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Cooking with CBD
The popularity of CBD has quickly grown, and not only among youth; the popularity of CBD for seniors is also growing.
Seniors tend to be more uncomfortable with vaping or smoking CBD, but are often open to ingesting it orally. Fortunately, you can easily cook with CBD.
What you need to know about cooking with CBD.
How to cook with CBD depends on the product you’re starting with. Are you starting with dry hemp flower? Or are you starting with an already infused hemp oil or butter?
If you’re using CBD oil, then you can go straight to cooking. You
If, however, you’re using dry flower, you’ll need to complete a few steps first, including the most important step: decarboxylation.
What is Decarboxylation?
Decarboxylation is a chemical process that causes the acidic form of a molecule to lose a carboxyl group and become a slightly different molecule. CBDA decarboxylates into CBD. THCA decarboxylates into THC.
Why do We Decarboxylate?
The hemp plant in its natural state, doesn’t actually contain much CBD. Instead, dry hemp flower contains CBDA. When heated, CBDA converts into CBD.
The same is true for CBD’s cannabinoid cousin, THC. Natural cannabis flower actually contains low levels of THC. Some cultivars do however contain high levels of THCA. When heated, the THCA converts into THC.
CBDA and THCA do have some therapeutic value, but when choosing to consume cannabis, most people are looking for CBD or THC.
How To Decarboxylate
Decarboxylation occurs quickly when smoking hemp flower. Decarboxylation is triggered by the heat of the flame. Additionally, because of the high heat, many cannabinoids are lost or destroyed. This makes smoking a very inefficient method of consuming cannabis.
However, when you decarb the cannabis by cooking it, you have better control of temperature. This allows for a more efficient use of the plant, which makes it easier to capture more cannabinoids compared to smoking. Ultimately, cooking cannabis is more efficient than smoking.
Many consumers decarboxylate cannabis in the oven at 240 degrees for 30-40 mins.
The true perfect oven method has not been determined yet. Recommendations for proper decarbing vary wildly.
Unfortunately, oven temperatures are notoriously inaccurate so it’s wise to purchase an oven thermometer. Monitoring the oven temperature while cooking, can help ensure an effective decarb. Alternately, there are devices available that allow consumers to decarboxylate their cannabis perfectly at home.
Infuse the Oil
After decarbing, you’ll need to infuse the carrier ingredient you plan to cook with.
Cannabinoids are fat-soluble, so high-fat oils and butters will infuse the best. But, you can infuse a wide variety of substances, including milks, cheeses, creams, syrup, and even honey. The processes for these infusions vary.
The most common ingredient to infuse is oil. The amount of oil you’ll need varies depending how much cannabis flower you have. I personally like my oil as potent as possible, so I only add enough oil to cover the flower.
There are many ways to infuse oil. You can make cannabis oil in a crockpot, a double broiler, or a mason jar in a boiling pot. There are also a variety of devices on the market specifically designed to infuse oil.
How to Infuse CBD Oil in a Double Broiler
Here’s the process for infusing CBD oil using a double broiler:
- Add oil and decarboxylated cannabis to top pot
- Cook over medium for two hours, stirring frequently
- Strain oil using cheesecloth or a mesh strainer
That’s it! Now you have your very own homemade CBD oil, and are ready to cook.
Challenges of Homemade CBD Oil
There are some challenges of homemade oil. It’s easy to overcook or undercook. Additionally, because there are multiple steps, it’s easy to make a mistake during the course of either process. .
Dosing is also a challenge with homemade CBD oil.
If you know the percentage of CBDA in the flower, then you can estimate how much CBD the end product might contain. However, it’s unlikely that 100% of the CBDA will be decarbed into CBD. It’s also unlikely that 100% of the CBD will be infused into the oil. Additionally, different ingredients infuse at different rates.
With homemade CBD oil, it’s very challenging to determine the exact dose and you have to estimate. If instead you choose to purchase a high-quality CBD oil, you will know the exact dose.
How to Cook with CBD Oil
You can add CBD oil to almost anything, brownies, pasta, smoothies, coffee. The only thing you want to avoid when cooking with CBD, is high-heat. High heat can destroy the CBD and other cannabinoids.
Baking with CBD Oil
CBD’s boiling point is estimated to be between 320 to 356 °F. BUT that doesn’t mean you can’t bake with CBD!
People often ask if baking with cannabis oil will ruin it because of the high heat of the oven. It does not. It’s perfectly acceptable to bake with cannabis oil.
Even though the oven temperature is 350 degrees, the inside of the cake never gets that hot. The internal temperature of a fully cooked cake is 210 degrees.
Other Ways to Cook with CBD Oil
Frying with cannabis oil is not recommended. If you want to add CBD oil to a sauce, it’s recommended to do so after the sauce has finished cooking. Boiling or sauteing CBD oil, can destroy the CBD.
However, it’s great to add after it’s done cooking. CBD oil is a great ingredient to mix into smoothies or drizzle over salads.
How Much to Use
It’s very important to make sure you don’t consume too much CBD oil. Too much CBD oil can cause discomfort. When planning your infused meal, make sure your portion size correlates with the doses of CBD oil you add. As always talk to your doctor before adding CBD to your wellness routine.
You can cook with CBD oil and it’s a fairly easy process. You can use dry hemp flower, or skip a few steps and instead use a high-quality brand of CBD oil. You can add CBD oil to almost anything. Just remember to pay close attention to the levels of heat you use in the cooking process.
An in-depth look at the study that discovered THCP, a cannabinoid more potent than THC
A new cannabinoid has been discovered, and the ramifications could be massive. Scientists funded by the UNIHEMP research project have discovered a new psychoactive molecule: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabiphorol, or THCP; and they believe that there are great scientific implications for the phytocannabinoid.
Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoid molecules that are specifically produced by plants. There are several types of cannabinoids, including endocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and phytocannabinoids.
Endocannabinoids are compounds that are produced within the body by an organism’s endocannabinoid system; and synthetic cannabinoids are man-made chemicals that cannot be found in nature. Phytocannabinoids, on the other hand, are a different beast altogether. They are those that naturally occur in plants and are found in a variety, including echinacea. However, the plant species in which phytocannabinoids are most prominent is cannabis.
Because of cannabis’ status as a Schedule I controlled substance in the US, there are several barriers that prohibit the scientific study of the plant and its constituents. Thus, a considerable portion of cannabis research takes place abroad. Many clinical and laboratory studies of cannabis take place in Israel and Canada, where there is federal research funding to support this work; but, the newly discovered THCP was characterized by a group of Italian scientists.
Unlike the US, government funding for cannabis research is relatively commonplace in Europe. The discovery of THCP was enabled by the UNIHEMP project, which is sponsored by the European Regional Development Fund. A multi-disciplinary team of Italian scientists was responsible for the discovery of this novel cannabinoid, led by Giuseppe Cannazza of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
The researchers’ findings were published in late 2019 in the journal Nature.
THCP is 33-times more active than THC
Throughout the duration of the project, the group studied a medicinal cannabis cultivar, dubbed FM2, which was supplied by the Military Chemical Pharmaceutical Institute in Florence. Using a variety of scientific characterization techniques, the researchers observed two novel cannabinoids, THCP and CBDP, and isolated them from other cannabinoids that were present. Following this discovery, the group artificially synthesized THCP and CBDP to create reference materials, and the synthesized versions were successfully used to verify the natural expression of the two cannabinoids in the FM2 cultivar.
After the confirmation of the identity of the two cannabinoids, the group turned its focus to THCP. To study the compound, they pursued an in vitro experiment with cultured cells. This experiment tested the binding affinity of THCP with CB1 and CB2 receptors, using synthetic cannabinoids as reference materials. It was shown that, when comparing THCP-related results to the previously reported data of other cannabinoids against the CB1 receptor, THCP is 33-times more active than delta-9 THC.
This finding is critical because the group also found that the chemical was present in FM2 at 0.0029%, whereas THC was found to be expressed at 3.9%; so, even in smaller amounts, THCP is more active than THC.
They also tested the cannabimimetic activity of the molecule. Cannabimimetic activity is a measure of how well a substance replicates the effects of more well-characterized cannabinoids which bind to the CB1 receptor. An in vivo experiment involving mice was performed. Herein, the influence of THCP on body temperature, spontaneous activity, immobility, and pain was determined — the results of these tests confirmed that THCP acts similarly to other cannabinoids like delta-9 THC.
Will THCP be important?
According to the study, even at lower doses, THCP has more cannabimimetic activity than THC. Further, the group posits that THCP could account for the wide variability of patient responses in cannabis-based therapies, even amongst cultivars with equal THC doses. This means that cannabis’ psychotropic effects, which the scientific community attributes to THC, may actually be due to the presence of THCP.
Unfortunately, none of the original researchers could be reached for comment. However, experts in the field do have varying opinions regarding the study. Dr. Cecilia J. Hillard of the Medical College of Wisconsin said, “I think it is well designed.” She goes on, “[The study] has two important gaps, in my opinion. First, they should have compared the in vivo effects of THCP to that of THC ‘head to head’ so that relative potencies could be assessed. Second, I would like to know whether THCP has greater efficacy to activate the [CB1 receptor] in particular. THC is relatively safe because it has low efficacy at the receptor. If THCP has high efficacy (like the synthetic analogs that have also increased the tail length), it is a more concerning finding, as it would suggest that strains making a lot of THCP could be more dangerous to use than those that do not.”
Expanding on how THCP could be more dangerous, Hillard continued, “The so-called ‘spice’ compounds are synthetic agonists of the CB1 receptor. They are full agonists, meaning that they are very strong activators of the CB1 receptor. Compared to THC, these drugs have significant adverse effects and produce significant dependence (addiction). So, my issue is that we do not know yet whether THCP is like THC, a partial agonist, or like the synthetic compounds, a full agonist. And my concern is that, if it is the latter, cannabis strains high in THCP will have more adverse effects than those that are low.”
Dr. Samuel Banister of The University of Sydney states, “[The study] was well designed and executed,” concurring with Dr. Hillard. However, he goes on to disagree with the group’s assessment that THCP may account for the variability of psychotropic effects across various cannabis cultivars: “While this possibility cannot be ruled out, the known potency differences for THC and THCP at cannabinoid receptors is relatively small, while the difference in abundance of each in cannabis is enormous. The same is true of CBD and CBDP, although CBD requires even higher doses to achieve many of its pharmacological effects. For this reason, I do not feel that minor or trace phytocannabinoids like THCP or CBDP contribute significantly to the psychoactive effects of different cannabis strains.”
How this novel cannabinoid plays out in both medical and recreational use is yet to be determined, as much more research is needed. Nonetheless, this new evidence suggests that analytical laboratories in US regulated markets may need to expand their testing panel to include THCP.
Featured graphic by David Lozada/Weedmaps
Arizona Legalization Initiative Survives Lawsuit
An Arizona voter initiative that would legalize the recreational use of cannabis by adults has survived a legal challenge by opponents, who argued that the ballot summary for the measure failed to properly inform voters. In a ruling released on Friday, Judge James Smith rejected all arguments of attorneys for Arizonans for Health And Public Safety.
The group filed the lawsuit last month, arguing that the 100-word word summary for the Smart and Safe Arizona Act ballot act did not accurately describe the initiative and therefore misinformed voters. If passed, the measure would legalize possession of up to one ounce of cannabis by adults and create a tax and regulatory framework for commercial marijuana production and sales. The office of the Arizona Secretary of State is now in the process of verifying the signatures to ensure that enough registered voters have signed petitions to include the initiative on the ballot for the general election.
“The proponent’s summary of the initiative is confusing and deceptive in numerous ways, beginning with the very definition of marijuana,” John Shadegg, a former congressman and one of the attorneys who filed the suit, said at the time.
The suit alleges, among other things, that a passage of the summary that says the initiative would “protect employer and property owner rights” is misleading. The plaintiffs also challenged the fact that the summary did not specify that the measure would legalize not just marijuana flower, but all forms of cannabis including extracts and concentrates.
“The summary misled signatories and will mislead voters who may support the legalization of ‘marijuana’ but not the more potent forms of ‘cannabis,’” Shadegg said.
The suit also maintained that the summary should have noted that the 16% tax rate imposed by the initiative on cannabis sales could not be raised without another vote of the people. The summary also should have included information about a provision of the initiative that makes possession of marijuana by a person younger than 21 a civil infraction instead of a felony, the suit alleged.
“These omissions and statements misled voters who signed the petition about what the initiative would do,” said Lisa James, the chairwoman of Arizonans for Health and Public Safety.
Judge Rejects Prohibitionists
In his ruling, Smith said that the opponents of the initiative were attempting to impose their personal beliefs on the content of the summary without a legal basis.
“Petitioners may believe the initiative should put more limits on possessing, using, or cultivating marijuana,” he wrote. “Those are policy arguments for the voters. That competing policy perspective does not mean the summary violates the law.”
The judge also noted that the plaintiffs’ assertion that the initiative reduced the penalties for minors convicted of cannabis offenses was untrue.
“In fact, (the initiative) includes penalties for underage possession,” Smith wrote. “Yes, minors possessing marijuana now may face charges that are more serious.”
At a hearing on the lawsuit earlier in the week, Smith suggested how he might rule, noting that “there’s nothing in this description that is actually wrong.”
With Smith’s ruling, the initiative is one step closer to making it to November’s ballot. The plaintiffs have five days from Friday, the day the judge’s decision was handed down, to file an appeal.
Canada is Allowing Psilocybin Access For Terminally Ill Patients
Canada just announced that four patients who have been diagnosed with terminal cancer will receive therapy from psilocybin, the psychoactive component in mushrooms.
The idea is for the patients to come to terms with their lives ending through the use of psilocybin. This comes over 100 days after a plea from patients with the government. Finally, the plea for medicine has been approved by Patty Hajdu, minister of health in Canada. It’s the first exception to the rule for psychedelic treatment since 1974.
“The acknowledgment of the pain and anxiety that I have been suffering with means a lot to me, and I am feeling quite emotional today as a result,” said Laurie Brooks, one of the patients able to receive her treatments. “I hope this is just the beginning and that soon all Canadians will be able to access psilocybin, for therapeutic use, to help with the pain they are experiencing, without having to petition the government for months to gain permission.”
“I would like to personally thank the Hon. Minister Hajdu and the team at the Office of Controlled Substances for the approval of my section 56 exemption. This is the positive result that is possible when good people show genuine compassion. I’m so grateful that I can move forward with the next step of healing,” added patient Thomas Hartle.
Dr. Bruce Tobin, Founder and Chairman of TheraPsil, the group behind providing psilocybin to end-of-life patients, said, “We would like to extend our incredible gratitude to the Honorable Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, and to our government. Although it has taken a long time we are impressed with their willingness to listen to patients who have not been heard and to shift focus and policy to accommodate their interests and protect their needs. We also thank the brave Canadian patients who have been public in their fight for psilocybin access, along with the honourable Canadian MPs who have demonstrated courage, standing up for patient rights, including Marcus Powlowski, Ed Fast, Elizabeth May, Paul Manley, Nathaniel Erskine-Smith, Helena Jaczek, and Hedy Fry”
Compassionate Care Through Plants
End-of-life anxiety can often be one of the most severe side effects of a terminal diagnosis, and traditional anxiety medicine often doesn’t help with that. For that reason, the patients approved of this treatment specifically asked for an alternative to the medicines they were being prescribed.
“It gives you a rapid heart rate. It makes you feel terrible,” Hartle said.
Based on this, the patients decided on psilocybin, as recent research reveals how much it can help with end-of-life healing. A study by NYU Langone Health revealed that 60 to 80 percent of the 29 people who participated found that psilocybin, in combination with psychotherapy, helps soothe distress about death. Most of the patients reported positive life changes after going through the treatment.
While terminal diagnoses still exist in Western medicine, it’s incredibly important for end-of-life care to be prioritized, and this will help give the patients who need it the peace of mind they are craving.
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