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Misinterpretation of air traffic control communication identified as a factor in August 2019 runway incursion at Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport




From: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

News release

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 15 January 2021 — The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) today released its investigation report (A19O0117) into the August 2019 runway incursion between two aircraft at the Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Ontario. There were no injuries.

On 9 August 2019 at 1240 local time, an Air Canada Boeing 777-300 landed on Runway 33L. Three minutes later, at 1243 local time, an Air Georgian Bombardier CRJ 200 was instructed to line up on parallel Runway 33R. In accordance with air traffic control (ATC) instructions, the Boeing 777 was crossing Runway 33R. Simultaneously, the flight crew of the CRJ 200 began its take-off roll on the same runway without a take-off clearance from ATC. When the CRJ 200 flight crew saw the Boeing 777 over the crest of the runway, they rejected the takeoff and exited via a taxiway.

The investigation found that while completing the pre-departure checks, the flight crew of the CRJ 200 was informed of a change in departure instructions. The first officer received and read back the line-up instruction with the departure amendment, but misinterpreted that ATC communication as a clearance for takeoff.

It was determined that the number of pre-departure tasks the flight crew was required to complete within a short amount of time increased their workload, and that the workload was further increased by the additional tasks brought by the change in instructions. Thus, it was found that the increased workload, the expectation to receive a take-off clearance without delay, and the misinterpretation of the line-up instructions led the CRJ 200 flight crew to initiate take-off roll without a take-off clearance. Also, because of the grade profile of Runway 33R, the fuselage of the Boeing 777 would not have been visible to the CRJ 200 flight crew at the start of the take-off roll, therefore they had no visual indication that it was unsafe to begin the takeoff.

Both flight crew members worked an early morning shift after working an evening shift, known as a backward-rotating shift schedule. Although the investigation did not determine that fatigue affected the performance of the flight crew in this occurrence, backward-rotating shift schedules cause circadian rhythm desynchronization, which increases the risk of fatigue in crew members who do not receive sufficient time off to adapt their sleep-wake pattern when working these schedules. Furthermore, if airlines do not inform crew members of the risk of fatigue due to the direction of shift schedule rotation, there is an increased risk that crew members will operate an aircraft while fatigued.

Following the occurrence, NAV CANADA issued a directive reminding air traffic controllers to cancel the take-off clearance or issue an instruction to abort takeoff when runway incursion monitoring and conflict alert system stage 2 alerts are activated by a departing aircraft.

Air Georgian Limited conducted an internal safety investigation as per the company’s safety management system. It amended its standard operating procedures to mandate an ATC query if one of the two crew members was unaware of the content of an ATC clearance or instruction.

See the investigation page for more information.



Ryanair Pledges To Support Sustainable Aviation Fuels




Irish low-cost giant Ryanair today pledged to support the development of sustainable aviation fuels to promote a carbon-neutral future. The airline joined the Fueling Flight Initiative as part of its pledge to turn the blue airline green.

Ryanair, Sustainable Fuel, Environment
Ryanair today pledged to support the development of sustainable fuel. Photo: Ryanair

Understandably right now, sustainability is the airlines’ number two priority, with public health having been unexpectedly made the top priority. However, while airlines have had to shift their focus slightly to ensure the health of those flying, that doesn’t mean sustainability has been placed on the backburner. Indeed, last month we saw British Airways invest in bringing forward its use of Sustainable Aviation Fuels.

Ryanair takes notice of SAFs

Ryanair today pledged to become part of the movement for sustainable aviation fuels. The airline joined the Fueling Flight Initiative in an attempt to help pave the road to carbon neutrality. The airline’s Director of Sustainability, Tom Fowler, said,

“A transparent and future-proof regulatory framework for SAFs can support and equip airlines in their fight against climate change, and we are proud to be part of this initiative… With this new initiative, we take a further step to the achievement of our decarbonisation targets and the broader UN Sustainable Development Goals.”

Stay informed: Sign up for our daily and weekly aviation news digests!

What are Sustainable Aviation Fuels?

Sustainable Aviation Fuels are like fossil fuels but are considered to be a greener alternative. The fuels can be made from a range of sources. British Airways, for instance, is targeting SAFs made from household waste in addition to ethanol made from the leftovers of processing wheat straw.

Fuel tankering
Sustainable Aviation Fuels are considered greener than fossil fuels. Photo: Tom Boon/Simple Flying

The problem with Sustainable Aviation Fuels is that they are currently costly. They are being produced in low quantities meaning that they cost a lot to create, and thus cheaper conventional fuel is preferred from a cost standpoint. For a low-cost carrier such as Ryanair, this could be a turn-off. However, the industry hopes that more widespread production would ultimately bring the cost of such fuels down.

What else is Ryanair doing?

While it may not be apparent to the everyday flyer, Ryanair has been pushing for airlines across the industry to do their bit to bring down CO2 emissions. In June 2019, the airline began to publish its monthly CO2 statistics, encouraging other airlines to follow suit.

Ryanair, Q3, Results
Ryanair was the first in Europe to start reporting monthly CO2 statistics. Photo: Tom Boon – Simple Flying

With the current situation excluded, the airline argued that by operating with a higher load factor, its CO2 emissions per passenger were lower. With the introduction of the 737 MAX, its CO2 emissions should drop further. Firstly the brand new aircraft are more efficient than their older counterparts. However, they will also carry more passengers, further lowering the proportion of CO2 emitted per passenger. You can read more about the airline’s environmental policy in our previous reporting.

What do you make of Ryanair’s commitment to Sustainable Aviation Fuels? Let us know your thoughts in the comments!

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Aeroforma expands sheetmetal aerospace parts production




The addition of a new hydroform deep draw press from Quintus Technologies brings increased capacity, flexibility, and production efficiencies to aerospace parts manufacturer Aeroforma Technologies.

Installed in the Aeroforma Technologies facility in Cheltenham, the Quintus model QFM 1.1-800 Deep Draw Press uses hydraulic pressure up to 11,600 psi to form parts in a variety of shapes, thicknesses, and tough materials, achieving tight tolerances with minimal thinning.

Proprietary flexible forming technology enables the press to perform four forming operations in a single machine. In addition to block tool forming, cavity tool forming, and expansion forming, the very versatile Quintus press is also equipped with a movable punch forming system for deep drawing of intricate shapes.

The press is a good fit for Aeroforma Technologies, which over several decades has earned an enviable reputation as a supplier of high-quality fabricated metal components to the aerospace industry. Installation of the QFM 1.1-800 represents Aeroforma Technologies’ commitment to benefit its customers by bringing core processes under one roof to reduce lead times, streamline logistics, and increase competitiveness.

“Our strategy of providing a vertically integrated sourcing solution—from raw material procurement through to forming, welding, surface treating, and assembly—is one which our customer base is finding increasingly attractive,” said Antoni Kwiatkowski, group managing director, Aeroforma Technologies. “Key to that strategy is ensuring state-of-the-art machinery along with extensive industry knowledge and experience. With its class-leading hydroform envelope and depth of draw, the Quintus press helps ensure that we remain ahead of the pack.”

The Quintus Flexform process utilises a combination of a single rigid tool half, operating in conjunction with a flexible rubber diaphragm subjected to high hydraulic pressure, to form sheetmetal parts with great accuracy and repeatability. This process produces high-quality parts, in complex shapes and tough alloys, and at tight tolerances. It also generates significant tool and process cost savings, especially of great value where intricately shaped components are required in low to moderate volumes.

The QFM 1.1-800 is equipped with two forming stations, one of which is the deep draw, offering a maximum blank diameter of 43.1 inches (1095 mm) and maximum draw depth of 10 inches (254 mm). The second forming station is tailor made to accommodate block tool, cavity tool, and expansion tool forming.

“Our Flexform technology is ideal for aerospace engine components, including deep drawn parts, in high-strength, heat-resistant materials,” said Jan Söderström, CEO of Quintus Technologies.

The post Aeroforma expands sheetmetal aerospace parts production appeared first on Aerospace Manufacturing.

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Electric Aircraft Are Coming, Just Not as Soon As You Think




Jean-Marie Liot / Eviation Aircraft

Eviation’s Alice aims to be one of the first electric planes certified by regulators. Jean-Marie Liot / Eviation Aircraft

Skift Take: Electric aircraft are an inevitable step for commercial aviation with the heightened focus on carbon emissions. Numerous companies are vying to develop this new technology but, with engines still in the works and a lengthy certification runway ahead, when is everyones' guess.

— Edward Russell

Read the Complete Story On Skift

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Singapore Airlines Opens Training Facilities To Local Business




Singapore Airlines has opened up its training facilities to local businesses outside the aviation industry. The Singapore Airlines Academy now offers a range of courses to external clients, including ‘service excellence’ and ‘organizational innovation,’ with classes run by the airline’s award-winning staff trainers.

Boeing 787-10, Operators, Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines is sharing its expertise with other businesses in Singapore. Photo: Getty Images

Singapore Airlines shares its secrets to success

Singapore Airlines has a reputation for excellent service, notably winning “World’s Best Cabin Crew” at Skytrax’s 2019 World Airline Awards. Now the airline is offering masterclasses on customer service to businesses across Singapore. The classes are aimed at training customer-facing and support staff, drawing upon the airline’s expertise.

Juat Fang Foo, cabin crew training manager at Singapore Airlines, said the ‘training programs include presentations, role-play exercises and question-and-answer sessions.’ Course titles include “Effective Communication” and “Handling Challenging Customers,” along with customized classes tailored to each client.

Singapore Airlines Crew
Singapore Airlines crew are known for their impeccable service globally. Photo: Singapore Airlines

The airline’s customer service training is offered under its ‘Service Excellence’ program. Other programs available at the academy include ‘Innovation & Digital’ and ‘Operational Excellence.’ These programs offer courses across various subjects, including ‘Error Management,’ ‘Innovation for Leaders’ and ‘Resilience Training.’

The state-of-the-art training center, which Simple Flying took an exclusive look at last year, first took on external clients in September. The first client was Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH), which placed its patient care officers on a three-day course, with several other organizations, including financial and retail firms, since completing training programs.

One of many initiatives from Singapore Airlines

Like many other airlines, Singapore Airlines has been looking at alternative revenue streams to navigate the pandemic. It has been one of the most proactive in this regard, coming up with initiatives such as an A380 restaurant and home deliveries of its premium in-flight menu.

Singapore Airlines famously opened a restaurant onboard one of its grounded Airbus A380 aircraft. Photo: Getty Images

Singapore Airlines Academy courses are available in both virtual or in-person formats, with ‘programs easily adaptable to nearly any organization, regardless of sector.’ Josephine Lim, senior manager of cabin crew learning and development, explained the thinking behind the initiative, saying,

“Singapore Airlines was able to devise and host its own training programs last year after multiple travel bans and border closures meant there was minimal demand for new crew member training.”

As the airline has little need to recruit new cabin crew at this time, it is putting its world-class training facilities and knowledge to good use. According to Wall Street Journal, ‘the company plans to work with businesses in its home country for the time being, but hopes to expand internationally when pandemic restrictions are lifted.’

The airline is learning a little itself

One of the unexpected upsides of working with a diverse range of clientele is that trainers are themselves picking up new insights from other industries. With all sorts of companies and organizations participating, veteran Singapore Airlines trainers have added to their knowledge. As staff trainer Ms. Foo put it,

“We’ve realized we are learning from our learners,”

singapore airlines getty
Businesses from a range of sectors have taken part in Singapore Airlines’ training programs. Photo: Getty Images

The airline is also hoping to do good for the economy of Singapore itself, as its training initiative will “contribute to Singapore’s national goal of reskilling and upskilling the country’s workforce.” Singapore Airlines has remained tight-lipped about its training programs’ pricing, but did add that its courses represent a potential new source of revenue in the coming years.

Do you think Singapore Airlines has a lot to offer to other businesses? Let us know your thoughts in the comments.

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