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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Adolescent Mental Health

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Even before the COVID-19 pandemic began, concerning mental health trends and major treatment gaps were noted among adolescents in the United States. According to data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an estimated 13.3% of US adolescents aged 12-17 experienced at least 1 episode of major depressive disorder in 2017, yet 60.1% of these individuals did not receive treatment for their illness.1

In addition, survey results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated increasing rates of US high school students experiencing persistent sadness or hopelessness (from approximately 26% in 2009 to 37% in 2019), serious contemplation of suicide (from 14% to 19%), suicide planning (from 11% to 16%), and suicide attempts (from 6% to 9%). The highest risk levels were observed for White, female, and sexual minority students compared with non-White, male, and heterosexual students.2

Early findings indicate that these issues are being further exacerbated by the current crisis, with an especially high risk of worsening mental health among individuals with pre-existing psychological problems. These results have shown increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among youth of various age groups.3,5 “The number, severity and duration of these symptoms are influenced by age, history of trauma, psychological status before the event, hours spent watching media coverage of the event, having a family member who died and the presence or absence of social and economic supports,” wrote Hertz and Barrios in a paper published in February 2021 in Injury Prevention.2


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They noted that school closures may reduce access to mental health screening and care for vulnerable students, considering the large number of adolescents — nearly 3.5 million in 2018 — receiving such services in educational settings.2 These settings represent the only source of mental health services for many adolescents, particularly those from low‐income households and racial and ethnic minority groups. The authors thus emphasized the heightened importance of collaboration between schools and community health professionals to address the growing mental health needs of students.

Adolescents and other youth are also affected by the impact of the pandemic on their caregivers, including unemployment, financial and emotional stress, and fear of infection, highlighting the need for adults to receive adequate care and support as well.6,7 Some youth have been forced to spend more time in abusive or otherwise dysfunctional homes due to quarantine requirements.

“Assessing the relative safety of a child at home is one of the major challenges posed to mental health professionals during a pandemic,” according to a November 2020 paper co-authored by Cécile Rousseau, MD, researcher, psychiatrist, and professor in the division of social and transcultural psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.6 “Fueled by parental stress and in the absence of the benevolent gaze of the school or daycare, the risk of maltreatment is increasing as the rate of cases reported to youth protection is decreasing.”

Providers at hospitals across the US are reporting alarming increases in rates of attempted and completed suicides among youth — especially teenagers. One school district in Las Vegas has lost 19 children to suicide since the pandemic began. Regarding the increasing number of pediatric patients presenting to hospitals nationwide with suicidal ideation, clinicians have described them as having “worse mental states” compared to similar patients typically seen before the pandemic.8

Such trends underscore the vital importance of youth outreach and creative intervention and support during these times. Mental health providers “must continue to advocate to ensure that families and children get the mental health support that they need to support resilience, to decrease family conflict and child maltreatment, and to decrease risk-taking, unsafe, and dangerous behaviors,” as stated in the November 2020 article.6

We recently interviewed Dr Rousseau to further discuss these issues and potential solutions.

Cécile Rousseau, MD

What are believed to be the reasons for the generally low rates of mental health treatment among adolescents even pre-pandemic?

I believe there are 2 main reasons: First, MH services are overall difficult to access and often not very user-friendly for youth. Although some emerging models are addressing this, they are not generalized. Second, there is a widespread tendency to confound psychological distress and its expression — through sadness, anxiety, and anger — and mental disorder.

The first is associated with life being hurtful, which is very common, while the second is associated with more individual vulnerabilities. Of course, the 2 phenomena overlap, but in past times, distress was not medicalized or an object of treatment. Rather, it was addressed through interpersonal networks, spirituality, and so on. In the past decades there has been a shift in paradigm.

How has the pandemic affected and exacerbated mental health issues in this population?

The pandemic has generated first an acute stress response — which is normal, with fear and panic reactions, among others. To a certain extent, this has supported adherence to public health measures. As time passes, this becomes a chronic stress reaction with predominant avoidance symptoms such as denial and minimization of the pandemic risk. Frustration and anger regarding constraints have also increased, leading to scapegoating through conspiracy theories, and to legitimation of violence.

These are widespread reactions, which are not within the disorder range. For many people with vulnerabilities, however, the pandemic has exacerbated their symptoms, except for some cases of phobia — particularly school phobia — or cyberdependence, as these individuals may enjoy the confinement.

What are the relevant recommendations for clinicians about how to address these issues in practice and advocate for their adolescent patients?

Clinically, outreach to our patients to maintain continuity of care is crucial. In cases of frequent family conflict, virtual care should be used cautiously as it may not provide the needed confidentiality and safety and may aggravate the family conflict in some cases.

For new cases, management should include decreasing the impact of the collateral consequences of the pandemic — most commonly from social isolation and lack of stimulation — on adolescents’ development.

What are some of the broader, longer-term solutions that are also warranted?

Schools and colleges should be at the forefront of prevention. In Canada, pediatricians have advocated for the return of youth to school and the preservation of their social network (not partying, of course!). Youth need their peers to pursue their individuation-separation task, and this has been made impossible during confinement. We need to find a balance between the security of the elderly and the fulfillment of adolescent developmental needs.

References

  1. Major depression. National Institute of Mental Health. Updated February 2019. Accessed online February 7, 2021. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml
  2. Hertz MF, Barrios LC. Adolescent mental health, COVID-19, and the value of school-community partnerships. Inj Prev. 2021;27(1):85-86. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2020-044050
  3. Rogers AA, Ha T, Ockey S. Adolescents’ perceived socio-emotional impact of COVID-19 and implications for mental health: results from a U.S.-based mixed-methods study. J Adolesc Health. 2021;68(1):43-52. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.09.039
  4. Liang L, Ren H, Cao R, et al. The effect of COVID-19 on youth mental healthPsychiatr Q. 2020;91(3):841-852. doi:10.1007/s11126-020-09744-3
  5. Ma Z, Zhao J, Li Y, et al. Mental health problems and correlates among 746 217 college students during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020;29:e181. doi:10.1017/S2045796020000931
  6. Rousseau C, Miconi D. Protecting youth mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a challenging engagement and learning process. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;59(11):1203-1207. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2020.08.007
  7. Chatterjee R. Make space, listen, offer hope: How to help a suicidal teen or child. NPR. Published online February 2, 2021. Accessed online February 7, 2021. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/02/962185779/make-space-listen-offer-hope-how-to-help-a-child-at-risk-of-suicide
  8. Chatterjee R. Child psychiatrists warn that the pandemic may be driving up kids’ suicide risk. NPR. Published online February 2, 2021. Accessed online February 7, 2021. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/02/02/962060105/child-psychiatrists-warn-that-the-pandemic-may-be-driving-up-kids-suicide-risk

This article originally appeared on Psychiatry Advisor

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Source: https://www.medicalbag.com/home/medicine/adolescent-mental-health-issues-are-further-exacerbated-by-the-covid-19-pandemic/

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The U.S. Has Hit 600,000 COVID Deaths, More Than Any Other Country

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Memorials hang from the front gate of Greenwood Cemetery in New York City during an event organized by Naming the Lost Memorials to remember and celebrate those who died during the COVID-19 pandemic. Spencer Platt/Getty Images hide caption

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Spencer Platt/Getty Images

More than 15 months since the first confirmed death due to COVID-19 in the U.S., the coronavirus pandemic has claimed more than 600,000 lives across the country.

But that trend has slowed from thousands to hundreds per day in recent weeks, thanks largely to the ready availability of vaccines.

Over the winter, the nation was adding about 100,000 deaths each month. But as more and more people were vaccinated — particularly older Americans — the death rate fell precipitously. There are now about 375 deaths per day on average — down from more than 3,000 per day in January.

Worldwide, the U.S. still is reporting the greatest total deaths, followed by Brazil, India and Mexico. The total global death toll stands at 3.8 million.

The U.S. death toll, according to Johns Hopkins University, stood at 600,012 on Tuesday afternoon.

Even so, the cumulative number of deaths in the country clearly shows the recent positive impact of vaccines: Barely a month passed between 400,000 and a half-million deaths, but it has taken nearly four times as long to reach the 600,000 mark. At the same time, the trend in the number of new infections, which has closely mirrored deaths, reached a peak in January of more than 300,000 in a single day. Now the U.S. is hovering around an average of fewer than 15,000 confirmed infections, according to Johns Hopkins.

The positive trends have led many states to lift their coronavirus restrictions — with some dropping mask mandates altogether for vaccinated individuals and eliminating other social distancing requirements.

At the same time, however, many Americans have shown a reluctance to get vaccinated, with just over half of U.S. adults fully immunized. In parts of the Midwest and South, in particular, vaccine rates per 100,000 people still remain relatively low compared with the Northeast and parts of the West Coast, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The divide has been particularly marked between rural and urban areas of the country.

Tuesday’s figures follow a study this week showing that a new vaccine, one made by Novavax, is 100% effective against the original strain of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and 93% effective against other variants.

The next step is for the company to seek regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration, which has issued emergency authorizations for three other vaccines – ones made by Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson.

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Source: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2021/06/15/1006186695/the-u-s-has-hit-600-000-covid-deaths-more-than-any-other-country

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Covid19

Multispecialty Perspectives on Long COVID-19

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In the year since the global COVID-19 pandemic was declared in March 2020 by the World Health Organization,1 short-term treatments such as prone positioning of patients2 or the use of neutralizing antibody cocktails3 have been optimized, and strategies for patients who remain symptomatic for months or experience long-term sequelae4,5 are being developed. Although several effective vaccines6-9 have been developed and the end of the pandemic is now within sight, the long and laborious healing process for patients with long COVID and society as a whole is only just beginning.

“Politicians, key opinion leaders, and other stakeholders must realize that long-COVID-19 will have a big impact on society. If millions of people feel that they are unable to get back to work, it will mean a lot for society,” said Dr Daniel Kondziella, clinical research associate professor in the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital. “The after-effects [of the pandemic] will go on for many years to come.”

The Evidence


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A detailed follow-up of 150 patients who were treated at the University of Tours Hospital in France showed that 2 months after symptom onset, more than half (68%) of patients presented with 1 or more lingering symptom of COVID-19. The most common symptoms included diarrhea (33.3%), anosmia/ageusia (22.7%), flu-like symptoms (21.5%), a greater than 5% weight loss (17.2%), arthralgia (16.3%), chest pain (13.1%), cutaneous signs (11.5%), palpitations (10.9%), and dyspnea (7.7%).8

A longer-term, larger study of 1733 Chinese patients who were followed up at 6 months after hospital discharge revealed that most (63%) of the patients experienced fatigue and muscle weakness, and many reported difficulty sleeping (23%), below-average 6-minute walking distances (24%), anxiety or depression (23%), and diffusion impairments (22%).9

The Respiratory System

SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily affects the respiratory tract, causing pneumonia in severe cases with a proinflammatory response.10,11 “We categorize pneumonia as typical or atypical, involving different parts of the lungs. COVID-19 is an atypical pneumonia,” explained Dr Ali Gholamrezanezhad, a radiologist and assistant professor of clinical radiology with Keck Medicine of the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles.

Because COVID-19 may manifest as an atypical pneumonia, patients with severe disease can present with peripheral or posterior distribution of bilateral, multilobar ground-glass opacification, septal and/or pleural thickening, bronchiectasis, and subpleural involvement.11

In the long term, patients who present with complex lung manifestations seen on computed tomographic imaging are at increased risk for tissue scarring. “For patients who needed to be admitted into the hospital for COVID-19, the number [of patients with scarring] can be up to 30% to 40%. In patients who are not admitted, this number is much less, possibly less than 10%. It depends on the severity of the disease,” Dr Gholamrezanezhad added. For example, 6 weeks after discharge from University Hospital RWTH Aachen in Germany, 33 patients who did not require ventilation still presented with symptoms of fatigue (45%), cough (33%), and dyspnea (33%), but there was no evidence of widespread scarring.12

The Cardiovascular System

Although primarily a disease of the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary symptoms have been highly penetrant across tissue systems,10 and many of the lingering symptoms appear to involve other organs.8,9

Dr Valentina Püntmann, consultant physician, cardiologist, clinical pharmacologist, and assistant professor in the Department of Cardiology at the University Hospital Frankfurt, and colleagues recruited 100 patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Most patients had acute illness, with only 33% requiring hospitalization. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging a median of 71 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis, most patients presented with persistent cardiac involvement.13

“We actually thought we were not going to find anything because we were only permitted to scan patients later in their recovery,” said Dr Püntmann. “We also didn’t think at the time about COVID-19 as a cardiac condition. And yet, we were surprised to see myocardial inflammation, scarring, and also pericarditis persisting a few months after the original infection,” she continued.

In total, 78% of the patients had abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans, most commonly elevated myocardial native T1 (73%) and T2 (60%), myocardial late gadolinium (32%), and pericardial (22%) enhancement.13 These results are particularly intriguing, as they were sourced primarily from individuals who recovered at home, indicating that patients who experience even mild symptoms can have persistent myocardial inflammation and scarring for months.

“We are following up with these patients regularly, and for many patients, things do get better. They may not get better very quickly, which is perhaps something that is long-COVID specific,” stated Dr Püntmann. “But there is also a number of patients who don’t get better. I think we definitely need to get much better at understanding why some patients don’t improve, as well as work on developing effective treatments that we can administer early.”

The Nervous System

Throughout the pandemic, hospitalized patients have presented with a wide range of neurologic manifestations, thrombotic events, delirium, seizure-like events, encephalopathy, periodic discharges, ischemic lesions, and white matter lesions, among others.14,15 There has been little to no evidence collected during hospitalization to suggest there is widespread infiltration by the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the blood-brain barrier.14,16-17 With little direct evidence, it has been speculated these presentations occur as a result of neuroinflammation.15,18

During a 3-month follow-up of 61 patients admitted to Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark, nearly half (45.9%) of the patients had persistent central and peripheral nervous system complications.14

“Many patients actually still have affected cognitive ability. The average MOCA [Montreal Cognitive Assessment] score was 22 out of 30. Particularly, patients [who] were discharged from the intensive care unit had 19.5 out of 30, so they’re affected cognitively,” described Dr Michael E. Benros, professor of immuno-psychiatry in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Copenhagen.

Dr Kondziella added, “There are 3 main ways by which COVID-19 might affect the nervous system. First, the virus itself has some sort of neurotropism. That means the virus crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain, where it damages the tissue directly. The other option is that there is an autoimmune response by which cross-reaction toward the virus particles induces a neuroinflammatory pathway in the brain. We did find that in our study to a relatively lesser extent, compared to the third category, which is peripheral nervous system damage not directly caused by the virus or by autoimmune responses, but more because of treatment-related disorders.”

Because many of these nervous system manifestations were attributed to treatment-related complications (n=34 vs unresolved [n=4] vs para/postinfectious [n=3]),14 many of the younger, fitter patients likely will improve over time with rehabilitation after several months, predicted Dr Benros. However, patients who experience stroke or other thrombotic events may experience life-long COVID-19 complications.

Psychiatry

The neurologic presentations observed among patients with COVID-19 may have psychiatric consequences. “Symptoms from long-term COVID-19 are commonly fatigue, headache, insomnia, and brain fog,” stated Dr Samoon Ahmad, professor in the Department of Psychiatry at New York University Grossman School of Medicine and Unit Chief of Inpatient Psychiatry at Bellevue Hospital Center. “However, we don’t know whether these symptoms are neurologic or caused by depression.”

Dr Ahmad explained that approximately 30% of patients who recovered from COVID-19 went on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).19,20 Symptoms of PTSD also have been reported in multiple studies of highly exposed individuals working in the healthcare sector.21

The observation of PTSD among healthcare workers is important because it brings to the forefront the fact that by no means do you need to be infected with the virus to be experiencing psychiatric consequences from SARS-CoV-2.

Dr Ahmad expounded, “Using data from 2019, on average we see that around 8% of people have anxiety disorders, and 6% [have] depressive disorders. If you look at the most recent data in a similar population, it is mind-boggling because rates of anxiety and depression have fluctuated between 34% and 42%. It’s just remarkable that during the pandemic, about 4 in 10 adults have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorders.”

Dr Ahmad commented that the extent of the psychiatric consequences from the pandemic are likely far from being realized. Future research is needed to focus on the long-term psychiatric effects among patients who have recovered from severe illness, healthcare workers who were exposed to traumatic situations, the general public who experienced increased loneliness or the loss of loved ones, and children who were isolated because of the suspension of schools.

Future Perspectives

The need for ongoing collection of highly robust data and for the streamlining of definitions, data collection strategies, and patient stratification such that more consistent data become available is apparent. A more collaborative approach to conducting SARS-CoV-2 research would not only improve understanding but allow for more precise communication with the general public, which is imperative for successful vaccination campaigns and COVID-19 rule compliance.

In the meantime, Dr Püntmann implores fellow clinicians not to ignore the exercise intolerance that persists for weeks or months after infection among some COVID-19 patients. They may offer advice to patients to slow down for 3 to 6 months and not try to push themselves back to their former fitness too early. “By [not] doing that, they can make the symptoms a lot worse and slow down their recovery. This may feel very counterintuitive, especially to the young and fit patients because they are used to getting fit as soon as possible after a flu or a cold. Recovery after COVID-19 is a different, much more protracted process.”

The other largely protracted process will be to overcome the long-term stress associated with the pandemic. “In the short term it is easy to put mental health concerns on the back burner. This sort of constant stress will eventually have an impact on mental health in general,” cautioned Dr Ahmad. “At a certain point, people just reach their breaking point.” He stated that there is a great need for large-scale improved access to basic mental health support, such that everyone can be armed with basic tools to reduce stress and develop healthy routines.

References

1. World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Published February 16-24, 2020. Accessed June 1, 2021. http://who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf

2. Guérin C, Albert RK, Beitler J, et al. Prone position in ARDS patients: why, when, how and for whom. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(12):2385-2396. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06306-w

3. Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, et al. REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(3):238-251. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035002

4. Ella R, Vadrevu KM, Jogdand H, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(5):637-646. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30942-7

5. Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet. 2021;397(10269):99-111. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1

6. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-416. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035389

7. Sadoff J, Le Gars M, Shukarev G, et al. Interim results of a phase 1–2a trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 vaccine. 2021;NEJMoa2034201. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034201

8. Carvalho-Schneider C, Laurent E, Lemaignen A, et al. Follow-up of adults with noncritical COVID-19 two months after symptom onset. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(2):258-263. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.052

9. Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8

10. Behzad S, Aghaghazvini L, Radmard AR, Gholamrezanezhad A. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19: radiologic and clinical overview. Clin Imaging. 2020;66:35-41. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.013

11. Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020;215(1):87-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23034

12. Daher A, Balfanz P, Cornelissen C, et al. Follow up of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease sequelae. Respir Med. 2020;174:106197. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106197

13. Puüntmann VO, Carerj ML, Wieters I, et al. Outcomes of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients recently recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(11):1265-1273. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3557

14. Nersesjan V, Amiri M, Lebech A-M, et al. Central and peripheral nervous system complications of COVID-19: a prospective tertiary center cohort with 3-month follow-up. J Neurol. Published online January 13, 202. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-10380-x

15. Lambrecq V, Hanin A, Munoz-Musat E, et al. Association of clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings with electroencephalographic findings for patients with COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(3):e211489. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.1489

16. Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J, et al. A first case of meningitis/encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Int J Infect Dis 2020;94:55-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.062

17. Domingues RB, Mendes-Correa MC, de Moura Leite FBV, et al. First case of SARS-COV-2 sequencing in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with suspected demyelinating disease. J Neurol. 2020;267(11):3154-3156. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-09996-w

18. Boldrini M, Canoll PD, Klein RS. How COVID-19 affects the brain. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online March 26, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0500

19. Forte G, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Casagrande M. COVID-19 pandemic in the Italian population: validation of a post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire and prevalence of PTSD symptomatology. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4151. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114151

20. Janiri D, Carfì A, Kotzalidis GD, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after severe COVID-19 infection. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(5):567-569. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0109

21. Tucker P, Czapla CS. Post-COVID stress disorder: another emerging consequence of the global pandemic. Psychiatric Times. 2021;38(1).

This article originally appeared on Infectious Disease Advisor

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Source: https://www.medicalbag.com/home/news/multispecialty-perspectives-on-long-covid-19/

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Covid19

Multispecialty Perspectives on Long COVID-19

Published

on

In the year since the global COVID-19 pandemic was declared in March 2020 by the World Health Organization,1 short-term treatments such as prone positioning of patients2 or the use of neutralizing antibody cocktails3 have been optimized, and strategies for patients who remain symptomatic for months or experience long-term sequelae4,5 are being developed. Although several effective vaccines6-9 have been developed and the end of the pandemic is now within sight, the long and laborious healing process for patients with long COVID and society as a whole is only just beginning.

“Politicians, key opinion leaders, and other stakeholders must realize that long-COVID-19 will have a big impact on society. If millions of people feel that they are unable to get back to work, it will mean a lot for society,” said Dr Daniel Kondziella, clinical research associate professor in the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital. “The after-effects [of the pandemic] will go on for many years to come.”

The Evidence


Continue Reading

A detailed follow-up of 150 patients who were treated at the University of Tours Hospital in France showed that 2 months after symptom onset, more than half (68%) of patients presented with 1 or more lingering symptom of COVID-19. The most common symptoms included diarrhea (33.3%), anosmia/ageusia (22.7%), flu-like symptoms (21.5%), a greater than 5% weight loss (17.2%), arthralgia (16.3%), chest pain (13.1%), cutaneous signs (11.5%), palpitations (10.9%), and dyspnea (7.7%).8

A longer-term, larger study of 1733 Chinese patients who were followed up at 6 months after hospital discharge revealed that most (63%) of the patients experienced fatigue and muscle weakness, and many reported difficulty sleeping (23%), below-average 6-minute walking distances (24%), anxiety or depression (23%), and diffusion impairments (22%).9

The Respiratory System

SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily affects the respiratory tract, causing pneumonia in severe cases with a proinflammatory response.10,11 “We categorize pneumonia as typical or atypical, involving different parts of the lungs. COVID-19 is an atypical pneumonia,” explained Dr Ali Gholamrezanezhad, a radiologist and assistant professor of clinical radiology with Keck Medicine of the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles.

Because COVID-19 may manifest as an atypical pneumonia, patients with severe disease can present with peripheral or posterior distribution of bilateral, multilobar ground-glass opacification, septal and/or pleural thickening, bronchiectasis, and subpleural involvement.11

In the long term, patients who present with complex lung manifestations seen on computed tomographic imaging are at increased risk for tissue scarring. “For patients who needed to be admitted into the hospital for COVID-19, the number [of patients with scarring] can be up to 30% to 40%. In patients who are not admitted, this number is much less, possibly less than 10%. It depends on the severity of the disease,” Dr Gholamrezanezhad added. For example, 6 weeks after discharge from University Hospital RWTH Aachen in Germany, 33 patients who did not require ventilation still presented with symptoms of fatigue (45%), cough (33%), and dyspnea (33%), but there was no evidence of widespread scarring.12

The Cardiovascular System

Although primarily a disease of the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary symptoms have been highly penetrant across tissue systems,10 and many of the lingering symptoms appear to involve other organs.8,9

Dr Valentina Püntmann, consultant physician, cardiologist, clinical pharmacologist, and assistant professor in the Department of Cardiology at the University Hospital Frankfurt, and colleagues recruited 100 patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Most patients had acute illness, with only 33% requiring hospitalization. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging a median of 71 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis, most patients presented with persistent cardiac involvement.13

“We actually thought we were not going to find anything because we were only permitted to scan patients later in their recovery,” said Dr Püntmann. “We also didn’t think at the time about COVID-19 as a cardiac condition. And yet, we were surprised to see myocardial inflammation, scarring, and also pericarditis persisting a few months after the original infection,” she continued.

In total, 78% of the patients had abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans, most commonly elevated myocardial native T1 (73%) and T2 (60%), myocardial late gadolinium (32%), and pericardial (22%) enhancement.13 These results are particularly intriguing, as they were sourced primarily from individuals who recovered at home, indicating that patients who experience even mild symptoms can have persistent myocardial inflammation and scarring for months.

“We are following up with these patients regularly, and for many patients, things do get better. They may not get better very quickly, which is perhaps something that is long-COVID specific,” stated Dr Püntmann. “But there is also a number of patients who don’t get better. I think we definitely need to get much better at understanding why some patients don’t improve, as well as work on developing effective treatments that we can administer early.”

The Nervous System

Throughout the pandemic, hospitalized patients have presented with a wide range of neurologic manifestations, thrombotic events, delirium, seizure-like events, encephalopathy, periodic discharges, ischemic lesions, and white matter lesions, among others.14,15 There has been little to no evidence collected during hospitalization to suggest there is widespread infiltration by the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the blood-brain barrier.14,16-17 With little direct evidence, it has been speculated these presentations occur as a result of neuroinflammation.15,18

During a 3-month follow-up of 61 patients admitted to Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark, nearly half (45.9%) of the patients had persistent central and peripheral nervous system complications.14

“Many patients actually still have affected cognitive ability. The average MOCA [Montreal Cognitive Assessment] score was 22 out of 30. Particularly, patients [who] were discharged from the intensive care unit had 19.5 out of 30, so they’re affected cognitively,” described Dr Michael E. Benros, professor of immuno-psychiatry in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Copenhagen.

Dr Kondziella added, “There are 3 main ways by which COVID-19 might affect the nervous system. First, the virus itself has some sort of neurotropism. That means the virus crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain, where it damages the tissue directly. The other option is that there is an autoimmune response by which cross-reaction toward the virus particles induces a neuroinflammatory pathway in the brain. We did find that in our study to a relatively lesser extent, compared to the third category, which is peripheral nervous system damage not directly caused by the virus or by autoimmune responses, but more because of treatment-related disorders.”

Because many of these nervous system manifestations were attributed to treatment-related complications (n=34 vs unresolved [n=4] vs para/postinfectious [n=3]),14 many of the younger, fitter patients likely will improve over time with rehabilitation after several months, predicted Dr Benros. However, patients who experience stroke or other thrombotic events may experience life-long COVID-19 complications.

Psychiatry

The neurologic presentations observed among patients with COVID-19 may have psychiatric consequences. “Symptoms from long-term COVID-19 are commonly fatigue, headache, insomnia, and brain fog,” stated Dr Samoon Ahmad, professor in the Department of Psychiatry at New York University Grossman School of Medicine and Unit Chief of Inpatient Psychiatry at Bellevue Hospital Center. “However, we don’t know whether these symptoms are neurologic or caused by depression.”

Dr Ahmad explained that approximately 30% of patients who recovered from COVID-19 went on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).19,20 Symptoms of PTSD also have been reported in multiple studies of highly exposed individuals working in the healthcare sector.21

The observation of PTSD among healthcare workers is important because it brings to the forefront the fact that by no means do you need to be infected with the virus to be experiencing psychiatric consequences from SARS-CoV-2.

Dr Ahmad expounded, “Using data from 2019, on average we see that around 8% of people have anxiety disorders, and 6% [have] depressive disorders. If you look at the most recent data in a similar population, it is mind-boggling because rates of anxiety and depression have fluctuated between 34% and 42%. It’s just remarkable that during the pandemic, about 4 in 10 adults have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorders.”

Dr Ahmad commented that the extent of the psychiatric consequences from the pandemic are likely far from being realized. Future research is needed to focus on the long-term psychiatric effects among patients who have recovered from severe illness, healthcare workers who were exposed to traumatic situations, the general public who experienced increased loneliness or the loss of loved ones, and children who were isolated because of the suspension of schools.

Future Perspectives

The need for ongoing collection of highly robust data and for the streamlining of definitions, data collection strategies, and patient stratification such that more consistent data become available is apparent. A more collaborative approach to conducting SARS-CoV-2 research would not only improve understanding but allow for more precise communication with the general public, which is imperative for successful vaccination campaigns and COVID-19 rule compliance.

In the meantime, Dr Püntmann implores fellow clinicians not to ignore the exercise intolerance that persists for weeks or months after infection among some COVID-19 patients. They may offer advice to patients to slow down for 3 to 6 months and not try to push themselves back to their former fitness too early. “By [not] doing that, they can make the symptoms a lot worse and slow down their recovery. This may feel very counterintuitive, especially to the young and fit patients because they are used to getting fit as soon as possible after a flu or a cold. Recovery after COVID-19 is a different, much more protracted process.”

The other largely protracted process will be to overcome the long-term stress associated with the pandemic. “In the short term it is easy to put mental health concerns on the back burner. This sort of constant stress will eventually have an impact on mental health in general,” cautioned Dr Ahmad. “At a certain point, people just reach their breaking point.” He stated that there is a great need for large-scale improved access to basic mental health support, such that everyone can be armed with basic tools to reduce stress and develop healthy routines.

References

1. World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Published February 16-24, 2020. Accessed June 1, 2021. http://who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf

2. Guérin C, Albert RK, Beitler J, et al. Prone position in ARDS patients: why, when, how and for whom. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(12):2385-2396. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06306-w

3. Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, et al. REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(3):238-251. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035002

4. Ella R, Vadrevu KM, Jogdand H, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(5):637-646. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30942-7

5. Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet. 2021;397(10269):99-111. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1

6. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-416. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035389

7. Sadoff J, Le Gars M, Shukarev G, et al. Interim results of a phase 1–2a trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 vaccine. 2021;NEJMoa2034201. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034201

8. Carvalho-Schneider C, Laurent E, Lemaignen A, et al. Follow-up of adults with noncritical COVID-19 two months after symptom onset. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(2):258-263. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.052

9. Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8

10. Behzad S, Aghaghazvini L, Radmard AR, Gholamrezanezhad A. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19: radiologic and clinical overview. Clin Imaging. 2020;66:35-41. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.013

11. Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020;215(1):87-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23034

12. Daher A, Balfanz P, Cornelissen C, et al. Follow up of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease sequelae. Respir Med. 2020;174:106197. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106197

13. Puüntmann VO, Carerj ML, Wieters I, et al. Outcomes of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients recently recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(11):1265-1273. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3557

14. Nersesjan V, Amiri M, Lebech A-M, et al. Central and peripheral nervous system complications of COVID-19: a prospective tertiary center cohort with 3-month follow-up. J Neurol. Published online January 13, 202. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-10380-x

15. Lambrecq V, Hanin A, Munoz-Musat E, et al. Association of clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings with electroencephalographic findings for patients with COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(3):e211489. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.1489

16. Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J, et al. A first case of meningitis/encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Int J Infect Dis 2020;94:55-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.062

17. Domingues RB, Mendes-Correa MC, de Moura Leite FBV, et al. First case of SARS-COV-2 sequencing in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with suspected demyelinating disease. J Neurol. 2020;267(11):3154-3156. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-09996-w

18. Boldrini M, Canoll PD, Klein RS. How COVID-19 affects the brain. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online March 26, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0500

19. Forte G, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Casagrande M. COVID-19 pandemic in the Italian population: validation of a post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire and prevalence of PTSD symptomatology. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4151. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114151

20. Janiri D, Carfì A, Kotzalidis GD, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after severe COVID-19 infection. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(5):567-569. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0109

21. Tucker P, Czapla CS. Post-COVID stress disorder: another emerging consequence of the global pandemic. Psychiatric Times. 2021;38(1).

This article originally appeared on Infectious Disease Advisor

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Covid19

Multispecialty Perspectives on Long COVID-19

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In the year since the global COVID-19 pandemic was declared in March 2020 by the World Health Organization,1 short-term treatments such as prone positioning of patients2 or the use of neutralizing antibody cocktails3 have been optimized, and strategies for patients who remain symptomatic for months or experience long-term sequelae4,5 are being developed. Although several effective vaccines6-9 have been developed and the end of the pandemic is now within sight, the long and laborious healing process for patients with long COVID and society as a whole is only just beginning.

“Politicians, key opinion leaders, and other stakeholders must realize that long-COVID-19 will have a big impact on society. If millions of people feel that they are unable to get back to work, it will mean a lot for society,” said Dr Daniel Kondziella, clinical research associate professor in the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital. “The after-effects [of the pandemic] will go on for many years to come.”

The Evidence


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A detailed follow-up of 150 patients who were treated at the University of Tours Hospital in France showed that 2 months after symptom onset, more than half (68%) of patients presented with 1 or more lingering symptom of COVID-19. The most common symptoms included diarrhea (33.3%), anosmia/ageusia (22.7%), flu-like symptoms (21.5%), a greater than 5% weight loss (17.2%), arthralgia (16.3%), chest pain (13.1%), cutaneous signs (11.5%), palpitations (10.9%), and dyspnea (7.7%).8

A longer-term, larger study of 1733 Chinese patients who were followed up at 6 months after hospital discharge revealed that most (63%) of the patients experienced fatigue and muscle weakness, and many reported difficulty sleeping (23%), below-average 6-minute walking distances (24%), anxiety or depression (23%), and diffusion impairments (22%).9

The Respiratory System

SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily affects the respiratory tract, causing pneumonia in severe cases with a proinflammatory response.10,11 “We categorize pneumonia as typical or atypical, involving different parts of the lungs. COVID-19 is an atypical pneumonia,” explained Dr Ali Gholamrezanezhad, a radiologist and assistant professor of clinical radiology with Keck Medicine of the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles.

Because COVID-19 may manifest as an atypical pneumonia, patients with severe disease can present with peripheral or posterior distribution of bilateral, multilobar ground-glass opacification, septal and/or pleural thickening, bronchiectasis, and subpleural involvement.11

In the long term, patients who present with complex lung manifestations seen on computed tomographic imaging are at increased risk for tissue scarring. “For patients who needed to be admitted into the hospital for COVID-19, the number [of patients with scarring] can be up to 30% to 40%. In patients who are not admitted, this number is much less, possibly less than 10%. It depends on the severity of the disease,” Dr Gholamrezanezhad added. For example, 6 weeks after discharge from University Hospital RWTH Aachen in Germany, 33 patients who did not require ventilation still presented with symptoms of fatigue (45%), cough (33%), and dyspnea (33%), but there was no evidence of widespread scarring.12

The Cardiovascular System

Although primarily a disease of the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary symptoms have been highly penetrant across tissue systems,10 and many of the lingering symptoms appear to involve other organs.8,9

Dr Valentina Püntmann, consultant physician, cardiologist, clinical pharmacologist, and assistant professor in the Department of Cardiology at the University Hospital Frankfurt, and colleagues recruited 100 patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Most patients had acute illness, with only 33% requiring hospitalization. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging a median of 71 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis, most patients presented with persistent cardiac involvement.13

“We actually thought we were not going to find anything because we were only permitted to scan patients later in their recovery,” said Dr Püntmann. “We also didn’t think at the time about COVID-19 as a cardiac condition. And yet, we were surprised to see myocardial inflammation, scarring, and also pericarditis persisting a few months after the original infection,” she continued.

In total, 78% of the patients had abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans, most commonly elevated myocardial native T1 (73%) and T2 (60%), myocardial late gadolinium (32%), and pericardial (22%) enhancement.13 These results are particularly intriguing, as they were sourced primarily from individuals who recovered at home, indicating that patients who experience even mild symptoms can have persistent myocardial inflammation and scarring for months.

“We are following up with these patients regularly, and for many patients, things do get better. They may not get better very quickly, which is perhaps something that is long-COVID specific,” stated Dr Püntmann. “But there is also a number of patients who don’t get better. I think we definitely need to get much better at understanding why some patients don’t improve, as well as work on developing effective treatments that we can administer early.”

The Nervous System

Throughout the pandemic, hospitalized patients have presented with a wide range of neurologic manifestations, thrombotic events, delirium, seizure-like events, encephalopathy, periodic discharges, ischemic lesions, and white matter lesions, among others.14,15 There has been little to no evidence collected during hospitalization to suggest there is widespread infiltration by the SARS-CoV-2 virus across the blood-brain barrier.14,16-17 With little direct evidence, it has been speculated these presentations occur as a result of neuroinflammation.15,18

During a 3-month follow-up of 61 patients admitted to Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark, nearly half (45.9%) of the patients had persistent central and peripheral nervous system complications.14

“Many patients actually still have affected cognitive ability. The average MOCA [Montreal Cognitive Assessment] score was 22 out of 30. Particularly, patients [who] were discharged from the intensive care unit had 19.5 out of 30, so they’re affected cognitively,” described Dr Michael E. Benros, professor of immuno-psychiatry in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Copenhagen.

Dr Kondziella added, “There are 3 main ways by which COVID-19 might affect the nervous system. First, the virus itself has some sort of neurotropism. That means the virus crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain, where it damages the tissue directly. The other option is that there is an autoimmune response by which cross-reaction toward the virus particles induces a neuroinflammatory pathway in the brain. We did find that in our study to a relatively lesser extent, compared to the third category, which is peripheral nervous system damage not directly caused by the virus or by autoimmune responses, but more because of treatment-related disorders.”

Because many of these nervous system manifestations were attributed to treatment-related complications (n=34 vs unresolved [n=4] vs para/postinfectious [n=3]),14 many of the younger, fitter patients likely will improve over time with rehabilitation after several months, predicted Dr Benros. However, patients who experience stroke or other thrombotic events may experience life-long COVID-19 complications.

Psychiatry

The neurologic presentations observed among patients with COVID-19 may have psychiatric consequences. “Symptoms from long-term COVID-19 are commonly fatigue, headache, insomnia, and brain fog,” stated Dr Samoon Ahmad, professor in the Department of Psychiatry at New York University Grossman School of Medicine and Unit Chief of Inpatient Psychiatry at Bellevue Hospital Center. “However, we don’t know whether these symptoms are neurologic or caused by depression.”

Dr Ahmad explained that approximately 30% of patients who recovered from COVID-19 went on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).19,20 Symptoms of PTSD also have been reported in multiple studies of highly exposed individuals working in the healthcare sector.21

The observation of PTSD among healthcare workers is important because it brings to the forefront the fact that by no means do you need to be infected with the virus to be experiencing psychiatric consequences from SARS-CoV-2.

Dr Ahmad expounded, “Using data from 2019, on average we see that around 8% of people have anxiety disorders, and 6% [have] depressive disorders. If you look at the most recent data in a similar population, it is mind-boggling because rates of anxiety and depression have fluctuated between 34% and 42%. It’s just remarkable that during the pandemic, about 4 in 10 adults have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorders.”

Dr Ahmad commented that the extent of the psychiatric consequences from the pandemic are likely far from being realized. Future research is needed to focus on the long-term psychiatric effects among patients who have recovered from severe illness, healthcare workers who were exposed to traumatic situations, the general public who experienced increased loneliness or the loss of loved ones, and children who were isolated because of the suspension of schools.

Future Perspectives

The need for ongoing collection of highly robust data and for the streamlining of definitions, data collection strategies, and patient stratification such that more consistent data become available is apparent. A more collaborative approach to conducting SARS-CoV-2 research would not only improve understanding but allow for more precise communication with the general public, which is imperative for successful vaccination campaigns and COVID-19 rule compliance.

In the meantime, Dr Püntmann implores fellow clinicians not to ignore the exercise intolerance that persists for weeks or months after infection among some COVID-19 patients. They may offer advice to patients to slow down for 3 to 6 months and not try to push themselves back to their former fitness too early. “By [not] doing that, they can make the symptoms a lot worse and slow down their recovery. This may feel very counterintuitive, especially to the young and fit patients because they are used to getting fit as soon as possible after a flu or a cold. Recovery after COVID-19 is a different, much more protracted process.”

The other largely protracted process will be to overcome the long-term stress associated with the pandemic. “In the short term it is easy to put mental health concerns on the back burner. This sort of constant stress will eventually have an impact on mental health in general,” cautioned Dr Ahmad. “At a certain point, people just reach their breaking point.” He stated that there is a great need for large-scale improved access to basic mental health support, such that everyone can be armed with basic tools to reduce stress and develop healthy routines.

References

1. World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Published February 16-24, 2020. Accessed June 1, 2021. http://who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf

2. Guérin C, Albert RK, Beitler J, et al. Prone position in ARDS patients: why, when, how and for whom. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(12):2385-2396. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06306-w

3. Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, et al. REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(3):238-251. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035002

4. Ella R, Vadrevu KM, Jogdand H, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(5):637-646. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30942-7

5. Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet. 2021;397(10269):99-111. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1

6. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-416. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035389

7. Sadoff J, Le Gars M, Shukarev G, et al. Interim results of a phase 1–2a trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 vaccine. 2021;NEJMoa2034201. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034201

8. Carvalho-Schneider C, Laurent E, Lemaignen A, et al. Follow-up of adults with noncritical COVID-19 two months after symptom onset. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(2):258-263. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.052

9. Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8

10. Behzad S, Aghaghazvini L, Radmard AR, Gholamrezanezhad A. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19: radiologic and clinical overview. Clin Imaging. 2020;66:35-41. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.013

11. Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 Patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020;215(1):87-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23034

12. Daher A, Balfanz P, Cornelissen C, et al. Follow up of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease sequelae. Respir Med. 2020;174:106197. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106197

13. Puüntmann VO, Carerj ML, Wieters I, et al. Outcomes of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients recently recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(11):1265-1273. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3557

14. Nersesjan V, Amiri M, Lebech A-M, et al. Central and peripheral nervous system complications of COVID-19: a prospective tertiary center cohort with 3-month follow-up. J Neurol. Published online January 13, 202. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-10380-x

15. Lambrecq V, Hanin A, Munoz-Musat E, et al. Association of clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings with electroencephalographic findings for patients with COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(3):e211489. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.1489

16. Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J, et al. A first case of meningitis/encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Int J Infect Dis 2020;94:55-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.062

17. Domingues RB, Mendes-Correa MC, de Moura Leite FBV, et al. First case of SARS-COV-2 sequencing in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with suspected demyelinating disease. J Neurol. 2020;267(11):3154-3156. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-09996-w

18. Boldrini M, Canoll PD, Klein RS. How COVID-19 affects the brain. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online March 26, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0500

19. Forte G, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Casagrande M. COVID-19 pandemic in the Italian population: validation of a post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire and prevalence of PTSD symptomatology. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4151. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114151

20. Janiri D, Carfì A, Kotzalidis GD, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after severe COVID-19 infection. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(5):567-569. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0109

21. Tucker P, Czapla CS. Post-COVID stress disorder: another emerging consequence of the global pandemic. Psychiatric Times. 2021;38(1).

This article originally appeared on Infectious Disease Advisor

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