Connect with us

Blockchain

One Wallet Owns 27% of Ether Behind MakerDAO’s Sai Stablecoin

Published

on

Of all the Ether (ETH) locked in the collateralized debt positions (CDPs) of the old MakerDAO system, 27% belongs to a single Ethereum address. Financial technology data firm Digital Assets Data shared these findings with Cointelegraph on Jan. 26.

Dai, which was created by MakerDAO, allows users to borrow or generate the stablecoin by staking their cryptocurrency holdings as collateral. Dai was not supported with bank accounts of reserve currencies but rather is generated by putting Ether into a CDP smart contract.

In November 2019, the Dai stablecoin reached its 100 million token debt ceiling and introduced multi-collateral Dai (MCD) that can be backed by multiple assets.

The old, single-collateral Dai — Dai that generated only with Ether — became known as “Sai,” while the new MCD is now referred to as “Dai.” CDPs for different assets were rebranded as “vaults” i.e. Ether is stored in an Ether vault, while Basic Attention Tokens (BAT) are stored in a BAT vault. 

MakerDAO’s ecosystem growth

According to Digital Assets Data, about 155,000 CDPs were initiated on the old version of the Maker protocol and 77% of those held under 0.05 ETH. Brandon Anderson, a data science lead at Digital Assets Data, told Cointelegraph:

“There is one address that maintains 27% of the value locked in CDP’s. Likewise, the new Vaults system has a similar distribution, with one address holding 15% of the value locked. As Maker continues to grow, we will see how these distributions play out and if there is more adoption within the lower bins.”

Anderson added that these addresses are not necessarily a single entity:

“It is possible that one or more of those addresses could be smart contracts that contain ETH as a part of MakerDAO, and do not represent a single entity. Without a significant amount of additional research, we cannot commit to singling out/identifying these addresses.”

He concluded that, while there are large players that likely control a disproportionate amount of locked Ether in the ecosystem, the amount of total locked assets has increased over time and “these protocols are indeed open to anyone that wants to participate.”

Over 3,500 vaults have been created with the new system, most of which hold over 1 ETH, according to Digital Assets Data.

Ether locked in DeFi applications reaches an all-time high

As Cointelegraph reported in late November 2019, the number of Ether locked in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications reached an all-time high of 2.7 million ETH, according to DeFi monitoring resource DeFiPulse, and has been steadily growing since the end of June.

As of press time, DeFiPulse shows that the total value of funds locked in DeFi applications reached $793.1 million (an all-time high of 3.2 million ETH), of which over 57% ($453.5 million, an all-time high 2.5 million ETH) is in the MakerDAO system.

Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/one-wallet-owns-27-of-ether-behind-makerdaos-sai-stablecoin

Blockchain

Lawyers Duke it Out Over Who Gets To Lead the Class Action Suit Against Tether

Published

on

In a U.S. courthouse for the Southern District of New York, Judge Katherine Failla heard this afternoon from three plaintiff teams suing iFinex et. al. and vying to serve as lead counsel in the emerging class action with potentially tens of thousands of injured members.

IFinex’s Tether (USDT) stablecoin firm and its Bitfinex subsidiary are charged with manipulating the Bitcoin market in 2017 — something the firm strenuously denies.

Kyle Roche, representing plaintiffs Leibowitz et. al., argued that his firm Roche Cyrulnik Freedman LLP was the first to investigate the alleged market manipulation, the first to file a complaint, and also possessed the top cryptocurrency expertise. “Cryptocurrency is unique,” said Roche, “the law is new, and this case presents difficult definitional issues.”

The case should not be limited to Bitcoin issues alone, he argued; it should include other cryptocurrencies like Ether that may have been harmed by the alleged pump-and-dump scheme.

“Cryptocurrency really works as one market. People who purchase one cryptocurrency often buy many, especially in a bubble” as occurred  in the summer of 2017, said Roche. He referenced page 43 of the so-called Griffin paper, introducing it into evidence.

That academic paper, Is Bitcoin Really Un-tethered? by John M. Griffin And Amin Shams, was posted in June 2018 and later updated. It investigated whether Tether influenced Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency prices during the 2017 boom. The authors found that that purchases with Tether were timed following market downturns and resulted in “sizable increases in Bitcoin prices.” This paper became a foundational piece of research for all four subsequent lawsuits.

Many in the crypto community have long been skeptical that Tether is actually backed by the U.S. dollar at a one-to one ratio as claimed. The Griffin paper also found “insufficient Tether reserves before month-ends.”

The Griffin paper showed, said Roche, that the price of Bitcoin was going down before Tether’s issuance, but after Tether was issued the price of Bitcoin went up — and this happened with six other crypto currencies as well.

Attorneys pit research against experience

Karen Lerner of Kirby Mcinerney LLP, representing plaintiffs’ Young, Kurtz, Crystal et. al., argued that a different kind of experience was more important in an action of this kind. “We are class action lawyers, and we are antitrust and commodities lawyers.” And, she contended, that even though they weren’t the first to file a complaint, their work was the most original, with an extensive regression analysis that identified 115 specific dates when market manipulation occurred and 256 actual transactions. Their firm’s proprietary algorithm would show “a lockstep pricing relationship between spot Bitcoin and Bitcoin futures,” she argued.

Brian Cochran, an attorney with Robbins Geller, representing plaintiff Ebanks et. al., questioned the Roche firm’s unique crypto expertise. “He says his one crypto case in Florida gives them more expertise than my two crypto cases — which were class actions.”

Who gets to sue Tether?

More significant, perhaps, Cochran criticized the class size proposed by the other law firms. “Roche defined it as anyone who owned crypto over the last six years. That’s overwrought — much too broad. Bitcoin and Bitcoin futures are closer to my definition of the class. Not all cryptos should be included.” That would simply be taking money from real victims and giving it to others.

As might be gathered, there were many lawyers in attendance for the oral arguments: 12 attorneys represented the four plaintiffs, while the defense team sent three attorneys just to observe — with space at a premium, several lawyers had to take seats in the jury box. As the session neared conclusion, Judge Failla said, “I had hoped to decide the motion today, but you made my decision very difficult.” She promised a decision on Thursday at 4pm EST.

Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/lawyers-duke-it-out-over-who-gets-to-lead-the-class-action-suit-against-tether

Continue Reading

Blockchain

PewDiePie Is Guilty of Every Attack He Hypocritically Aims at Jake Paul

Published

on

  • PewDiePie trashed fellow YouTuber Jake Paul’s new financial freedom courses in a recent video.
  • But Felix is guilty of shilling sketchy financial products too.
  • To top it off, PewDiePie gives financial advice in the video, while criticizing Jake Paul for not having any credibility to give financial advice.

PewDiePie wasn’t back on YouTube for long before running out of ideas for original content. So he piggy-backed off another YouTuber’s original work instead.

His response video to Jake Paul’s financial freedom movement isn’t the first time Kjellberg has attacked his fellow YouTuber’s efforts to make the world a better place. The king of gaming YouTube has a longstanding beef with both Jake and Logan Paul.

jake and logan pauljake and logan paul
PewDiePie has a longstanding beef with the Paul brothers. | Source: Michael Reaves/Getty Images/AFP

Last year, he even stooped as low as bashing Jake Paul’s petition to end cyberbullying.

PewDiePie has expressed consternation in the past with a media that nit-picks over his channel and allegedly blows anything negative out of proportion.

But he’s doing the same thing to Jake in this recent video.

Felix Shilled Scammy Cryptos

Just last month, Felix shilled sketchy cryptocurrency projects to his audience for affiliate revenue at the beginning of a video.

He even acknowledged with a joke how greedy it was to include an ad in a video that already had ads on it:

Many people have lost millions to crypto scams in the last decade while hoping to get rich. PewDiePie leveraged his fame and the trust of his fans to push more scammy cryptos. Yet he criticizes Jake Paul for encouraging people to educate themselves about finance and business.

He even made fun of another shady crypto scam in 2018, before selling out to TRON, BitTorrent, and DLive.

PewDiePie Mocks Jake Paul for Giving Financial Advice… Then Gives Financial Advice

As if that weren’t astounding enough, PewDiePie is actually guilty of what he slams Jake Paul for within the same video that he upbraids Paul. It’s unbelievable.

Pewds mockingly says:

Yes, Jake Paul is the person I look at when I envision financial freedom.

Then laughs.

But why not?

pewdiepie, jake paulpewdiepie, jake paul
PewDiePie is more like Jake Paul than he wants to admit. | Source: PewDiePie/YouTube

Paul is in his early 20s, and he’s a multi-millionaire. That actually makes him at least credible, if not authoritative, as a source of business and financial advice.

While PewDiePie doesn’t think Paul’s YouTube success translates to financial savvy, he instantly turns around and starts giving financial advice:

Student loan is the cheapest loan you can ever get. It’s one of the most fair loans. It’s a great loan to actually take advantage of.

That was in response to Jake Paul criticizing student loans for costing so much and not delivering students the earning power that would make them worth it.

But Jake Paul is right. And PewDiePie is wrong.

Job pay hasn’t kept up with the ballooning costs of loan-financed college education. And one markedly unfair aspect of student loans is they are notoriously difficult to discharge in bankruptcy.

PewDiePie concludes:

Jake Paul is the kind of celebrity that doesn’t have any real value… You could replace Jake Paul with anything or anyone and it wouldn’t make a difference.

Honestly, how special is it to play Minecraft and laugh at memes?

PewDiePie is even more “guilty” than Jake Paul of this final criticism.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of CCN.com.

This article was edited by Josiah Wilmoth.

Source: https://www.ccn.com/pewdiepie-is-guilty-of-every-attack-he-hypocritically-aims-at-jake-paul/

Continue Reading

Blockchain

Secretive Digital Fiat Project Emerges With New Partner as CBDC Chatter Grows

Published

on

As central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) march into view, a privately-run version of digital fiat is adding a key tech partner.

Utility Settlement Coin (USC), the blockchain-based payments system involving commercial and central banks, will be working with ConsenSys-backed startup Adhara, CoinDesk has learned. Adhara was behind Project Khokha, which used enterprise blockchain client Quorum to see how zero-knowledge proofs performed with the South African Reserve Bank (SARB).

The move is one of only a handful of public overtures by Fnality, the company that oversees the development of USC. Fnality raised $64.5 million in June 2019 from 14 shareholders including banking giants Barclays, Santander, BNY Mellon, ING and others.

“We think adding Adhara is going to really help us. They’ve got experience of doing some of this type of stuff in other places,” said Fnality CEO Rhomaios Ram.

The sensitive nature of Fnality’s discussions with central banks means it likes to keep a low profile. To date, USC’s only known technology partner was London-based Clearmatics Technologies. (Clearmatics, which uses a fork of ethereum, played a key part in the inception of USC, along with Swiss lender UBS, back in 2015.)

“At Fnality we are pursuing a multi-partner strategy,” Ram said. “Part of that is associated with risk and part of that is associated with we want more people involved in this ecosystem.”

The USC is commercial bank money, as opposed to a pure CBDC, which is issued and backed by the domestic central bank and carries sovereign risk. However, the design of USC allows it to carry some of the characteristics of central bank money because the cash collateral backing the USC is held at a domestic central bank.

As stated in a mandate to its shareholder commercial banks, Fnality’s plan is to represent five currencies on its blockchain – USD, euro, JPY, GBP and CAD – and solve the so-called “cash on ledger” problem, allowing wholesale banking transactions to happen instantly, cross-border and 24/7.

An industry source close to Fnality said adding Adhara makes sense because the work the startup has already done in South Africa could evolve into a Fnality payment system. The Swiss National Bank (SNB) was also mentioned by the source as a possible custodian of Fnality’s tokenized cash.

Asked if SARB was going to be in the cards when it comes to including more central banks within Fnality, Ram said: “We can’t look ahead that far. Our mandate from our investors is to focus on the five [currencies] and then, depending on how successful we are with those five, we will come to the others as and when, depending on what our investors say at that time.”

Ram acknowledged that CBDCs have risen on the agenda since his company’s June 2019 fundraising, adding that Fnality has held “very casual, informational conversations with some people,” but he had no idea what their intentions were or whether it was just educational. 

Neither SARB nor SNB returned requests for comment.

The Libra effect

The landscape has changed dramatically regarding central banks and digital currencies thanks to Facebook’s audacious plans for its Libra stablecoin. 

A key question for any large-scale, privately-backed initiative in this area now is whether Libra was a good or a bad thing.

A positive scenario is that central banks now move more quickly on initiatives like USC; another possible outcome is the central banking fraternity actively discouraging private-sector experiments from encroaching any further into the territory of the state. 

Ram agreed that Libra cut both ways. “It was literally both good and bad,” he said. “It was good because obviously these types of things gather a lot of attention and people that didn’t take us seriously before started to. But at some level, if you are not in the detail of this, it all looks the same. That can be a good or bad thing.”

John Whelan, Santander Bank’s innovation chief who is also on the board of Fnality, said it was not a question of competing with CBDCs at all.

“We see these things as entirely complementary and it’s quite likely given the regulations and the impact potentially on monetary policy … that something like Fnality will come into existence [before CBDCs]. But they are totally compatible,” said Whelan.

In light of Libra, Ram was philosophical about possible outcomes for Fnality’s ambitious plan to tokenize fiat held in the coffers of major central banks. 

“If the only thing that this [Libra] does is force the conversation and force some speed up on CBDCs – from a personal perspective that might not be great – but from the investors’ perspective that might still work for them [Fnality’s shareholder banks],” he said.

2020 vision

Fnality’s task, to create a regulatory framework and rulebook that five large central banks can digest, is ambitious in itself, nevermind coordinating the build of the various parts of the stack plus all the integration work that has to be done. 

A second source familiar with the project said Fnality’s strategy regarding its contracting framework and execution plan seemed “quite confused.”

“Whenever you have a lot of people involved in something – and they’ve grown their headcount quite aggressively – if you don’t have a clear program and execution plan at the beginning, there’s a natural tendency to kind of end up going all over the place,” the source said.

Regarding the scale of the organizational challenge, Ram said: “That is kind of the special sauce of Fnality, organizing all of these different stakeholders. That’s what we are aiming to be good at – that and driving all the legal and regulatory.”

The plan announced with last year’s fundraising was to come out with one of the main five currencies on the network by the end of 2020. 

“We have got no reason to change our minds yet. So all looks still possible,” Ram said.  

Disclosure Read More

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.

Source: https://www.coindesk.com/secretive-digital-fiat-project-emerges-with-new-partner-as-cbdc-chatter-grows

Continue Reading

Trending