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Hacker Exploits Deflationary Token to Steal $500,000 from Balancer Pool

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The Balancer pool, one of the newest and most exciting decentralized finance (DeFi) pools, witnessed a security breach over the weekend. According to a company statement, the attacker made use of a deflationary token to access the funds in the pool’s funds.

Exploiting a Deflationary Asset

At about 6:00 PM yesterday, a meta transaction to steal funds from a Balancer pool was executed on the Ethereum blockchain. The transaction reportedly came with a great deal of complexity, with 315 token transfers and a transaction fee of $54.

The pool that eventually gave in to the exploit had a collection of several assets, including LINK, the Synthetic Network Token (SNX), Strata (STA), WETH, and Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC). Strata is a deflationary token that was built to “attract liquidity.” Whenever a user initiates a Strata transfer, one percent of the entire transaction ends up destroyed.

The hacker eventually borrowed 104,331 WETH (worth about $23.3 million) with a dYdX flash loan. Then, they exchanged the tokens for STA and conducted twenty-four back-and-forth exchanges.

Given the deflationary nature of STA, Balancer only recorded the amount of STA being transferred – not the amount that was destroyed. The frequency of the transfers meant that the STA pool continued to diminish in size. Eventually, the pool’s dynamics went off balance, and the hacker went on to swap 0.000000000000000001 STA for WETH multiple times – thus draining the amount of WETH in the pool.

The hacker went on to do the same for the other tokens in the pool. The hacker repaid the flash loans, but still held a significant amount of Balancer pool tokens. Using Uniswap, they exchanged the pool tokens for more STA and swapped them for 109 WETH (about $24,300).

Balancer claimed in its statement that it didn’t know this sort of attack was possible. However, the company also pointed out that it had gotten warnings concerning the consequences of non-standard ERC-20 token transfers on its pool.

Growing Pains for the DeFi Space?

At the end of their operation, the hacker was able to steal $500,000 in user funds. Currently, the hacker’s wallet address has about $134,000 in Ether tokens. Balancer also committed in its statement that it would provide additional documentation concerning how its pool works. The company’s statement didn’t confirm whether it reimbursed customers who lost their funds due to the hack.

Balancer’s hack is coming as the entire DeFi space appears to be on an expansionary trend. The Compound Governance Token (COMP), the governance token for DeFi protocol Compound, surged in value from $64 on June 18 to $352 after exchange Coinbase Pro listed it on its platform. The asset went as high as $427, although it calmed back to about $255 on June 27.

Members of the crypto community have raised their concerns with the DeFi space, as it appears to be a giant bubble waiting to pop and take investors down with it. While the growth of the space is a good thing for the crypto industry and an encouraging sign for things to come, hacks like these will erode investors’ confidence.

Besides Balancer, several other DeFi projects have had security and reliability issues in recent months. This nascent industry might want to tread with caution.

Source: https://insidebitcoins.com/news/hacker-exploits-deflationary-token-to-steal-500000-from-balancer-pool

Blockchain

Miten tekoälyä käytetään videopeleissä ja mitä tulevaisuudessa on odotettavissa

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Tekoäly on ollut olennainen osa videopelejä niiden perustamisesta lähtien 1950-luvulla. Videopelien tekoäly on erillinen osa-alue ja eroaa akateemisesta tekoälystä. Se auttaa parantamaan pelin pelaajakokemusta koneoppimisen tai päätöksenteon sijaan. Tekoälyä käytetään videopeleissä monin eri tavoin, ja se on nähtävissä myös monissa casino-peleissä. Millaista videopelien tekoäly on ja miten se on vuosien saatossa muuttanut videopelien maailmaa? Mitä se tuo tulevaisuudessa peleihin?

Äärellinen automaatti

Äärellinen automaatti (finite state machine) on matemaattinen malli, jossa järjestelmällä tietty on määrä eri tiloja, jossa sen on mahdollista olla. Järjestelmä voi olla vain yhdessä tilassa kerrallaan. Nykyisestä tilasta voidaan siirtyä seuraavaan tilaan vasta kun nykyisen tilan ehto on suoritettu. Yksinkertainen esimerkki äärellisestä automaatista on lukko. 

Lukon tilat ovat suljettu ja auki. Mahdollisia siirtymiä ovat lukon avaaminen ja lukon sulkeminen. Lukko voi olla kerrallaan vain yhdessä tilassa, auki tai suljettu, ja samaa siirtymää ei voi suorittaa kahta kertaa peräkkäin, eli lukkoa ei voi aukaista uudestaan ennen lukon sulkemista.

Käytöspuu

Käytöspuu (behavior tree) on äärellisen automaatin tapaan matemaattinen malli, joka mallintaa siirtymiä äärellisen tehtäväjoukon välillä. Käytöspuiden vahvuuksia äärellisiin automaatteihin nähden on niiden modulaarisuus: pienien osien avulla voidaan toteuttaa monimutkaisia kokonaisuuksia. 

Käytöspuiden suurin ero äärellisiin automaatteihin nähden on se, että käytöspuut koostuvat ennemmin toimintamalleistakuin tiloista. Käytös-puiden suosioon on myös vaikuttanut niiden helppo suunniteltavuus, testaus ja virheiden korjaus.

Minimax -algoritmi

Minimax-algoritmi (minimax algorithm) on algoritmi, jota käytetään kahden pelaajan vuoropohjaisissa peleissä, kuten shakissa ja ristinollassa. Algoritmi rakentaa puun pelin mahdollisista siirroista. Siirrot vuorotellevat omien ja vastustajan siirtojen välillä. Laskentaa jatketaan tiettyyn pisteeseen saakka. Puussa olevat solmut kuvaavat mahdollisia siirtoja. Siirrot on pisteytetty ennalta määrättyjen sääntöjen perusteella, suurempi pistemäärä tarkoittaa parempaa siirtoa. Algoritmi pyrkii valitsemaan itselleen parhaiten pisteytetyn siirron.

Monte Carlo -puuhaku

Monte Carlo -puuhaku (Monte Carlo tree search) on algoritmiyhden ja kahden pelaajan peleihin. Monte Carlo -puuhaku perustuu Monte Carlo -simulaatioon (Monte Carlo simulation), jonka avulla pyritään satunnaiseen peliavaruuden tutkimiseen suorittamalla useita simulaatioita, joissa jokaisessa peli pelataan loppuun yleensä satunnaisin siirroin. Simuloitujenpelien perusteella pyritään päättelemään, minkä siirron kautta olisi todennäköisintä päätyä voittoon.

Menetelmät eroavat toisistaan mutta niistä näkyy hyvin selkeästi, millaisissa peleissä niitä voidaan käyttää. Tekoälyn avulla pelit ovat mielenkiintoisempia ja peleihin saadaan mukaan sellaisia toimintoja ja tapahtumia, jotka pitävät pelaajan jännitystä yllä koko pelin ajan.

Tekoäly tulevaisuuden videopeleissä

Tulevaisuudessa videopeleissä käytettävä tekoäly siirtyy luultavasti kohti koneoppimista ja neuroverkkoja. Näitä menetelmiä on jo kokeiltu joissain peleissä kuten Star Craftissa ja shakissa. Koneoppiminen (engl. machine learning, ML) on tärkeä tekoälyn haara, jota hyödyntävä ohjelma tai ohjelmisto pystyy kokoelmalla erilaisia algoritmeja oppimaan itsenäisesti mukautumalla muutoksiin ja päätymään haluttuun lopputulokseen luodun opetteludatanpohjalta, jossa tiedetään syöte eli alkutila ja haluttu lopputulos. Siten tätä dataa käyttämällä luodaan algoritmi, joka päätyy samaan lopputulokseen kaikilla samankaltaisilla syötteillä. Koneoppiminen on tällä hetkellä videopeleissä vasta kokeilemisen tasolla, mutta se näyttää olevan se menetelmä, jonka käyttöä kaikkein suurimmalla todennäköisyydellä tullaan tutkimaan ja lisäämään.

Pelit ja pelaajat kehittyvät ja se pitää yllä videopelien suosiota. Pelaajat haluavat koko ajan uudenlaisia ja parempia pelejä ja pelitalot pyrkivät niitä tarjoamaan. Tekoälyn käyttö osana pelejä antaa pelisuunnittelijoille keinoja luoda pelejä, joissa vaaditaan myös pelaajalta älyä pelin loppuun suorittamiseen.

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Blockchain

DOGE Co-founder Reveals the Reasons Behind its Price Rise

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Billy Markus, who created Dogecoin back in 2013 with Jackson Palmer has taken to Twitter (where he dwells as “Shibetoshi Nakamoto”) to share his take on the recent Dogecoin rally.

According to him, the Dogecoin market is hugely driven by emotion and sentiment. The price of DOGE in the market is moved by people’s decisions, made for their own personal reasons.

What is Moving the Price of Dogecoin in the Market? Co-founder Answered

Billy Markus developed the meme-coin DOGE back in 2013 as an imitation of Bitcoin back. The Dogecoin that was changing hands as low as $0.0026 last month is now sitting at $0.61. According to the statistics, DOGE is the fourth digital asset of the market. 

In his recent interviews with Bloomberg the founder and CEO of Galaxy Digital, Mike Novogratz, stated that,

“Dogecoin may be favored by millennials and generation Z since buying it is similar to showing the middle finger to the system. This is reminiscent of the craze over Gamestop shares.”

However, he cautioned against Dogecoin, stating that 

“There are no development upgrades for this coin, nor is there any money from financial institutions going into it.”

DOGE Wave Take Further Rise This Year

DOGE has always been seen as Elon Musk’s favorite. A significant price surge can be seen due to Elon Musk Tweets.  

The “DOGE influencer” was the first one to call it the “people’s currency,” then promised to put “literal DOGE on the literal Moon” via SpaceX. 

From the latest, Musk is preparing to make an appearance on “Saturday Night Live,” i.e. Today this weekend.

According to reporter Kate Rooney

“The newest DOGE investors particularly see Musk’s tweets as the main price pumper of the meme-coin. DOGE is making its way into online gambling markets as people are making bets about what Musk will talk about on SNL and whether it will be his favorite Shiba-Inu cryptocurrency.”

READ  Elon Musk Admits Bitcoin Cash Offers Much Lower Fees than Bitcoin

#DOGE co-founder Billy Markus #Dogecoin (DOGE) #Elon Musk DOGE support

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.cryptoknowmics.com/news/doge-co-founder-reveals-the-reasons-behind-its-price-rise

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JOSÉ FONTE AND EDER BECOME THE FIRST FOOTBALLERS IN THE WORLD TO LAUNCH NFTs

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EURO 2016 champions have produced unique and authentic digital art pieces
to be auctioned online starting today
Lisbon, 7 May 2021 – European champions and Portuguese Internationals José Fonte
and Éder are the first two footballers worldwide to launch their own Non-Fungible
Tokens (NFTs), creating unique and authentic digital art pieces that will be auctioned
online. The two NFTs were made in partnership with Jedi3 and part of the revenues
raised through the auction will revert to social and community support. The creations
will be auctioned on the well-known platform of NFTs, OpenSea, starting today and
can be found here:
https://opensea.io/collection/eder-lopes-2016-european-champion
https://opensea.io/collection/jose-fonte-2016-european-champion
The creative concept of both pieces was developed by the athletes themselves together with
the project Jedi3. Fonte focused his illustration on his career path and all the obstacles he
had to overcome in order to become an international player and win EURO 2016. Eder’s
piece is a digital creation of the boot he used to score the winning goal for Portugal in the
final of the European Championship against France.
In this first launch, there will be:
● 10 limited digital editions of Éder’s right boot that scored the Euro final goal, in a
digital 3D version;
● 10 limited digital editions of an illustration that represents the path followed by José
Fonte until the title in the Euro;
● Furthermore, a “masterpiece” of Éder’s boot that will give the right to the digital item
plus the real boot he used to score the winning goal in the final.

The auction started today on the Open Sea platform and will last for a week and all
transactions will be made in Ethereum cryptocurrency. Fonte and Eder follow in the footsteps
of NFL and NBA players who have already participated in the creation of NFTs.
José Fonte talked about the launch: “Everybody follows what is going on in the US with
NFTs, and I’ve been following it too for the last few months. Some of my favourite people are
exploring this new world, this new connection with the fans. I tried to explore this connection
with the fans, to give them something that is new and authentic. This creation means a lot to
me, because the story of it is about my career, about what I’ve been through in my life. It’s
about resilience, showing determination and never giving up and showing that anything is
possible with hard work. I’m excited. I want the fans to be open minded. First of all, it’s for a
good cause as well. Part of the money will go into some foundations and institutions that we
want to help. We want to give something back to the
people, which is really important to us.”
Eder showed all his enthusiasm about this project: “It’s a fantastic world. It’s been booming
in the US because of the NFTs that have been created in the NBA. José Fonte and I expect
to be the first football players to launch an NFT in the world. An NFT is unique, has value for
the person that creates it, it’s art and I think that has a lot of value for the fans. We’ve
participated in a big victory at the Euros and I know our fans will be amazed by a creation
like this. My creation means a lot to me and to Portugal. It’s the boot that scored the winning
goal at the final and it’s really important to me. It’s something that the football fans will
appreciate. Another important reason is helping an institution that we will give part of the
funds to. It’s something important to do and a big step.”
Part of the profits from the auction of each of the pieces will revert to charities and
community institutions. Éder will benefit PAJE – platform of support to young former foster
children, association of which he is godfather and partner. Regarding José Fonte, the focus
will be the community of Penafiel, where he was born, by donating funds to the local
Firefighters corporation, where his grandfather was the 2nd Commander, to the ERPI –
Estrutura Residencial para Idosos de Penafiel, and the APADIMP – Associação de Pais e
Amigos dos Diminuídos Mentais de Penafiel. The Lille central defender will also donate
funds to support football in Portugal to institutions yet to be defined.
For João Matos Cruz, from Jedi3, “this project is born from the fusion of diverse interests of
a group of friends: football, blockchain and digital art. In a context where the technology of
distributed registration allows to protect, authenticate and promote, for example, artists’
work, or relevant moments, we felt it was time to give visibility, in the digital world, to two
iconic figures in the history of Portuguese football: Éder Lopes and José Fonte. In the first
case, through the boot with which he scored the goal of the Euro 2016 final, as a
masterpiece of a moment of collective transcendence. In the case of José Fonte, illustrating
his path that was also one of overcoming, of constant struggle against adversity, until the
final consecration as European champion.”
What are NFTs?
A non-fungible token (NFT) is a type of cryptographic token on a blockchain, which
represents a unique asset. They can be fully digital assets or tokenized versions of
real-world assets. As NFTs are not interchangeable with each other, they can act as proof of
authenticity and ownership in the digital realm.
There are numerous success stories of sportsmen or sports-related individuals who have
launched their own NFTs in recent months in the US. The mythical quarterback Tom Brady
will even launch a platform for the creation and sale of NFTs called “Autograph” where he
promises to bring together several well-known names from the music, fashion and
entertainment industries. Those who have already launched their own NFT’s include Patrick
Mahomes, the 2020 NFL champion and Zion Williamson, one of the NBA’s most promising
stars.
The value of an NFT derives from the story that is told, what gave rise to the NFT and who
actually issued it. It is a certificate of authenticity per se, identified by a unique,
non-falsifiable “contract address”.
The technology used for this purpose, blockchain, thus allows a direct and decentralised
interaction between athletes and their digital admirers / followers. In this case, these players
become stars, also, in the digital world, directly launching tokens, whose artistic and
authentic character, guarantees their buyers a unique collector’s item.

Continue Reading

Blockchain

JOSÉ FONTE AND EDER BECOME THE FIRST FOOTBALLERS IN THE WORLD TO LAUNCH NFTs

Avatar

Published

on

EURO 2016 champions have produced unique and authentic digital art pieces
to be auctioned online starting today
Lisbon, 7 May 2021 – European champions and Portuguese Internationals José Fonte
and Éder are the first two footballers worldwide to launch their own Non-Fungible
Tokens (NFTs), creating unique and authentic digital art pieces that will be auctioned
online. The two NFTs were made in partnership with Jedi3 and part of the revenues
raised through the auction will revert to social and community support. The creations
will be auctioned on the well-known platform of NFTs, OpenSea, starting today and
can be found here:
https://opensea.io/collection/eder-lopes-2016-european-champion
https://opensea.io/collection/jose-fonte-2016-european-champion
The creative concept of both pieces was developed by the athletes themselves together with
the project Jedi3. Fonte focused his illustration on his career path and all the obstacles he
had to overcome in order to become an international player and win EURO 2016. Eder’s
piece is a digital creation of the boot he used to score the winning goal for Portugal in the
final of the European Championship against France.
In this first launch, there will be:
● 10 limited digital editions of Éder’s right boot that scored the Euro final goal, in a
digital 3D version;
● 10 limited digital editions of an illustration that represents the path followed by José
Fonte until the title in the Euro;
● Furthermore, a “masterpiece” of Éder’s boot that will give the right to the digital item
plus the real boot he used to score the winning goal in the final.

The auction started today on the Open Sea platform and will last for a week and all
transactions will be made in Ethereum cryptocurrency. Fonte and Eder follow in the footsteps
of NFL and NBA players who have already participated in the creation of NFTs.
José Fonte talked about the launch: “Everybody follows what is going on in the US with
NFTs, and I’ve been following it too for the last few months. Some of my favourite people are
exploring this new world, this new connection with the fans. I tried to explore this connection
with the fans, to give them something that is new and authentic. This creation means a lot to
me, because the story of it is about my career, about what I’ve been through in my life. It’s
about resilience, showing determination and never giving up and showing that anything is
possible with hard work. I’m excited. I want the fans to be open minded. First of all, it’s for a
good cause as well. Part of the money will go into some foundations and institutions that we
want to help. We want to give something back to the
people, which is really important to us.”
Eder showed all his enthusiasm about this project: “It’s a fantastic world. It’s been booming
in the US because of the NFTs that have been created in the NBA. José Fonte and I expect
to be the first football players to launch an NFT in the world. An NFT is unique, has value for
the person that creates it, it’s art and I think that has a lot of value for the fans. We’ve
participated in a big victory at the Euros and I know our fans will be amazed by a creation
like this. My creation means a lot to me and to Portugal. It’s the boot that scored the winning
goal at the final and it’s really important to me. It’s something that the football fans will
appreciate. Another important reason is helping an institution that we will give part of the
funds to. It’s something important to do and a big step.”
Part of the profits from the auction of each of the pieces will revert to charities and
community institutions. Éder will benefit PAJE – platform of support to young former foster
children, association of which he is godfather and partner. Regarding José Fonte, the focus
will be the community of Penafiel, where he was born, by donating funds to the local
Firefighters corporation, where his grandfather was the 2nd Commander, to the ERPI –
Estrutura Residencial para Idosos de Penafiel, and the APADIMP – Associação de Pais e
Amigos dos Diminuídos Mentais de Penafiel. The Lille central defender will also donate
funds to support football in Portugal to institutions yet to be defined.
For João Matos Cruz, from Jedi3, “this project is born from the fusion of diverse interests of
a group of friends: football, blockchain and digital art. In a context where the technology of
distributed registration allows to protect, authenticate and promote, for example, artists’
work, or relevant moments, we felt it was time to give visibility, in the digital world, to two
iconic figures in the history of Portuguese football: Éder Lopes and José Fonte. In the first
case, through the boot with which he scored the goal of the Euro 2016 final, as a
masterpiece of a moment of collective transcendence. In the case of José Fonte, illustrating
his path that was also one of overcoming, of constant struggle against adversity, until the
final consecration as European champion.”
What are NFTs?
A non-fungible token (NFT) is a type of cryptographic token on a blockchain, which
represents a unique asset. They can be fully digital assets or tokenized versions of
real-world assets. As NFTs are not interchangeable with each other, they can act as proof of
authenticity and ownership in the digital realm.
There are numerous success stories of sportsmen or sports-related individuals who have
launched their own NFTs in recent months in the US. The mythical quarterback Tom Brady
will even launch a platform for the creation and sale of NFTs called “Autograph” where he
promises to bring together several well-known names from the music, fashion and
entertainment industries. Those who have already launched their own NFT’s include Patrick
Mahomes, the 2020 NFL champion and Zion Williamson, one of the NBA’s most promising
stars.
The value of an NFT derives from the story that is told, what gave rise to the NFT and who
actually issued it. It is a certificate of authenticity per se, identified by a unique,
non-falsifiable “contract address”.
The technology used for this purpose, blockchain, thus allows a direct and decentralised
interaction between athletes and their digital admirers / followers. In this case, these players
become stars, also, in the digital world, directly launching tokens, whose artistic and
authentic character, guarantees their buyers a unique collector’s item.

Continue Reading
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