Connect with us

Covid19

New Guidance: American College of Physicians Discusses Antibody Response in COVID-19 Immunity

Published

on

Because of the novelty of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, there is not enough evidence to determine whether antibodies produced after exposure are protective against reinfection. As such, the American College of Physicians (ACP) published rapid, evidence-based living practice points in the Annals of Internal Medicine discussing the role of antibodies in, tests for diagnosing, and tests for estimating the prevalence of COVID-19.

Practice Point 1: Antibody Tests for COVID-19 Diagnosis

The ACP does not recommend using SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests to diagnose COVID-19. This recommendation is based on the limited evidence that suggests not all patients with COVID-19 develop antibodies early in the course of their infection, as the presence and levels of antibodies can vary across patients and be dictated by certain disease characteristics.


Continue Reading

The guideline panel adds that clinicians and patients should be mindful that some SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests may provide false-positive results, which are caused by cross-reactivity with antibodies of other coronaviruses.

Studies also suggest that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of currently available antibody tests widely vary, further complicating their use as reliable diagnostic tools. Variation in the sensitivity and specificity of these tests can also contribute to both false-negative and false-positive results, leading to inaccurate conclusions about infection and possibly inappropriate or insufficient treatment.

Practice Point 2: Antibody Tests for Estimating Community Prevalence

Studies suggest that patients develop immune responses following exposure to the novel coronavirus. The evidence shows immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgM antibodies are detectable in the majority of patients who are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Nearly all patients also demonstrate detectable IgG and neutralizing antibodies.

Over time, the prevalence and levels of these antibodies may vary by different patient characteristics, disease symptoms, and disease severity. On average, the levels of each of the antibody types peak between 20 to 31 days following symptom onset or polymerase chain reaction diagnosis. Studies also show that the IgM antibodies may persist for up to 115 days and neutralizing antibodies may persist up to 152 days. Therefore, the ACP notes that antibody tests could be feasible options for estimating community prevalence of COVID-19.

Practice Point 3: The Protective Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Against Reinfection

There is a paucity of evidence to suggest that natural immunity is conferred by SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. There is no evidence to suggest SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can predict the presence, level, or durability of any conferred natural immunity, especially as it relates to protection against reinfection.

Given that most patients exhibit detectable antibodies at least 100 days after infection, it may be plausible that natural immunity can occur. However, the panel reiterates that there is no direct evidence to answer the question of whether these antibodies can protect against reinfection.

Some literature indicates that both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients can develop an antibody response indicative of natural immunity following COVID-19, but variables such as disease severity, patient factors, type and amount of antibodies developed, as well as the longevity of those antibodies, play an important role.

The guideline panel cites a small study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 that reported a single possible case of reinfection during the convalescence stage. This patient did not have IgM or IgG antibodies detected at the 4-week follow-up period.

Limitations of the Practice Points

According to the guideline authors, the practice points presented concern only the antibody-mediated natural immunity response in COVID-19 and do not particularly address the involvement of other natural immune responses, including cell-mediated immunity or vaccine-acquired immunity.

Currently, the only evidence-based recommendation for increasing immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and preventing infection is to receive an authorized COVID-19 vaccine. Additional prevention strategies recommended in the guideline include social distancing, wearing a mask in public, quarantining, and regular hand washing.

“Given limited knowledge about the association between antibody levels and natural immunity,” the guideline authors wrote, “patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and those with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection should follow recommended infection prevention and control procedures to slow and reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.”

Reference:

Qaseem A, Yost J, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, et al; for the Scientific Medical Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians. What is the antibody response and role in conferring natural immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection? Rapid, living practice points from the American College of Physicians (version 1). Ann Intern Med. Published online March 16, 2021. doi:10.7326/M20-7569

This article originally appeared on Infectious Disease Advisor

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.medicalbag.com/home/medicine/american-college-of-physicians-guidelines-antibody-response-in-sars-cov-2-reinfection/

Covid19

This Man Is Honoring COVID Victims By Telling Their Stories, One Obituary At A Time

Published

on

Alex Goldstein, a communications specialist in Boston, created @FacesofCOVID on Twitter. He says it helps people mourn and for them to hear from others that their loved one “meant something, and even if I didn’t know them, we are all less because they’re not here anymore, and we all share in your sadness.” Alex Goldstein hide caption

toggle caption

Alex Goldstein

Alex Goldstein started the Twitter account @FacesofCOVID in March of 2020 to help him make sense of grief.

The account has been his way to honor some of the nearly 600,000 people who have died in the U.S.

Even back in March 2020, Goldstein knew something was wrong. The communications specialist’s home city of Boston was hit early and harshly from virus. As the death toll climbed and businesses shut down, he started to feel overwhelmed. How could a virus kill so many and yet he knew so few of its victims? Who were the people who had passed away from COVID, and what were their stories?

He created FacesofCOVID to learn those answers. He has posted over 5,000 virtual obituaries from newspapers and families of those who have died.

“I think that the story at the beginning of the pandemic was largely a data story. We were getting thrown all these numbers thrown at us — hospitalizations and cases and deaths,” Goldstein tells Morning Edition. “I found it really hard to process and I felt like, we were missing the human element of that story.”

One of the things that made this pandemic especially difficult was the lack of mourning rituals. Families saw their loved ones one last time from iPads in isolation wards. Many funeral homes did not let more than 10 mourners at a time attend a service due to regulations. In a time of immense grief, people couldn’t mourn in familiar ways.

“It’s a place where they can share their loved one’s story and see people from all over the country and all over the world saying, ‘Your loved one meant something, and even if I didn’t know them, we are all less because they’re not here anymore, and we all share in your sadness,’ ” Goldstein says.

As long as COVID-19 continues to exist and take lives, Goldstein plans on running the account indefinitely.

“I don’t want us to immediately lose sight just because things are reopening,” he says. “There’s a lot of pain out there, and if FacesofCOVID can help people slow down a little bit on their impulse to change the channel, I think that can be a good thing.”

Tori Dominguez is an intern at Morning Edition.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2021/06/15/1006190754/faces-of-covid-twitter-obituaries

Continue Reading

Covid19

Novavax Says Its COVID Vaccine Is Extremely Effective

Published

on

Novavax says its vaccine is 100% effective against the original strain of the coronavirus and had 93% efficacy against more worrisome variants. Alastair Grant/AP hide caption

toggle caption

Alastair Grant/AP

The first results from a large efficacy study of a new kind of COVID-19 vaccine are now out, and they are good. Very good.

According to Novavax, the vaccine’s manufacturer, it had a 100% efficacy against the original strain of the coronavirus and 93% efficacy against more worrisome variants that have subsequently appeared.

In addition to efficacy, the PREVENT-19 (the PRE-fusion protein subunit Vaccine Efficacy Novavax Trial COVID-19) trial showed the Novavax vaccine was safe for users. Like other COVID-19 vaccines, it caused headaches, chills and muscle aches after injection, but few of these side effects were considered serious or severe.

The study involved 29,960 volunteers in the United States and Mexico. In the study, two-thirds of the volunteers received two shots of the vaccine and one-third received two shots of a placebo.

A total of 77 cases of COVID-19 occurred during the study: 63 in the placebo group and 14 in the vaccine group. According to the Novavax statement describing the results, none of the cases of COVID-19 in the vaccine group were related to the original strain of the virus, hence the 100% efficacy against the original strain.

The breakthrough cases were all caused by the newer, more worrisome variants, and all of the breakthroughs in the vaccine group were mild. By contrast, 10 in the placebo group were considered moderate and four severe. Novavax’s statement did not specify which variants in particular were prevented.

The company says it intends to file for authorization from regulators in the U.S., Europe and the United Kingdom later this summer. Novavax says it will be able to deliver 100 million doses per month by the end of September and 150 million doses per month by the end of the year.

The Novavax vaccine is what’s known as a protein subunit vaccine. All COVID-19 vaccines are based on something called the coronavirus spike protein. That’s the protein that prompts the immune system to make antibodies to the virus.

The vaccines made by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech deliver the genetic instructions for the spike protein in the form of messenger-RNA, and the cells of the person receiving the vaccine make the spike protein. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine delivers those instructions using a viral vector, again relying on the vaccine recipient’s cells to make the protein.

Novavax, on the other hand, makes the protein in cell cultures grown in giant bioreactors in manufacturing facilities and delivers the fully formed vaccine along with a substance for priming the immune system in its vaccine.

The Novavax vaccine was one of the vaccines chosen for development as part of Operation Warp Speed. The U.S. government is providing $1.75 billion to the company to support the vaccine’s development.

It’s not clear at this point whether the Food and Drug Administration is prepared to continue to grant emergency use authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines. The FDA may require Novavax to go through the standard licensure process, which can take considerably longer than an EUA.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2021/06/14/1006094476/novavax-says-its-covid-vaccine-is-extremely-effective-efficacy

Continue Reading

Covid19

Specific antibodies may be effective against multiple coronavirus types

Published

on

coronavirus antibody

Patients who have been exposed to a coronavirus may produce a versatile, cross-reactive coronavirus antibody; this may be useful for the eventual development of a broad-acting vaccine.

There are seven human coronavirus types, of which, four cause the common cold, named OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63. Most people become infected with at least one of these four coronaviruses at some point in their lives. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another member of the coronavirus family that causes COVID-19. Infection with the cold-causing coronaviruses may lead to immune memory. This could potentially impact on the immune response to COVID-19.

Research published in Nature Communications compared blood samples of patients collected before the pandemic with those who tested positive for COVID-19. By doing this, the researchers were able to find antibody types that cross reacted with other coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.

Cross-reactive coronavirus antibody produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection

It was discovered that a cross-reactive coronavirus antibody is triggered as a direct result of a COVID-19 infection. Dr Raiees Andrabi, a senior author of the paper, stated, “We were able to determine that this type of cross-reactive antibody is likely produced by a memory B cell that’s initially exposed to a coronavirus that causes the common cold, and is then recalled during a COVID-19 infection.”

Memory B cells are long-lived, as they can circulate throughout the body for decades in order to recognise and fight pathogens that they have previously encountered. Memory B cells offer protection against reinfection by rapidly producing specific antibodies. Although the study found evidence of pre-existing cross-reactive memory B cells that were triggered during SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was only weak evidence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive serum antibodies in pre-pandemic patient samples. However, the researchers were able to identify one cross-reactive neutralizing antibody specific to the S2 subunit of the spike (S) protein.

How does this antibody work?

The researchers used electron microscopy to visualise how the cross-reactive antibody had the ability to neutralize a range of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. They found that the antibody typically bound to the S protein of the virus. This area did not seem to vary in different coronavirus strains.

Ge Song, the first author of the paper, stated, “The study highlights how important it is to fully understand the nature of pre-existing immunity, especially in regard to coronaviruses. Earlier exposure to a coronavirus, even a virus that causes mild colds, impacts the nature and level of antibodies produced when more serious coronavirus threats emerge.”

Significance of the study

Since immunological memory forms the basis of vaccination, the findings of this study could potentially lead to the creation of a vaccine or antibody treatment that works against most or all coronaviruses. Pre-existing immunity to endemic coronaviruses should be further investigated to evaluate antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.

Co-author Dr Dennis Burton explained, “Another deadly coronavirus will likely emerge again in the future – and when it does, we want to be better prepared. Our identification of a cross-reactive antibody against SARS-CoV-2 and the more common coronaviruses is a promising development on the way to a broad-acting vaccine or therapy.”

References:

Song, G., et al. (2021). Cross-reactive serum and memory B-cell responses to spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronavirus infection. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1-10. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23074-3

Versatile coronavirus antibody may be starting point for broader-acting vaccines (2021). EurekAlert! Retrieved from: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-05/sri-vca052721.php

Quast, I. and Tarlinton, D. (2021). B cell memory: understanding COVID-19. Immunity, 54(2), 205-210. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826135/

Image by mattthewafflecat from Pixabay 

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://medicalnewsbulletin.com/specific-antibodies-may-be-effective-against-all-coronavirus-types/

Continue Reading

Covid19

June 18 Web Event: Asian Immigrant Experiences with Racism, Immigration-related Fears, and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Published

on

While the country has collectively experienced health and economic difficulties with the COVID-19 pandemic, certain groups have experienced a disproportionate impact. The Asian American community has had to cope with the burden of pandemic-related racism and, as one of the fastest growing immigrant communities in the nation, immigration-related fears due to policy and regulatory action of recent years. Yet, there is often limited data and focus on the experiences of the expanding Asian immigrant community. KFF is hosting a June 18 public web event to highlight and discuss the complex set of challenges facing Asian immigrants and strategies to address them.

The one-hour interactive web event begins at 12 p.m. ET on Friday, June 18, featuring remarks from U.S. Congresswoman Judy Chu, who has been a leading voice on many of the issues to be discussed and chairs the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. Findings from a new KFF survey of Asian American patients from four community health centers will be released at the event with a panel discussion and audience questions to follow.

Welcome and Keynote Remarks

  • KFF Executive Vice President for Health Policy Larry Levitt (moderator)
  • U.S. Congresswoman and Chair of Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus The Honorable Judy Chu
  • Chief Program Director of Blue Shield of California Foundation Carolyn Wang Kong

Presentation of Survey Findings

  • KFF Vice President and Director of the Racial Equity and Health Policy Program Samantha Artiga

Panel Discussion

  • Director of Policy and Advocacy at the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO) Adam Carbullido
  • Vice President of Strategic Initiatives at International Community Health Services Sunshine Monastrial
  • Chief Deputy of Administration at Asian Health Services Thu Quach

The one-hour event will conclude with a question-and-answer session.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/event/june-18-web-event-asian-immigrant-experiences-with-racism-immigration-related-fears-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/

Continue Reading
Aviation5 days ago

The Story Of The Boeing 777 Family

Esports5 days ago

Every new Passive Power in Legends of Runeterra Lab of Legends 2.9.0

Crowdfunding4 days ago

April/May 2021 Top Campaigns

Blockchain4 days ago

Crypto Fund Manager Says Bitcoin ETFs to be Approved By 2022

Aviation2 days ago

Delta Air Lines Flight Diverts To Oklahoma Over Unruly Off-Duty Flight Attendant

Esports3 days ago

Lost Ark Founders Pack: Everything You Need to Know

Fintech4 days ago

PayPal launches PayPal Rewards Card in Australia

Energy3 days ago

Industrial robots market in the automotive industry | $ 3.97 billion growth expected during 2021-2025 | 17000+ Technavio Research Reports

Cyber Security3 days ago

Data Breach that Impacted Both Audi of America and Volkswagen of America

Energy3 days ago

Daiki Axis Co., Ltd. (4245, First Section, Tokyo Stock Exchange) Overview of Operating Performance for the First Three Months Ended March 31, 2021

Aviation2 days ago

Spirit Airlines Just Made The Best Argument For Lifting LaGuardia’s Perimeter Rule

Cleantech3 days ago

Tesla Model S 420 Plaid Is The Best Car In The World (But Not For Me)

Start Ups5 days ago

Loupe Tech Lands $12M Series A To Connect Sports Card Enthusiasts

Fintech5 days ago

Stripe launches Stripe Tax to simplify global tax compliance for Australian businesses

Blockchain5 days ago

PayPal Sets New Record of Daily Crypto Volume of Over $300 Million

Blockchain5 days ago

JPMorgan Cautioned Coming Bear Market Signal in Bitcoin

Blockchain4 days ago

Blockchain technology can help to protect sensitive information

AI5 days ago

Ransomware Incidents Surging; Cybersecurity Experts Scramble to Respond   

Private Equity5 days ago

Warburg Pincus backs $150m Series E for cybersecurity company Aura

Blockchain3 days ago

DCR Technical Analysis: Look for Support Levels of $130.13 and $126.01

Trending