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George Floyd death: Seven solutions to US police problems

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Protestor wears mask saying "defund the police"Image copyright Getty Images

Protesters across the US have taken to the streets in the wake of George Floyd’s death to demand an end to police brutality and what they see as systemic racism.

In response, Democrats have proposed legislation to address inequities and reduce deaths in custody, including measures that would require police to wear body cameras, ban chokeholds and make it easier to prosecute officers.

Here’s a look at some of these proposed solutions, and other potential ways to reform policing.

1. Rewrite “use of force” policies

Most police departments have a “use of force” policy which dictates how and when officers can use force. These policies vary substantially from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, the type of “neck restraint” or chokehold that Officer Derek Chauvin used on George Floyd has been banned in New York City since 1993.

After high-profile police killings, many departments are forced to re-examine and rewrite their use of force policies by federal consent decrees. The city of Baltimore revamped its policy in 2019 as a part of its consent decree with the US Department of Justice after the death of Freddie Gray. The new version requires officers to report use of force incidents and compels them to intervene if they see another officer improperly using force.

After Floyd’s death, the Minneapolis city council forced the police department’s hand by banning chokeholds and making it mandatory for officers to intervene if their colleagues are using improper force.

Advocates acknowledge that simply rewriting these policies would not effectively prevent deaths like Floyd’s, and that force is still disproportionately used against communities of colour. A New York Times analysis showed that the Minneapolis police use force against black residents seven times more often than white residents.

2. Defund the police

Protesters believe that cities and states spend far too much money on their police departments without sufficiently funding education, mental health, housing and other community-based social services. A growing demand is for political leaders to “defund” the police – that usually means reducing funding not cutting it altogether.

These calls have been heeded by the mayor of Los Angeles, who slashed $150m from a proposed budget increase for his city’s police. New York Mayor Bill de Blasio also pledged to divert money from the NYPD towards social services, though he did not cite a figure.

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Media captionNY Governor Cuomo: ‘This has to be a fundamental rethinking’ of police tactics

In Minneapolis, a group called the Black Visions Collective is asking the city council to pledge not to increase the police department’s budget, and to divert $45m of the force’s current budget to shore up the city’s coffers in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic.

“Now is the time to invest in a safe, liberated future for our city,” the group wrote. “We can’t afford to keep funding MPD’s attacks on Black lives.”

3. Dismantle the police

On Sunday, a veto-proof majority of the Minneapolis City Council signed a pledge in front of a crowd of demonstrators promising to “begin the process of ending the Minneapolis Police Department”. They vowed to create a “new, transformative model for cultivating safety”. Earlier in the week, two council members used the word “dismantle” to describe their plans for the department, as did Minnesota Representative Ilhan Omar.

The statement did not make it clear if the council is merely pledging to remake the department, or if they were heeding some demonstrators’ calls to “abolish the police,” which would obviously be the most radical course of action. The council president said she could imagine a scenario where the department enters state receivership, and a team of medics and health care professionals respond to 911 calls instead of police.

A group called MPD 150 is calling for a “police-free future” in Minneapolis, in which mental health professionals, social workers, religious leaders and other community-based advocates would do the work of police.

There is some historical precedent for a wholesale dismantling of a department. In 2012, the Camden, New Jersey, police department was fully disbanded and all of its officers lost their jobs. However, it was certainly not abolition – a new, countywide police force was formed in its place, and about 100 former Camden officers applied for and regained their jobs. The move actually put more police on the streets of Camden. The new department adopted a very strict use of force policy and made it easier for the city to fire rogue officers.

The department has reported a steep decline in homicide and use of force complaints since.

4. Demilitarise

Since the 1990s, the military has transferred over $5bn-worth of equipment, ranging from sleeping bags to ammunition and armoured vehicles, to local police departments through a special acquisitions programme with the US Department of Defense.

As a result, many advocates for police reform argue that police today function more like domestic soldiers, using techniques and equipment designed for battle, than community peacekeepers trying to keep people safe, and that this approach costs lives.

Image copyright Getty Images

President Barack Obama put limits on how police could use the programme in 2015, but most of those were overturned by the Trump administration a few years later.

Not only have police acquired more weapons over the past two decades, but many are taught military-style tactics. This so-called “warrior training” often spins a narrative where police are heroes fending off danger at every turn, who must learn how to protect themselves at all costs – even if that means killing civilians.

Critics say it teaches cops to be afraid, and to shoot first, think later.

In 2019, Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey banned cops from attending “warrior-style” training, even on their own time with their own money. But the local police union called the ban “illegal” and continued to offer the training.

There is research to show that militarisation leads to police violence. In 2017, a study published in Research and Politics found that the more military weapons police have, the more likely they are to use them.

5. Sue the police

Citizens who try to sue the police in civil court for excessive force frequently see their cases thrown out because of a legal doctrine known as “qualified immunity”. It was designed by the Supreme Court to protect government employees from frivolous lawsuits and give police legal breathing room surrounding their split-second decisions.

In order for a case to move forward, the court directs that it must ask two questions: first, was excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment used? And if so, is there a “clearly established” prior court ruling on the behaviour that would mean the officer knew his or her conduct was illegal?

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Freddie Gray’s death in 2015 sparked protests and led to some reforms in the Baltimore Police Department

This second question is where advocates say courts give officers a free pass, throwing out cases if there has been no previous, precedent-setting case with an almost identical set of facts. A Reuters analysis found that more than half of excessive force cases in the US get thrown out on “qualified immunity” grounds.

A portion of the sweeping Justice in Policing Act introduced this week by House and Senate Democrats would eliminate qualified immunity for police. Supreme Court Justices Sonya Sotomayor and Clarence Thomas have both said they believe the doctrine needs to be revisited. There are currently eight qualified immunity cases before the country’s highest court.

6. Police the police

Sometimes, police violence against black people is attributed to a “bad apple” – an angry and racist cop who overreacts in the line of duty.

In an effort to keep them out, some forces have fired police officers who publicly admit to racist ideas. Last July, the Philadelphia Police Department fired 13 officers who posted racist, violent messages on social media – but only after an advocacy group brought the messages to light

Image copyright Reuters
Image caption Eric Garner’s mother speaks outside of George Floyd’s visitation

But the reality is a bit more complicated than just one bad apple ruining the bunch.

Police work in what social researchers call a “closed system” where there is little external oversight and loyalty is highly prized. If one officer crosses the line, others will back him or her up. Without a video of the incident, it often comes down to just the word of an alleged “criminal” and a respected police officer.

That’s why many are pushing for police to be required to wear body cameras, to record police interactions. They were adopted in New York a few years ago after the death of Eric Garner, and Congress is proposing making them mandatory nationally.

But there is little evidence that shows they reduce violence, according to a recent analysis of 70 studies looking at their efficacy.

Campaign Zero, the non-profit behind the #8cantwait hashtag pushing for police reforms, says they have limited use. While footage of police brutality has played a vital role in exposing the problem, most of it was filmed by citizens, not police. Body cameras can easily be turned off, and the footage is more likely to be used by prosecutors against civilians during criminal trials, than as a means of proving police brutality.

7. Start counting

There is no doubt that black Americans are more likely to be killed by police and subjected to other forms of police violence. But what’s still unclear is exactly how many victims there are, or which departments are the worst offenders.

In 2014, Obama signed into law the Death in Custody Reporting Act to force police departments to report every time a citizen dies in custody. The law also required the data to be turned over to the attorney general, who would have to release a report on ways to reduce deaths every two years.

Four years later, the Department of Justice’s inspector general said the department still had no mechanism to collect data from the states and didn’t expect to have one until 2020.

Meanwhile, the FBI has launched the National Use-of-Force Data Collection project, to track not only people killed by police but every time a police officer uses force. They began collecting this data in 2019, but local law enforcement agencies are not required to participate and the information has yet to be made public.

Media playback is unsupported on your device

Media captionThe history of police violence in the US

In this vacuum, non-governmental organisations and journalists have had to fill in the gaps. In 2015, The Washington Post began to log every fatal shooting by an on-duty police officer in the US. Since then, they have recorded more than 5,000 people killed by police, using a mixture of news reports, social media and police reports. Their data, which is often used by policy researchers, shows that black people were almost 2.5 times more likely to be killed than white people.

(Additional reporting by Jessica Lussenhop)

Source: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-52981634

Forex

New method of investment: Copy trading, or copy trading as it was originally called

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These are busy days for those who have a certain level of savings in the economy. Because already sharp movements occur in the Turkish lira because of their very high rates of investment to translate the uncertainties in Turkey in recent times with a certain amount of savings. This enables people to turn to different investment methods.

If you are looking for a dynamic investment method and still do not know where to start, we will have a profitable suggestion for you. A type of investment, originally called “Forex copy trading”, and another name that can be translated as copy investment in Turkish is social investment. It can be a good entry-level choice for those who do not know exactly how and how to invest in investment vehicles.

The basic logic of copy trading is to imitate the investments of successful investors in the exchange you want to enter. It’s that simple. Anyway, the name of this investment concept is therefore determined as copy investment.

According to one of the studies conducted in recent years, this type of investment is increasingly taking up a place in the market. The copy investment market will reach an amount of € 70 billion by the end of 2025, according to researches.

To start copy trading, the first thing to do is to choose a reliable and profitable investment platform. At this point, the next step in choosing a reliable investment platform is  Forex Copy Trading

that is, to be able to follow reliable investors for copy investment. Therefore, the choice of platform is very important at this point.

A Close Look at Copy Investment

In short, it is important that copy investment or social investment platforms allow experienced investors to copy their investments directly. Here, when you find such an investment exchange, the investment made in this way is also called “auto investment” because you invest your own account directly into the account of the experienced investor.

You can invest in the form of copy investment in the BIST 100, crypto money exchanges and even foreign exchanges. It is a method that can be followed even for foreign currency deposits. However, it will require serious research at the stage of determining the investors you will follow in the first place.

How Exactly to Invest in Copy?

In fact, there are two popular ways to do this.

Following the Investors’ Strategies One to One

Whichever exchange you are investing in, you can learn the investments made by the really experienced names of that stock exchange with a good research and make these investments one by one.

Benefits:

Simple System: The investment you will make in this way will be a very simple and easy-to-use investment type. This is the reason why it is called auto investment as a type of investment that you can directly imitate the investments of expert investors in the field.

Flexibility: You can follow this type of investment from any digital device. It is a very flexible method as you will do the same no matter where you are, as soon as you hear about the direct investment of the person you follow, as there is no subject to think about.

Choosing a strategy is very easy: All you have to do is find the best in the field with the right research. Once you find it, it will be very easy to determine your strategy.

Transaction Fees: Most successful traders will charge you a certain fee to return their investments. These fee claims create an additional cost. However, you can manage your funds with the confidence that there will be no additional fees or expenses for the investment.

Let others follow your investment. For this, create an investment strategy.

Here you will be the one followed. Of course, this has certain advantages and disadvantages.

Your strategies will directly affect the market: Since you will be the person who will determine the strategy, whatever strategy you follow, the strategy you will follow will be a strategy that will affect the market completely.

You will also get the reward for your labor outside of profits: In this way, you will have to spend all your work on this work. However, you will get more than your followers for your efforts.

You will set the rules of the game: However, doing these operations will require both very serious experience and serious work.

Of course, it would be useful for you to carefully investigate whether there is a method to follow completely. However, it is possible to say that you can carry out such transactions with peace of mind with detailed analysis on the leading quality investment and stock exchange platforms such as AMarkets.

 

 

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Coinpedia

Ethereum Price Smashed $2000, $3000 Incoming At Lightning Speed!

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Ethereum Price (ETH) May Hit $10,000 This Cycle!

The Ethereum price that is known to maintain a stable price movement, finally broke the previous ATH to form a new one. It took more than a months time to regain its lost position above $2000, yet sustained successfully. 

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The price took more time than expected to break the $2000 barrier, yet $3000 may be approaching at rocket speed. As predicted by founder of Gokhstein Media, David Gokhstein, the next stop for the ETH price is around $3,900. 

With the continued bullish trend and intensified rally, the price is expected to surge to the highest levels. According to an analyst and Crypto Youtuber, Young and Investing, the Ethereum price may hit $10,000 within the current bull run.

With the accelerated bull run, many analysts believe Ethereum could lead the market instead of Bitcoin too. Therefore providing a huge opportunity for the altcoins to boom within the ETH bull rally. 

Is Altcoin-Season On the Cards?

Many altcoins normally pop-up with the surge in the price of the second dominant crypto Ethereum. Currently, ETH price is trading around its new all time high around $2152 and expected to fly high. Therefore, many small cap altcoins are expected to rise from ashes and pump more than 50x or even 100x also.

Many analysts believe the Altcoin Season of 2021 is on the way and is expected to be the greatest season ever. According to a popular analyst, XRPcryptowolf, the season will reach its peak during the summer.

Moreover, the coins which are believed to be dead or not performing are also expected to rise. One of the analysts, MC also has given a brief idea on which all coins might pump in the current AltSeason.

Collectively, the breakout of Ethereum price has led to initialization of the most awaited AltSeason of 2021. The ETH price rally is expected to intensify in the coming days, that might smash $10,000 soon.

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Source: https://coinpedia.org/ethereum/ethereum-price-to-surge-to-3000-soon/

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Coinpedia

Lark Davis Addresses 3 Most Common Criticisms Tagged With Cardano

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Popular New Zealand-based crypto analyst Lark Davis pointed out the three criticisms faced by the Cardano project

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Cardano Is Overvalued

He says that Cardano’s biggest use case right now is staking. The current price of Cardano is based on speculation rather than real demand for the token based on usefulness and need among developers and users.

Right now, the basic economics that will drive future demand are simply not there. Also there’s nothing wrong or unusual about this. This is a fairly normal occurrence. We see that a lot with various assets, where the price of an asset can rise far higher than its value should be based on where it is now simply because of strong support from the market and it’s future predictions.

Even if cardano’s price is overvalued right now does not really mean that it will plunge or go down in the near future. Davis says that in such situations the opposite is likely to happen. The higher the market cap, the more serious an investment it is in the eyes of many investors, which makes the market cap go even higher and become even more serious.

Also Read : Top reasons why Cardano(ADA) Price is Poised For Massive Surge!

Nothing Is Built on Cardano

According to Lark Davis this statement is not technically true as he feels that few things are built on cardano but it lacks an ecosystem. He also states that it’s an incredibly dishonest critique of Cardano in his opinion because it is hard to have an ecosystem when there’s no smart contract functionality.

“Smart contracts are coming. The testnet is due in late April. Smart contracts are then scheduled to come on the mainnet around August… I think we’ll have at least a few dozen applications by Q1 of next year.“

Cardano Is Too Slow in Its Development

Davis says it’s fair to hope Cardano’s speed of development to pick up pace, especially considering the moderately fast rise of other projects with robust and successful ecosystems such as Elrond (EGLD) and Avalanche (AVAX).

Luckily cardano has a growing community and enthusiastic users who are willing to support the smart contracts from the day one of it’s launch. With such an optimistic community if cardano promises to deliver an ecosystem that mints people money, then it’s obvious for users and developers to eventually join this massive ADA community.

“I personally think that Cardano will prove the haters wrong this year, and that they will deliver a powerful and interesting blockchain that will become a big part of the cryptocurrency ecosystem…“

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Source: https://coinpedia.org/altcoin/criticisms-tagged-with-cardano/

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Coinpedia

CHZ Price | Chiliz Price Surged 650% in March, What’s Next for the Coin?

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The pseudonymous head of Coin Bureau who goes by the name guy, predicts that this coin has the potential to attract many users into the crypto space.

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Chiliz price has skyrocketed last month by 650% in value, making it a very important month for the cryptocurrency. In the last week, however, a pattern reversal occurred, with CHZ being overwhelmingly denominated by sellers. Things are shifting, though, as CHZ price rises once more. 

Read more : Chiliz Price Rose Like a Monster, Is It the Start of a ‘Low Cap Season’?

Chiliz is a cryptocurrency that can be used on sports and entertainment sites. Chiliz can be used like any other digital currency, but it is most commonly used on Socios.com, a website where investors and fans can use CHZ to receive exclusive rewards from their favourite teams. Special behind-the-scenes access and voting rights are among the perks.

It is worth noting that CHZ has established partnerships with top football clubs spread across the world, including FC Barcelona, AC Milan, and Juventus.

Guy says that,

“Have you been searching for that killer app that has the potential to open the floodgates and bring hundreds and millions of people into crypto? That elusive unicorn would likely be valued at a pretty penny, which means if you got into it at the right time, you could post some truly insane gains. What if that project combined NFTs, sports, and crypto? That’s the type of rocket fuel that could send it to the stratosphere… That would be Chiliz.”

I really like Chiliz as a project, the concept, and how they’re seemingly paving the way for unique digital sports memorabilia with NFTs in real-time. I also really love the idea of attaching tangible team-related perks to NFTs. That way, they have tangible real-world value and this should drive future demand.”

As of the time of publication, Chiliz price was $0.511948, with a 24-hour trading volume of $930,154,829. CHZ price also went up 1.5% over the last 24 hours. Besides, it has a circulating supply of 5.3 billion CHZ coins and a max supply of 8.89 billion.

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Source: https://coinpedia.org/altcoin/chz-price-chiliz-price-sentiments/

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