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How to Define Service Level Objectives as Code to Enhance SRE

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@russmilesReliably

We provide the world’s first Reliability Automation Platform for Developers

Service Level Objectives (SLOs) are powerful decision-making tools way beyond the team coalface while providing value there. SLOs as Code in Reliably – the reliability automation platform for developers; provide executable, versionable artifacts that help you capture, frame, collaborate, and enable essential reliability conversations at any point in a system’s evolution.

I have a confession; I love Service Level Objectives (SLOs). In my experience, SLOs have risen to be one of the most important parts of Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) adoption. Time and again, I’ve seen huge value in having SLOs even if you are not planning to apply all the aspects of SRE.

SLOs tell us what we care about and what good looks like for a system’s users. For this reason, SLOs can be incredible decision-making tools way beyond the team coalface (while providing value at the coalface as well!). While Service Level Indicators (SLIs) tell you what can be measured; SLOs tell you what matters (primarily – what matters to the system’s users).

This is why SLOs are the first concept that has been defined in code as part of Reliably, the new reliability toolkit for developers. In this article, I’m going to talk about why “SLOs as Code” is such an important step on our journey towards “Reliability as Code” (#reliabilityascode).

Firstly, SLOs are great conversation starters. Even before one line of code has been written, it’s possible to talk about how facets of the future system should behave to deliver the right reliability experience to the system’s future users.

Many systems die in early implementation because reliability is an afterthought. Still, by bringing the SLO conversation early to the forefront, everyone gets an opportunity to collaborate. Even more importantly, SLOs help in understanding what the users will care about and how reliable the system needs to be.

It doesn’t mean that SLOs only enable valuable conversations for new, greenfield systems. SLOs can encourage the same conversations for pretty much any system, whether it be a greenfield or a slightly muddy “heritage” system (I prefer “heritage” to legacy, as for some reason legacy systems are something we look down on sometimes).

SLOs can encourage everyone involved to ask, “What do we care about?”, “What’s the right level of reliability we need?”, “What does reliable look like to our users?” or even, “How do we balance cost and reliability?”.

Regardless of the time these SLO conversations happen, they can add huge value by bringing reliability to the top table in the architecture and design process.

Reliably’s SLO code artifact captures, frames, and supports these conversations. Using the SLOs artifact, you can develop and evolve your SLOs, even before you have any means of measuring those SLOs for real with Service Level Indicators (SLIs):

services:
- name: website
 service-levels:
 - name: 95th of requests response time under 100ms
 type: latency
 criteria:
 threshold: 100ms
 sli: []
 slo: 95
 sli: []
 window: PT1H
 - name: 99th of requests response time under 500ms
 type: latency
 criteria:
 threshold: 500ms
 slo: 99
 sli: []
 window: PT1H
 - name: 99th of requests responses not 5xx
 type: availability
 slo: 99
 sli: []
 window: PT1H

In the above code snippet, we’ve described three SLOs for simple website service.

NOTE: You can create your own SLO definitions using the Reliably SLO init command. More information is available in the Reliably docs.

SLOs are frequently defined and captured in monitoring and observability tools on the market. There’s nothing wrong with this. It just often means that the SLOs are not as visible to all the different collaborators involved as they could be, especially across an organization where there may be different monitoring and observability systems in play.

It’s also common for SLOs to be subjected to a lifecycle that includes versioning, releasing while open for collaboration. Sound familiar? It does! This is the exact set of requirements we have for working with code generally, and so this is another reason why Reliably has codified SLOs as code artifacts that can be created, managed, versioned, and collaborated on using the same (or similar) processes you use for working with other system-critical artifacts.

Over time you can enrich your SLOs with Service Level Indicators (SLIs), as shown in the snippet:

services:
- name: website
 service-levels:
 - name: 95th of requests response time under 100ms
 type: latency
 criteria:
 threshold: 100ms
 slo: 95
 sli:
 - id: myprojectid/google-cloud-load-balancers/myloadbalancer-name
 provider: gcp
 window: PT24H
 - name: 99th of requests response time under 500ms
 type: latency
 criteria:
 threshold: 500ms
 slo: 99
 sli:
 - id: myprojectid/google-cloud-load-balancers/myloadbalancer-name
 provider: gcp
 window: PT24H
 - name: 99th of requests responses not 5xx
 type: availability
 slo: 99
 sli:
 - id: myprojectid/google-cloud-load-balancers/myloadbalancer-name
 provider: gcp
 window: P7D

SLIs are measurements that, collected over a given window, give you “good” and “bad” events that roll up into the overall calculation of whether the SLO is still being met, is trending dangerously close to not being completed, or has been broken completely.

SLOs, coded using Reliably and eventually including some SLIs, can be reported against at any time and by anyone with the permissions, using the SLO report command:

$ reliably slo report

You can even watch your SLOs with live updates using the –watch switch:

$ reliably slo report --watch

There’s much more to dig into with the reliably SLO report command, check out the docs for more.

In this article, I’ve shared why SLOs are a powerful concept in SRE and beyond. SLOs provide a crucial conversation enabler regarding what matters in terms of reliability in a given system. This is why they are the first concept captured in code using Reliably as part of our #ReliabilityAsCode mission.

Also published here.

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Dogecoin plummets during Elon Musk’s ‘Saturday Night Live’ hosting gig as Robinhood experiences issues

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Miley Cyrus Elon Musk SNL
Miley Cyrus was the musical guest on “SNL,” while Elon Musk hosted.

  • The value of the cryptocurrency Dogecoin fell during Elon Musk’s episode of “Saturday Night Live.”
  • At the same time, Robinhood tweeted that its app was experiencing difficulties with trading.
  • Robinhood declined to comment on whether the difficulty was due to changes in trading during “SNL.”
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Dogecoin’s stock price fell during billionaire Elon Musk’s appearance on “Saturday Night Live” on May 9.

The cryptocurrency, which started as a joke in 2013 but recently gained popularity with Musk’s vocal support, fell to about $0.5 around 12:30 a.m. early Sunday morning, according to Coindesk, but the price steadily picked up as the show went on.

Musk touted Dogecoin during his appearance on the show’s “Weekend Update” sketch, saying the cryptocurrency would “take over the world” and calling himself the “Dogefather.”

At the same time, Robinhood, the multi-billion dollar stock trading app, said the platform was experiencing issues with crypto-trading.

“Update: We’re currently experiencing issues with crypto trading,” Robinhood tweeted during Musk’s performance. “We’re working to resolve this as soon as possible.”

Robinhood told Insider that the platform’s crypto-trading was “back up and running” about 30 minutes after it first reported difficulties. Robinhood declined to comment on whether the issues were tied to the “SNL” performance.

Dogecoin was originated in 2013 by IBM software engineer Billy Markus and Adobe software engineer Jackson Palmer.

This year, Dogecoin has had more than a 12,000% year-to-date rally, and spiked the week prior to Musk’s hosting gig on “Saturday Night Live.” The Reddit group Wall Street Bets, which cheered an unlikely rally of GameStop stock earlier this year, has also championed Dogecoin.

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Source: https://markets.businessinsider.com/currencies/news/dogecoin-drop-robinhood-down-elon-musk-snl-episode-2021-5-1030405331

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Pieces of a runaway Chinese rocket have rained down on the Indian Ocean, quelling fears it would hit people or property

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tianhe module launch china space station Long March 5B Y2 rocket
The Long March-5B Y2 rocket, carrying the core module of China’s space station Tianhe, takes off from Wenchang Space Launch Center in Hainan province, China April 29, 2021.

  • An uncontrolled Chinese rocket reentered Earth’s atmosphere and landed in the Indian Ocean Saturday.
  • The rocket had been hurtling towards Earth for a week, with no one knowing when or where it would land.
  • The landing quelled fears that debris from the rocket might have fallen on people or property.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

A Chinese rocket falling toward Earth at around 18,000 miles an hour reentered the atmosphere late Saturday, landing in the Indian Ocean near the Maldives, China’s space agency reported, according to the South China Morning Post.

It was the 22.5-ton core stage of China’s Long March 5B rocket, which launched the first module of the country’s new space station on April 28. For the last week, the 10-story-tall cylinder was hurtling around Earth uncontrolled, losing altitude with each lap. No space agency was certain when it would fall or where it would land.

Although the rocket stage ultimately landed in the ocean, there was a small chance it could have rained more than 5 tons of debris onto unsuspecting people or property.

As the rocket stage fell through Earth’s atmosphere, friction likely heated the surrounding air to more than 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The rocket stage likely fell apart in this heat and most likely burned up. But experts stressed that some parts could come through the heat intact.

The general rule of thumb is that 20% to 40% of a large object’s mass will survive its fall through the atmosphere. In this case, that would be 5 to 9 metric tons of debris.

A spokesperson for China’s Foreign Ministry, Wang Wenbing, said at a briefing on Friday that the rocket stage posed little threat, the Associated Press reported.

“As far as I understand, this type of rocket adopts a special technical design, and the vast majority of the devices will be burnt up and destructed during the re-entry process, which has a very low probability of causing harm to aviation activities and the ground,” Wang said.

Space debris experts agreed that any surviving pieces of the Long March 5B rocket stage were unlikely to hit inhabited areas, much less planes or boats. Most of the Earth consists of water and much of its land is uninhabited by people.

Still, the object’s orbit took it as far north as New York and Beijing and as far south as New Zealand and southern Chile.

aerospace corporation chart of long march 5b rocket stage reentry
The possible reentry points of the Long March 5b rocket’s core stage. The blue and white lines capture the uncertainty in the model – the range of places where the rocket could fall.

“Its trajectory covers much of the populated world. So if you can’t control where it reenters [the atmosphere], then there’s a real danger it will reenter someplace with people underneath it,” John Logsdon, the founder of George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute and a former member of the NASA Advisory Council, told Insider last week.

It’s not clear whether this uncontrolled fall was an accident

The US Space Force and Russia’s space agency, Roscosmos, both tracked the rocket stage as it lost altitude.

“For those of us who operate in the space domain, there’s a requirement, or should be a requirement, to operate in a safe and thoughtful mode,” US Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin told reporters on Thursday, according to The Guardian.

Normally, after a launch, rockets push themselves into the atmosphere and fall back to Earth over remote ocean areas like the South Pacific – a process called “controlled reentry.” China’s older rockets follow this practice. But two days after the Long March 5B launched, observers on Earth realized that its upper stage had fallen into orbit.

Experts aren’t sure whether this was an accident or simply how the rocket was designed.

“Rockets get launched all the time, and very seldom is there concern about reentry,” Logsdon said. “So yeah, I’m a little confused as to why this is happening. Is it just willful disregard of the international guidelines? Or because it’s a new vehicle it wasn’t properly designed so it could do a controlled reentry? Whatever. It’s unfortunate that it puts a lot of people at risk.”

Either way, Logsdon said, “I think at a minimum, China owes the international community an explanation.”

China launched a Long March 5b once before, in May 2020, with the same outcome. That launch was a test that put a spaceship prototype into orbit, and the rocket’s core stage also fell to Earth uncontrolled, six days after launch. It reentered Earth’s atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean, according to the US Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron. Some local reports indicated that bits of the rocket fell in Côte d’Ivoire.

China plans to launch 2 more of these rockets to build its space station

GettyImages 1313957056
A Long March-5B Y2 rocket carrying the core module of China’s space station, Tianhe, stands at the launching area of the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on April 23, 2021.

China’s plans to build its space station involve 11 launches by the end of 2022, two more of which would use Long March 5B rockets. The vehicle is designed to put space-station modules into orbit, according to Andrew Jones, a journalist covering Chinese space programs.

It’s not clear how China’s space agencies will dispose of the next two Long March 5B rocket bodies. Designing a rocket stage to ensure it makes a controlled reentry after launch can be more expensive and may reduce how much cargo the rocket can carry.

Still, Logsdon is hopeful that China will change its future launch plans based on the international response to this one.

“China in 2007 did an anti-satellite test that created a lot of debris and created a lot of international criticism. And they have not repeated that kind of test since then,” Logsdon said. “So it’s conceivable that international pressure could influence the next couple of launches.”

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Source: https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/chinese-rocket-debris-reenters-atmosphere-lands-in-the-indian-ocean-2021-5-1030405013

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Elon Musk calls the meme-crypto Dogecoin the ‘future of currency,’ predicts it will ‘take over the world’ on ‘SNL’

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Miley Cyrus Elon Musk SNL
Miley Cyrus was the musical guest on “SNL,” while Elon Musk hosted.

  • Elon Musk said Dogecoin, a cryptocurrency that started as a meme, will “take over the world.”
  • Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency created in 2013 as a joke but has recently been popularized by Musk.
  • Musk added on “Saturday Night Live” that Dogecoin was “as real” as a dollar bill.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Elon Musk didn’t miss a chance to hype the cryptocurrency Dogecoin as “Saturday Night Live” host on May 9.

Multiple times during the show’s “Weekend Update” sketch, “SNL” cast members asked Musk, “What is Dogecoin?”

“It’s the future of currency,” Musk said in response. “It’s an unstoppable financial vehicle that’s going to take over the world.”

Musk added Dogecoin was “as real” as a dollar bill that cast member Michael Che pulled out of his pocket during the sketch.

Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency created in 2013 as a joke and a cheaper alternative to Bitcoin, but it recently shot to fame after Musk, fellow billionaire Mark Cuban, and rapper Snoop Dogg expressed interest in it. Dogecoin jumped as high as 40% the week leading up to Musk’s “SNL” appearance. Musk tweeted he was “The Dogefather” during the episode.

Musk also referenced the popular catchphrase “To the moon,” popularized by the Reddit group Wall Street Bets. Wall Street Bets was rooting for GameStop stock’s unlikely rally earlier in the year. In January, Dogecoin surged 600% following Reddit-mania surrounding GameStop, Insider’s Grace Kay reported.

Earlier on Saturday, Musk also joked he bought his mother Dogecoin as a gift for Mother’s Day, which was the day after the episode.

“Well break a leg tonight, I love you very much, and I’m excited for my Mother’s Day Gift. I just hope it’s not Dogecoin,” Maye Musk, his mom, said during the episode’s opening monologue, to which Elon responded: “It is.”

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Source: https://markets.businessinsider.com/currencies/news/snl-elon-musk-dogecoin-hustle-future-currency-2021-5-1030405010

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NASA Administrator Statement on Chinese Rocket Debris

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WASHINGTON, May 9, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — NASA Administrator Sen. Bill Nelson released the following statement Saturday regarding debris from the Chinese Long March 5B rocket:

NASA Logo. (PRNewsFoto/NASA) (PRNewsFoto/) (PRNewsfoto/NASA)

“Spacefaring nations must minimize the risks to people and property on Earth of re-entries of space objects and maximize transparency regarding those operations.

“It is clear that China is failing to meet responsible standards regarding their space debris.

“It is critical that China and all spacefaring nations and commercial entities act responsibly and transparently in space to ensure the safety, stability, security, and long-term sustainability of outer space activities.”

For more information on NASA and agency activities, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov  

                                                                                                                      

Cision View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nasa-administrator-statement-on-chinese-rocket-debris-301287052.html

SOURCE NASA

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