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# Machine Learning with Python: Logistic Regression

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Machine Learning with Python: Logistic Regression

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Source: https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2021/05/machine-learning-with-python-logistic-regression/

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Today Facebook is open sourcing Prophet, a forecasting tool available in Python and R. Forecasting is a data science task that is central to many activities within an organization. For instance, large organizations like Facebook must engage in capacity planning to efficiently allocate scarce resources and goal setting in order to measure performance relative to a baseline. Producing high quality forecasts is not an easy problem for either machines or for most analysts. We have observed two main themes in the practice of creating a variety of business forecasts:
· Completely automatic forecasting techniques can be brittle and they are often too inflexible to incorporate useful assumptions or heuristics.
· Analysts who can produce high quality forecasts are quite rare because forecasting is a specialized data science skill requiring substantial experience.

We consider the problem of quantifying information flow in interactive systems, modelled as finite-state transducers in the style of Goguen and Meseguer. Our main result is that if the system is deterministic then the information flow is either logarithmic or linear, and there is a polynomial-time algorithm to distinguish the two cases and compute the rate of logarithmic flow. To achieve this we first extend the theory of information leakage through channels to the case of interactive systems, and establish a number of results which greatly simplify computation. We then show that for deterministic systems the information flow corresponds to the growth rate of antichains inside a certain regular language, a property called the width of the language. In a companion work we have shown that there is a dichotomy between polynomial and exponential antichain growth, and a polynomial time algorithm to distinguish the two cases and to compute the order of polynomial growth. We observe that these two cases correspond to logarithmic and linear information flow respectively. Finally, we formulate several attractive open problems, covering the cases of probabilistic systems, systems with more than two users and nondeterministic systems where the nondeterminism is assumed to be innocent rather than demonic. …

We describe a novel classifier with a tree structure, designed using information theory concepts. This Information Network is made of information nodes, that compress the input data, and multiplexers, that connect two or more input nodes to an output node. Each information node is trained, independently of the others, to minimize a local cost function that minimizes the mutual information between its input and output with the constraint of keeping a given mutual information between its output and the target (information bottleneck). We show that the system is able to provide good results in terms of accuracy, while it shows many advantages in terms of modularity and reduced complexity. …

This paper presents Acquisition Thompson Sampling (ATS), a novel algorithm for batch Bayesian Optimization (BO) based on the idea of sampling multiple acquisition functions from a stochastic process. We define this process through the dependency of the acquisition functions on a set of model parameters. ATS is conceptually simple, straightforward to implement and, unlike other batch BO methods, it can be employed to parallelize any sequential acquisition function. In order to improve performance for multi-modal tasks, we show that ATS can be combined with existing techniques in order to realize different explore-exploit trade-offs and take into account pending function evaluations. We present experiments on a variety of benchmark functions and on the hyper-parameter optimization of a popular gradient boosting tree algorithm. These demonstrate the competitiveness of our algorithm with two state-of-the-art batch BO methods, and its advantages to classical parallel Thompson Sampling for BO. …

# Spotlight on Xbox Game Pass as Microsoft showcases upcoming games

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By Supantha Mukherjee

STOCKHOLM (Reuters) – Microsoft on Sunday showcased 30 upcoming games and said most of those titles will be available on its monthly subscription service, Xbox Game Pass.

The company said it would launch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YnVzOA2wNs&ab_channel=Xbox new games on Game Pass every month through the end of the year, including titles such as PC strategy series “Age of Empires IV” and racing game “Forza Horizon 5.”

One of Microsoft’s big-ticket games, “Halo Infinite,” is now set for a holiday launch this year after being delayed due to the challenge of developers being stuck at home during coronavirus restrictions.

Several of the game launches announced by Microsoft at the E3 conference came from video game publisher Bethesda, behind hits such as Fallout and Doom. Microsoft last year bought ZeniMax Media, parent company of Bethesda, for \$7.5 billion.

Microsoft also announced launch dates of two big-budget games, exclusive to Xbox and PC – role playing game “Starfield” and vampire-themed shooting game “Redfall.” “Starfield” will launch on Nov. 11, 2022 and “Redfall” next Summer.

Both Microsoft and Sony launched their next-generation gaming devices in November last year and have seen heightened demand for the consoles as gamers stuck at home due to the pandemic snapped up the devices.

Gaming analytics firm Newzoo forecasts that the global games market will generate revenue of \$175.8 billion in 2021, with 2.9 billion players, and surpass \$200 billion in 2023.

Microsoft has also been developing its cloud gaming service to attract casual gamers and its own streaming devices.

Game Pass has hundreds of games playable on Xbox consoles, Android devices and PCs with a \$9.99 monthly fee.

“What makes us different from a service like Netflix is that we give players both options, a subscription package and also a full retail store,” said Phil Spencer, head of Xbox.

(Reporting by Supantha Mukherjee, European Technology & Telecoms Correspondent, based in Stockholm; Editing by Daniel Wallis)

# Musk says Tesla will accept bitcoins when miners use more clean energy

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(Reuters) -Tesla Inc Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk tweeted on Sunday that the electric carmarker will resume allowing bitcoin transactions when miners who verify transactions use more renewable energy.

“When there’s confirmation of reasonable (~50%) clean energy usage by miners with positive future trend, Tesla will resume allowing Bitcoin transactions,” he said in a tweet.

Bitcoin rose 5.1% to \$37,360.63 at 1810 GMT (2:10 p.m. ET) on Sunday, adding \$1,817.87 to its previous close, after Musk’s tweet.

Musk also said that Tesla sold about 10% of holdings to confirm bitcoin could be liquidated easily without moving market.

He announced in May that Tesla would no longer accept bitcoin for car purchases, citing long-brewing environmental concerns for a swift reversal in the company’s position on the cryptocurrency. Bitcoin fell more than 10% after his tweet.

The billionaire said that he believed cryptocurrency has a promising future, but it cannot be at great cost to the environment.

In February, Tesla revealed it had bought \$1.5 billion of bitcoin and would accept it as a form of payment for cars.

(Reporting by Maria Ponnezhath in Bengaluru; Editing by Lisa Shumaker)

# Frequent run-ins with Indian government complicates tech giants’ plans

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Elevate your enterprise data technology and strategy at Transform 2021.

(Reuters) — Another spat between India’s government and U.S. big tech has exacerbated disillusion among firms which have spent billions to build hubs in their largest growth market, to the extent some are rethinking expansion plans, people close to the matter said.

The government on Saturday said Twitter had not indicated compliance with new rules aimed at making social media firms more accountable to legal requests, and therefore risked losing liability exemptions for content posted on its platform.

Twitter joins compatriots Amazon.com, Facebook, and Facebook-owned WhatsApp in long being at loggerheads with the administration of Prime Minister Narendra Modi over data privacy bills and policies some executives have called protectionist, but tension has escalated in recent weeks.

Police visited Twitter last month to notify it of a probe into the tagging of a political tweet as “manipulated media”, and in February interrogated an Amazon official about the potentially adverse social impact of a political drama. Meanwhile, WhatsApp is challenging the government in court over rules it said would force it to access encrypted data.

“The fear is there,” said a senior tech industry executive in India. “It weighs both strategically and operationally.”

There are no indications the increasing run-ins have led to the delay or cancellation of planned investment.

Still, three senior executives familiar with the thinking of major U.S. tech firms said perceptions of India being an alternative, more accessible growth market to China are changing, and that longstanding plans for India’s role in their operations are being reviewed.

“There always used to be these discussions to make India a hub, but that is being thought through now,” said one of the executives, who works at a U.S. tech firm. “This feeling is across the board.”

Four other executives and advisors also expressed concern about rising tension. All declined to be identified due to the sensitivity of the matter and because discussions were private.

Twitter, Amazon, Facebook, WhatsApp and India’s Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology did not respond to requests for comment.

## Misinformation

The government has argued that its rules are needed to stem the spread of misinformation that can spark violence – such as in 2017 when kidnapping rumours shared on message apps including WhatsApp led to lynching. It also said the rules are necessary to hold large technology companies accountable for practices that hurt domestic businesses or compromise customer privacy.

India is a massive market for U.S. tech giants. It is the biggest market for both Facebook and WhatsApp by user numbers, showed data from Statista, and third for Twitter. Amazon has committed as much as \$6.5 billion to invest in the country.

To attract small businesses through WhatsApp, Facebook last year invested \$5.7 billion in Reliance Industries‘s media and telecommunications arm, Jio Platforms.

Alphabet’s Google also pumped \$4.5 billion into Jio last year from a newly created \$10 billion fund earmarked for investment in India over five to seven years.

## Compliance

The government has tried to balance attracting high-tech investment with nationalist policies aimed at protecting local businesses and, critics say, advancing its political agenda.

A border confrontation with China prompted it to effectively ban Chinese social media apps, including TikTok and WeChat.

The government has also forced foreign firms to store data locally against fierce lobbying, and its promotion of a domestic payment card network prompted Mastercard to complain to the U.S. government about the use of nationalism.

In 2019, compliance issues with new regulations saw Amazon remove thousands of products from its e-commerce platform. The e-tailer is separately facing scrutiny by the Competition Commission of India for its retailing practices.

Twitter publicly refused to comply with some government demands to remove content, a stance which some industry executives said may have aggravated its current situation.

WhatsApp has gone to court rather than comply with a new law requiring social media firms to trace the origin of dangerous or criminal posts on their platforms. The message app operator said it cannot comply without breaking encryption, while observers said yielding could prompt similar demands in other countries.

At the same time, WhatsApp has faced regulatory delays that have limited its payment service to just 4% of its 500 million customers. Nevertheless, it is pressing ahead with hiring for a service it has called a “globally significant” opportunity.

Government officials have shown little patience for objections. IT minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said any robust democracy must have accountability mechanisms, such as the ability to identify the originator of messages.

“A private company sitting in America should refrain from lecturing us on democracy when you are denying your users the right to effective redressal forum,” Prasad said in an interview with the Hindu newspaper published on Sunday.

Still, continued antagonism could imperil Modi’s ambition of making India a go-to investment destination.

“It’s a question of what you would develop in a three-to-five-year horizon,” said another executive familiar with the thinking of U.S. firms. “Do you do that in India or do you do that in another country. That’s where the conversation is.”

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