura, Y., Van Der Wiel, W. G., Obata, T. & Tarucha, S. Coherent single electron spin control in a slanting Zeeman field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 047202 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Takeda, K. et al. A fault-tolerant addressable spin qubit in a natural silicon quantum dot. Sci. Adv. 2, e1600694 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Borjans, F., Zajac, D. M., Hazard, T. M. & Petta, J. R. Single-spin relaxation in a synthetic spin–orbit field. Phys. Rev. Appl. 11, 044063 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Knill, E. et al. Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates. Phys. Rev. A 77, 012307 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Meunier, T., Calado, V. E. & Vandersypen, L. M. K. Efficient controlled-phase gate for single-spin qubits in quantum dots. Phys. Rev. B 83, 121403(R) (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Martins, F. et al. Noise suppression using symmetric exchange gates in spin qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 116801 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Reed, M. D. et al. Reduced sensitivity to charge noise in semiconductor spin qubits via symmetric operation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110402 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Barends, R. et al. Superconducting quantum circuits at the surface code threshold for fault tolerance. Nature 508, 500–503 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    Reed, M. D. et al. Realization of three-qubit quantum error correction with superconducting circuits. Nature 482, 382–385 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 36.

    Kelly, J. et al. State preservation by repetitive error detection in a superconducting quantum circuit. Nature 519, 66–69 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Mermin, N. D. Extreme quantum entanglement in a superposition of macroscopically distinct states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1838 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 38.

    Connors, E. J., Nelson, J., Qiao, H., Edge, L. F. & Nichol, J. M. Low-frequency charge noise in Si/SiGe quantum dots. Phys. Rev. B 100, 165305 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 39.

    Hendrickx, N. W. et al. A four-qubit germanium quantum processor. Nature 591, 580–585 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 40.

    Mueller, F. et al. Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 044706 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 41.

    Reilly, D. J., Marcus, C. M., Hanson, M. P. & Gossard, A. C. Fast single-charge sensing with a rf quantum point contact. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 162101 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Noiri, A. et al. Radio-frequency detected fast charge sensing in undoped silicon quantum dots. Nano Lett. 20, 947–952 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Andrews, R. W. et al. Quantifying error and leakage in an encoded Si/SiGe triple-dot qubit. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 747–750 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 44.

    Hensgens, T. et al. Quantum simulation of a Fermi–Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array. Nature 548, 70–73 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    Jones, A. M. et al. Spin-blockade spectroscopy of Si/Si–Ge quantum dots. Phys. Rev. Appl. 12, 014026 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Newville, M., Stensitzki, T., Allen, D. & Ingargiola, A. LMFIT: non-linear least-square minimization and curve-fitting for Python. Zenodo https://zenodo.org/record/11813#.YH6fbej7SUl (2014).

  • 47.

    Jones, E., Oliphant, T. & Peterson, P. SciPy: open source scientific tools for Python. Science Open https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=ab12905a-8a5b-43d8-a2bb-defc771410b9 (2001).

  • Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
    Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-021-00925-0

    Nano Technology

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy

    Published

    on

    Home > Press > Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy

    Researchers demonstrated a new simple QKD system over a fiber network in Padua, Italy. A map of the city center [©2021 Google] shows that the transmitter was placed at the ICT Center of UniPD while the receiver was located in the Department of Mathematics. The transmitter and the receiver were connected by 3.4 km of deployed fibers. CREDIT
QuantumFuture Group, Università degli Studi di Padova
    Researchers demonstrated a new simple QKD system over a fiber network in Padua, Italy. A map of the city center [©2021 Google] shows that the transmitter was placed at the ICT Center of UniPD while the receiver was located in the Department of Mathematics. The transmitter and the receiver were connected by 3.4 km of deployed fibers. CREDIT
    QuantumFuture Group, Università degli Studi di Padova

    Abstract:
    In a new study, researchers demonstrate an automated, easy-to-operate quantum key distribution (QKD) system using the fiber network in the city of Padua, Italy. The field test represents an important step toward implementing this highly secure quantum communication technology using the type of communication networks already in place in many regions around the world.

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy


    Washington, DC | Posted on June 11th, 2021

    QKD offers impenetrable encryption for data communication because it uses the quantum properties of light to generate secure random keys for encrypting and decrypting data.

    “QKD can be useful in any situation where security is paramount because it offers unconditional security for the key exchange process,” said Marco Avesani from Università degli Studi di Padova in Italy, co-first author of the new study with Luca Calderaro and Giulio Foletto. “It can be used to encrypt and authenticate health data sent between hospitals or money transfers among banks, for example.”

    In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optics Letters, researchers led by Paolo Villoresi and Giuseppe Vallone report that their simple system is stable over time and can generate quantum-secure cryptographic keys at sustained rates over a standard telecommunications infrastructure.

    “QKD systems usually require a complex stabilization system and additional dedicated synchronization hardware,” said Avesani. “We developed a complete QKD system that can be directly interfaced with standard telecommunications equipment and doesn’t require additional hardware for synchronization. The system fits easily into the rack enclosures commonly found in server rooms.”

    Designing an easy-to-use system

    To produce the quantum states required by QKD, the researchers developed a new encoder for manipulating the polarization of single photons. The encoder, which the researchers call iPOGNAC, provides a fixed and stable polarization reference that doesn’t require frequent recalibration. This feature is also advantageous for free-space and satellite quantum communication, where recalibrations are hard to perform.

    “Because of the technology we developed, the source was ready to produce quantum states when we moved our system from the lab to the location of the field trial,” said Calderaro. “We didn’t have to perform the slow, and often prone-to-failure, alignment procedure required for most QKD systems.”

    The researchers also developed a new synchronization algorithm, which they call

    Qubit4Sync, to synchronize the machines of the two QKD users. Rather than using dedicated additional hardware and an added frequency channel for synchronization, the new system uses software and the same optical signals being used for QKD. This makes the system smaller, cheaper, and easier to integrate into an existing optical network.

    To test the new system, the researchers brought their two QKD terminals to two university buildings roughly 3.4 km apart in different sections of Padua. They connected the systems to two underground optical fibers that are part of the university’s communication network. These fibers supported the quantum channel carrying qubits and the classical channel needed to transfer ancillary information.

    A quantum-secured video call

    “The field trial was successful,” said Foletto. “We showed that our simple system can produce secret keys at speeds of kilobits per second and that it works outside of the laboratory with little human intervention. It was also easy and quick to install.”

    In a public demonstration, the researchers used their setup to enable a quantum-secured video call between the Rector of the University of Padua and the Director of the Mathematics Department. The researchers note that the system’s performance is comparable to other commercial QKD systems in terms of secret key generation rate while also having fewer components and being easier to integrate into an existing fiber network.

    They are working to reduce the size of the detection apparatus and to make the system more robust to noise from other light traveling in the same fiber. The effort to develop a complete and autonomous QKD system led to the creation of a spin-off company called ThinkQuantum s.r.l, which is working to commercialize this technology.

    ####

    About The Optical Society
    Founded in 1916, The Optical Society (OSA) is the leading professional organization for scientists, engineers, students and business leaders who fuel discoveries, shape real-life applications and accelerate achievements in the science of light. Through world-renowned publications, meetings and membership initiatives, OSA provides quality research, inspired interactions and dedicated resources for its extensive global network of optics and photonics experts. For more information, visit osa.org.

    About Optics Letters

    Optics Letters offers rapid dissemination of new results in all areas of optical science with short, original, peer-reviewed communications. Optics Letters accepts papers that are noteworthy to a substantial part of the optics community. Published by The Optical Society and led by Editor-in-Chief Miguel Alonso, Institut Fresnel, École Centrale de Marseille and Aix-Marseille Université, France, University of Rochester, USA. Optics Letters is available online at OSA Publishing.

    For more information, please click here

    Contacts:
    James Merrick
    202-416-1994

    Media Contact:
    @opticalsociety

    Copyright © The Optical Society

    If you have a comment, please Contact us.

    Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

    Bookmark:
    Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

    Related Links

    Paper: M Avesani, L. Calderaro, G. Foletto, C. Agnesi, F. Picciariello, F. Santagiustina, A. Scriminich, A. Stanco, F. Vedovato, M. Zahidy, G. Vallone, P. Villoresi, “Resource-effective Quantum Key Distribution: a field trial in Padua city center,” Opt. Lett., 46, 12, 2848-2851(2021).:

    Related News Press

    News and information

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Quantum Physics

    Quantum holds the key to secure conference calls June 6th, 2021

    An atom chip interferometer that could detect quantum gravity June 4th, 2021

    Using the environment to control quantum devices: A deeper understanding of how the environment impacts quantum behaviour is bringing quantum devices one step closer to widespread adoption June 1st, 2021

    Quantum communication

    Quantum holds the key to secure conference calls June 6th, 2021

    Quantum steering for more precise measurements April 23rd, 2021

    Physics

    An atom chip interferometer that could detect quantum gravity June 4th, 2021

    Possible Futures

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Discoveries

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Announcements

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
    Source: http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=56709

    Continue Reading

    Nano Technology

    Continuous-wave near-infrared stimulated-emission depletion microscopy using downshifting lanthanide nanoparticles

    Published

    on

  • 1.

    Hell, S. W. Far-field optical nanoscopy. Science 316, 1153–1158 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 2.

    Hell, S. W. & Wichmann, J. Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy. Opt. Lett. 19, 780–782 (1994).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 3.

    Vicidomini, G. et al. Sharper low-power STED nanoscopy by time gating. Nat. Methods 8, 571–573 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Klar, T. A., Jakobs, S., Dyba, M., Egner, A. & Hell, S. W. Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8206–8210 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Willig, K. I., Harke, B., Medda, R. & Hell, S. W. STED microscopy with continuous wave beams. Nat. Methods 4, 915–918 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Chen, B.-C. et al. Lattice light-sheet microscopy: imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution. Science 346, 1257998 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    Bates, M., Huang, B., Dempsey, G. T. & Zhuang, X. Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes. Science 317, 1749–1753 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 8.

    Betzig, E. et al. Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution. Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Fölling, J. et al. Fluorescence nanoscopy by ground-state depletion and single-molecule return. Nat. Methods 5, 943–945 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Gwosch, K. C. et al. MINFLUX nanoscopy delivers 3D multicolor nanometer resolution in cells. Nat. Methods 17, 217–224 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Klar, T. A. & Hell, S. W. Subdiffraction resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy. Opt. Lett. 24, 954–956 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Eggeling, C. et al. Direct observation of the nanoscale dynamics of membrane lipids in a living cell. Nature 457, 1159–1162 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Vicidomini, G., Bianchini, P. & Diaspro, A. STED super-resolved microscopy. Nat. Methods 15, 173–182 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    Hoebe, R. et al. Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 249–253 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    An, Z. et al. Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence. Nat. Mater. 14, 685–690 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    Bünzli, J.-C. G., Chauvin, A.-S., Kim, H. K., Deiters, E. & Eliseeva, S. V. Lanthanide luminescence efficiency in eight-and nine-coordinate complexes: role of the radiative lifetime. Coord. Chem. Rev. 254, 2623–2633 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Malta, O. Mechanisms of non-radiative energy transfer involving lanthanide ions revisited. J. Non Cryst. Solids 354, 4770–4776 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    O’Brien, J. J. & O’Brien, J. F. The Laporte selection rule in electronic absorption spectroscopy. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 29, 138–140 (1999).

    Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    Wisser, M. D. et al. Strain-induced modification of optical selection rules in lanthanide-based upconverting nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 15, 1891–1897 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Jackson, S. D. Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser. Nat. Photonics 6, 423–431 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Fernandez-Bravo, A. et al. Continuous-wave upconverting nanoparticle microlasers. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 572–577 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Chen, X. et al. Confining energy migration in upconversion nanoparticles towards deep ultraviolet lasing. Nat. Commun. 7, 10304 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Lee, C. et al. Giant nonlinear optical responses from photon-avalanching nanoparticles. Nature 589, 230–235 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Lando, M., Kagan, J., Linyekin, B. & Dobrusin, V. A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime. Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Wang, F., Deng, R. & Liu, X. Preparation of core–shell NaGdF4 nanoparticles doped with luminescent lanthanide ions to be used as upconversion-based probes. Nat. Protoc. 9, 1634–1644 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Liu, Y. et al. Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy. Nature 543, 229–233 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Rittweger, E., Han, K. Y., Irvine, S. E., Eggeling, C. & Hell, S. W. STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution. Nat. Photonics 3, 144–147 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Han, K. Y., Kim, S. K., Eggeling, C. & Hell, S. W. Metastable dark states enable ground state depletion microscopy of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond with diffraction-unlimited resolution. Nano Lett. 10, 3199–3203 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Hanne, J. et al. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots. Nat. Commun. 6, 7127 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Gao, P., Prunsche, B., Zhou, L., Nienhaus, K. & Nienhaus, G. U. Background suppression in fluorescence nanoscopy with stimulated emission double depletion. Nat. Photonics 11, 163–169 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Koechner, W. Solid-State Laser Engineering 38–101 (Springer, 2006).

  • 32.

    White, J. O. Parameters for quantitative comparison of two-, three-, and four-level laser media, operating wavelengths, and temperatures. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1213–1220 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Rehor, I. & Cigler, P. Precise estimation of HPHT nanodiamond size distribution based on transmission electron microscopy image analysis. Diam. Relat. Mater. 46, 21–24 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Han, K. Y. et al. Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light. Nano Lett. 9, 3323–3329 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    Gu, Y. et al. High-sensitivity imaging of time-domain near-infrared light transducer. Nat. Photonics 13, 525–531 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 36.

    Chen, C. et al. Multi-photon near-infrared emission saturation nanoscopy using upconversion nanoparticles. Nat. Commun. 9, 3290 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Jin, D. et al. Nanoparticles for super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule tracking. Nat. Methods 15, 415–423 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
    Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-021-00927-y

    Continue Reading

    Nano Technology

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics

    Published

    on

    Home > Press > Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics

    Own mode of the silicon photonic crystal layer. CREDIT
Sergey Dyakov, Sergey Tikhodeev, Nikolay Gippius
    Own mode of the silicon photonic crystal layer. CREDIT
    Sergey Dyakov, Sergey Tikhodeev, Nikolay Gippius

    Abstract:
    Skoltech researchers and their colleagues from RAS Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, ITMO University, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute have found a way to increase photoluminescence in silicon, the notoriously poor emitter and absorber of photons at the heart of all modern electronics. This discovery may pave the way to photonic integrated circuits, boosting their performance. The paper was published in the journal Laser and Photonics Reviews.

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics


    Moscow, Russia | Posted on June 11th, 2021

    “Natural selection” in semiconductor technology over almost 80 years has led to silicon emerging as the predominant material for chips. Most digital microcircuits are created using CMOS technology (CMOS), which stands for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor. Yet manufacturers have hit a wall on the way to increasing their performance even further: heat release due to high density of elements in CMOS circuits.

    One potential workaround is reducing heat generation by switching from metallic connections between elements in microcircuits to optical ones: unlike electrons in conductors, photons can travel giant distances in wavegiudes with minimal heat losses.

    “The transition to CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits will also make it possible to significantly increase the information transfer rate within a chip and between individual chips in modern computers, making them faster. Unfortunately, silicon itself weakly interacts with light: it is a poor emitter and a poor absorber of photons. Therefore, taming silicon to interact with light effectively is an essential task,” Sergey Dyakov, senior researcher at Skoltech and the first author of the paper, says.

    Dyakov and his colleagues have managed to enhance silicon-based photoluminescence using germanium quantum dots and a specially designed photonic crystal. They used a resonator based on bound states in the continuum, an idea borrowed from quantum mechanics: these resonators create effective confinement of light inside them since the symmetry of the electromagnetic field inside the resonator does not correspond to the symmetry of the electromagnetic waves of the surrounding space.

    They also chose germanium nanoislands as a source of luminescence, which can be embedded into the desired place on a silicon chip. “The use of bound states in the continuum increased luminescence intensity by more than a hundred times,” Dyakov says, noting that it can lead us to CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits.

    “The results open up new possibilities for creating efficient radiation sources based on silicon, built into the circuits of modern microelectronics with optical signal processing. There are currently lots of groups working on creating light-emitting diodes based on such structures and the principles of their coupling with other elements on an optoelectronic chip,” Professor Nikolay Gippius, head of Nanophotonics Theory group at the Center of Photonics and Quantum Materials at Skoltech, says.

    ####

    For more information, please click here

    Contacts:
    Ilyana Zolotareva
    897-777-14699

    Copyright © Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech)

    If you have a comment, please Contact us.

    Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

    Bookmark:
    Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

    Related Links

    RELATED JOURNAL ARTICLE:

    Related News Press

    News and information

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Possible Futures

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Chip Technology

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Magnetism drives metals to insulators in new experiment: Study provides new tools to probe novel spintronic devices June 4th, 2021

    New form of silicon could enable next-gen electronic and energy devices: Novel crystalline form of silicon could potentially be used to create next-generation electronic and energy devices June 4th, 2021

    Hexagonal boron nitride’s remarkable toughness unmasked: 2D material resists cracking and description by century-old theory of fracture mechanics June 2nd, 2021

    Optical computing/Photonic computing

    Luminaries: Steven DenBaars and John Bowers receive top recognition at Compound Semiconductor Week conference May 21st, 2021

    Emergence of a new heteronanostructure library May 14th, 2021

    With new optical device, engineers can fine tune the color of light April 23rd, 2021

    New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits April 16th, 2021

    Nanoelectronics

    Using the environment to control quantum devices: A deeper understanding of how the environment impacts quantum behaviour is bringing quantum devices one step closer to widespread adoption June 1st, 2021

    New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits April 16th, 2021

    Graphene: Everything under control: Research team demonstrates control mechanism for quantum material April 9th, 2021

    Energy transmission by gold nanoparticles coupled to DNA structures April 9th, 2021

    Discoveries

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Announcements

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Photonics/Optics/Lasers

    Luminaries: Steven DenBaars and John Bowers receive top recognition at Compound Semiconductor Week conference May 21st, 2021

    Emergence of a new heteronanostructure library May 14th, 2021

    Nanophotonics enhanced coverslip for phase imaging in biology May 14th, 2021

    Silver ions hurry up, then wait as they disperse: Rice chemists show ions’ staged release from gold-silver nanoparticles could be useful property April 23rd, 2021

    Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
    Source: http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=56710

    Continue Reading

    Nano Technology

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells

    Published

    on

    Home > Press > Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells

    The team fabricated an organic solar cell that, unlike conventional solar cells, can be easily recycled following the simple steps shown above. Adapted from Lin et al. (2021)
    The team fabricated an organic solar cell that, unlike conventional solar cells, can be easily recycled following the simple steps shown above. Adapted from Lin et al. (2021)

    Abstract:
    An electrode coating just one molecule thick can significantly enhance the performance of an organic photovoltaic cell, KAUST researchers have found. The coating outperforms the leading material currently used for this task and may pave the way for improvements in other devices that rely on organic molecules, such as light-emitting diodes and photodetectors.

    Molecular coating enhances organic solar cells


    Thuwal, Saudi Arabia | Posted on June 11th, 2021

    Unlike the most common photovoltaic cells that use crystalline silicon to harvest light, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) rely on a light-absorbing layer of carbon-based molecules. Although OPVs cannot yet rival the performance of silicon cells, they could be easier and cheaper to manufacture at a very large scale using printing techniques.

    When light enters a photovoltaic cell, its energy frees a negative electron and leaves behind a positive gap, known as a hole. Different materials then gather the electrons and holes and guide them to different electrodes to generate an electrical current. In OPVs, a material called PEDOT:PSS is widely used to ease the transfer of generated holes into an electrode; however, PEDOT:PSS is expensive, acidic and can degrade the cell’s performance over time.

    The KAUST team has now developed a better alternative to PEDOT:PSS. They use a much thinner coating of a hole-transporting molecule called Br-2PACz, which binds to an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to form a single-molecule layer. The organic cell using Br-2PACz achieved a power conversion efficiency of 18.4 percent, whereas an equivalent cell using PEDOT:PSS reached only 17.5 percent.

    “We were very surprised indeed by the performance enhancement,” says Yuanbao Lin, Ph.D. student and member of the team. “We believe Br-2PACz has the potential to replace PEDOT:PSS due to its low cost and high performance.”

    Br-2PACz increased the cell’s efficiency in several ways. Compared with its rival, it caused less electrical resistance, improved hole transport and allowed more light to shine through to the absorbing layer. Br-2PACz also improved the structure of the light-absorbing layer itself, an effect that may be related to the coating process.

    The coating could even improve the recyclability of the solar cell. The researchers found that the ITO electrode could be removed from the cell, stripped of its coating and then reused as if it was new. In contrast, PEDOT:PSS roughens the surface of the ITO so that it performs poorly if reused in another cell. “We anticipate this will have a dramatic impact on both the economics of OPVs and the environment,” says Thomas Anthopoulos, who led the research.

    ####

    For more information, please click here

    Contacts:
    Michael Cusack

    Copyright © King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    If you have a comment, please Contact us.

    Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

    Bookmark:
    Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

    Related Links

    RELATED JOURNAL ARTICLE:

    Related News Press

    News and information

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Organic Electronics

    Light-emitting tattoo engineered for the first time: Scientists at UCL and the IIT -Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology) have created a temporary tattoo with light-emitting technology used in TV and smartphone screens, paving the way for a new type of March 4th, 2021

    Going Organic: uOttawa team realizing the limitless possibilities of wearable electronics January 28th, 2021

    Engineers find antioxidants improve nanoscale visualization of polymers January 8th, 2021

    HKU Engineering team develops novel miniaturised organic semiconductor: An important breakthrough essential for future flexible electronic devices October 8th, 2020

    Possible Futures

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Discoveries

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Announcements

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Jim Green to Appear at the Online NSS International Space Development Conference 2021: This Year’s Virtual Conference Streams Free to ALL June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

    Researchers tame silicon to interact with light for next-generation microelectronics June 11th, 2021

    Researchers take quantum encryption out of the lab: Field trial shows simple QKD system works with existing telecommunication network in Italy June 11th, 2021

    Turning the heat on: A flexible device for localized heat treatment of living tissues June 11th, 2021

    Rice lab peers inside 2D crystal synthesis: Simulations could help molecular engineers enhance creation of semiconducting nanomaterials June 11th, 2021

    Energy

    New form of silicon could enable next-gen electronic and energy devices: Novel crystalline form of silicon could potentially be used to create next-generation electronic and energy devices June 4th, 2021

    Researchers build structured, multi-part nanocrystals with super light-emitting properties May 28th, 2021

    Emergence of a new heteronanostructure library May 14th, 2021

    Less innocent than it looks: Hydrogen in hybrid perovskites: Researchers identify the defect that limits solar-cell performance April 30th, 2021

    Solar/Photovoltaic

    New form of silicon could enable next-gen electronic and energy devices: Novel crystalline form of silicon could potentially be used to create next-generation electronic and energy devices June 4th, 2021

    Researchers build structured, multi-part nanocrystals with super light-emitting properties May 28th, 2021

    Harvesting light like nature does:Synthesizing a new class of bio-inspired, light-capturing nanomaterials May 14th, 2021

    Less innocent than it looks: Hydrogen in hybrid perovskites: Researchers identify the defect that limits solar-cell performance April 30th, 2021

    Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
    Source: http://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=56711

    Continue Reading
    Energy4 days ago

    Extensive Demand from the Personal Care and Cosmetics Industry Coupled with the Booming Construction Industry will Invite Impactful Growth for the Mineral Oil & Mineral Spirit Market: TMR

    Esports2 days ago

    World of Warcraft 9.1 Release Date: When is it?

    Energy2 days ago

    Biocides Market worth $13.6 billion by 2026 – Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets™

    Aviation5 days ago

    Spirit Airlines Just Made The Best Argument For Lifting LaGuardia’s Perimeter Rule

    Esports3 days ago

    Clash of Clans June 2021 Update patch notes

    Blockchain4 days ago

    Africa Leading Bitcoin P2P Trading Volume Growth in 2021

    Aviation4 days ago

    Boeing 727 Set To Be Turned Into Luxury Hotel Experience

    Big Data4 days ago

    In El Salvador’s bitcoin beach town, digital divide slows uptake

    Gaming5 days ago

    Forza Horizon 5 Announced, Launches November 9

    HRTech3 days ago

    Pre-Owned Luxury Car dealer Luxury Ride to add 80 Employees across functions to boost growth

    Blockchain2 days ago

    Former PayPal Employees Launch Cross-Border Payment System

    Blockchain4 days ago

    Since It Adopted Bitcoin As Legal Tender, The World Is Looking At El Salvador

    Gaming5 days ago

    Her Story Creator’s Next Game is Immortality, Releases in 2022

    Energy2 days ago

    XCMG dostarcza ponad 100 sztuk żurawi dostosowanych do regionu geograficznego dla międzynarodowych klientów

    Aviation5 days ago

    Delta Air Lines Airbus A320 Returns To Minneapolis After Multiple Issues

    Blockchain2 days ago

    PancakeSwap (CAKE) Price Prediction 2021-2025: Will CAKE Hit $60 by 2021?

    Aerospace4 days ago

    Delivering economic and societal value

    Gaming3 days ago

    Super Smash Bros. Ultimate – Tekken’s Kazuya Mishima is the Next Challenger pack

    Esports2 days ago

    Here are the patch notes for Call of Duty: Warzone’s season 4 update

    Gaming5 days ago

    Severed Steel is a Bullet Time-Heavy Voxel FPS With a Unique Protagonist

    Trending