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Do Electric Vehicles Pollute As Much As Gas-Powered Ones?

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No. The answer to the question posed in the title, “Do Electric Vehicles Pollute as Much as Gas-Powered Ones?” is unequivocally no. As electric vehicles have gained consumer interest and market share over the past decade, some studies have emerged to supposedly refute claims that EVs are better for the environment. The counter-argument went that something like, “EVs pollute because the energy needed to manufacture the ever-important battery — in additional to the emissions from electricity generation — makes EVs pollute worse than a gas-powered car.”

Balderdash!

A new study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) proves that all the negative hype is nothing more than hooey.

“Results show that even for cars registered today, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have by far the lowest life-cycle GHG emissions.”

The findings have significant implications for policymakers seeking to substantially decarbonize road transport by 2050, in line with Paris Agreement objectives.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from global road transport in 2050 need to be dramatically lower than today’s levels. That’s clear. Light-duty vehicles, the vast majority of which are passenger cars, are responsible for the largest share of transport-related GHG emissions, currently about 5 Gt CO2 eq.

And what’s also evident is that only full battery EVs and hydrogen fuel-cell EVs have the potential to be very low-GHG pathways. It turns out that the emissions from manufacturing batteries, solar panels, and wind turbines are very small when compared to the GHG savings from the greater efficiency and cleaner energy supply of EVs compared to conventional vehicles.

Electric vehicles pollute far less than their legacy counterparts. Additionally, battery EVs can be expected to operate with progressively fewer upstream emissions over their lifetimes as electricity grids become green and the relative benefit of driving EVs compared to gasoline, diesel, and natural gas cars grows over time.

Studying How Much Electric Vehicles Pollute

The ICCT study, “A Global Comparison of the Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Combustion Engine and Electric Passenger Cars,” took into account the most relevant powertrain types —

  • internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs);
  • plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs);
  • battery electric vehicles (BEVs); and,
  • fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

It also reviewed a variety of fuel types and power sources, including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, biofuels, e-fuels, hydrogen, and electricity.

As the average useful lifetime of a passenger car is between 15 and 18 years (for trucks and buses, it is often even longer), decarbonization policies will be most impactful if they reflect passenger cars transitioning to all EVs for new sales by the early 2030s. It is necessary in order to achieve deep decarbonization of the transport sector by 2050.

Importantly, the study also finds that natural gas does not offer climate benefits compared to gasoline and diesel, and many biofuel pathways do not, either. There is not likely to be sufficient supply of very low-GHG biofuels, biogas, and e-fuels to decarbonize internal combustion engine vehicles, and drivers of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles rely too much on the gasoline engine for this pathway to be a long-term climate solution.

The carbon intensity of the electricity consumed by charging BEVs and PHEVs is based on the average lifecycle GHG emissions of the different electric energy sources, their projected mix during the lifetime of the vehicles, and transmission and distribution losses in the electric grid. Note, also, that for renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy, the lifecycle GHG emissions are considered. In other words, the emissions corresponding to their construction and maintenance.

Distinct Measures of EVs’ Vast Superiority

The study analyzed 4 distinct dimensions to come up with its conclusions that electric vehicles pollute much less than gas-powered vehicles.

  • It considered the lifetime average carbon intensity of the fuel and electricity mixes, including biofuels and biogas. Based on stated policies, it accounts for changes in the carbon intensity during the useful lifetime of the vehicles.
  • It reviewed the fuel and electricity consumption in average real-world usage instead of solely relying on official test values. This is especially important for assessing the GHG emissions of PHEVs.
  • It used recent data on industrial-scale battery production and considers regional battery supply chains. This results in significantly lower battery production emissions than in earlier studies.
  • It incorporated the near-term global warming potential of methane leakage emissions of natural gas and natural gas-derived hydrogen pathways. Different from other GHGs, methane contributes several times more to global warming in the first 20 years after emission than is reflected by the 100-year global warming potential.

Here are the results.

Only battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles have the potential to achieve the magnitude of lifecycle GHG emissions reductions needed to meet Paris Agreement goals. The assessment finds that the lifecycle emissions over the lifetime of BEVs registered today in Europe, the United States, China, and India are already lower than a comparable gasoline car by 66%–69% in Europe, 60%–68% in the United States, 37%–45% in China, and 19%–34%
in India.

For medium-size cars projected to be registered in 2030, as the electricity mix continues to decarbonize, the lifecycle emissions gap between BEVs and gasoline vehicles increases to 74%–77% in Europe, 62%–76% in the United States, 48%–64% in China, and 30%–56% in India.

There is no realistic pathway for deep decarbonization of combustion engine vehicles. Hybrid EVs improve the efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles by recovering braking energy and storing it in a battery that can then be used to support propulsion with an electric motor. In this study, HEVs were found to reduce lifecycle GHG emissions by only about 20% compared to conventional gasoline cars.

This study also analyzed the development of the average blend of biofuels and biogas in fossil diesel, gasoline, and natural gas based on current policies and projected supply. Across the four regions and all fuel types, the impact of future changes in the biofuel blends driven by current policies range from a negligible influence to a reduction of the lifecycle GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, or natural gas vehicles by a maximum of 9%, even over the lifetime of cars registered in 2030.

Due to a number of factors, including competing demand from other sectors and high cost of production, it is not feasible to supply enough low-carbon biofuels such as residues and waste-based biodiesel, ethanol, or biomethane to substantially displace fossil fuels in combustion engine cars.

Final Thoughts

To reduce the GHG emissions of light-duty vehicles, many governments now follow two complementary approaches:

  1. They aim to reduce the fuel consumption of new vehicles by setting fleet average CO2 emission or fuel efficiency standards, and by providing incentives for vehicles with electric powertrains; and,
  2. They support the decarbonization of the electricity grid and incentivize the production of renewable and low-carbon fuels.

Given the continuous efforts to decarbonize electricity grids, BEVs are assumed to consume a less carbon-intensive electricity mix with each passing year of their lifetime. It’s time to support communities that are making the switch to electric transportation modes in our personal, regional, and professional capacities.


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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/07/24/do-electric-vehicles-pollute-as-much-as-gas-powered-ones/

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Tesla Applies A Gamification Strategy To Safe Driving

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Tesla has released its Safety Score Beta  system, a system for assessing driving behavior and including a gamification element. Gamification usually refers to a marketing strategy — for example, getting points for shopping at your favorite stores or coffee places. Whether it’s Uber Gold or Starbucks Stars, the goal is to encourage you to spend more money to receive more points.

Tesla has taken this technique and applied it to safe driving, and I think this is brilliant. This will encourage Tesla owners to become safer drivers and reward them with a high score.

How Tesla Determines Your Safety Score

Tesla will assess the behaviors of its FSD Beta drivers based on 5 safety factors. Then these will be combined to estimate the degree to which an FSD Beta driver’s driving could result in a future collision. Tesla will combine the daily Safety scores of up to 30 days to calculate the aggregated Safety Score.

In order to determine this, it uses the Predicted Collision Frequency (PCF) formula to predict how many collisions may occur per 1 million miles driving based on the driving behaviors measured by an FSD Beta driver’s Tesla vehicle. An example of the PCF formula is below:

screenshot of the graph from Tesla’s website

Tesla explained that the formula was derived based on statistical modeling using 6 billion miles of fleet data and that it will expect to make changes to the formal in the future as more customer and data insights are gained. The PCF is converted into a 0–100 Safety Score using another formula, Safety Score = 115.382324 − 22.526504 x PCF.

The Safety Score will be displayed on the main “Safety Score” screen of the Tesla app, and Tesla added that it intends to provide drivers transparency and feedback on their driving behaviors with the score. The five safety factors that impact a driver’s safety score are:

  1. Forward collision warnings per 1,000 miles.
  2. Hard braking.
  3. Aggressive turning.
  4. Unsafe following.
  5. Forced Autopilot Disengagement.

Tesla also provided tips on how to improve your Safety Score in each of the categories and also has an FAQ section here.

 

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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/09/25/tesla-applies-a-gamification-strategy-to-safe-driving/

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Calendar Aging Research Is Critical to Future of Silicon-Based Batteries

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In the race against climate change, state-of-the-art energy storage solutions are paramount to leveraging power generation from clean energy sources, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are exploring strategies to increase battery cell energy density while decreasing manufacturing costs.

Silicon anodes offer a promising improvement to existing lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery capabilities for electric vehicles and stationary storage. Replacing the graphite anode material typically used in Li-ion batteries with silicon anodes may pave the way to reducing battery pack size by 25%–30% and increase driving range by 30%–40%.

NREL researchers are at the forefront of silicon anode research, using cutting-edge facilities to explore the foundational science of organic electrolytes with silicon interfaces. However, recent findings highlight the importance of continued studies on the lifetime of silicon-based cells. In a new Nature Energy Perspective article, “Calendar aging of silicon-containing batteries,” battery scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office Silicon Consortium Project emphasize the importance of ongoing research into the calendar life of this anode material.

“New research shows that calendar aging of silicon anodes is a bigger problem than we originally thought,” said Max Schulze, postdoctoral researcher at NREL and co-author of the perspective. “With this report, we hope to encourage researchers to consider the unique challenges these batteries face. Collaboration across laboratories and in industry to evaluate and address this issue now is essential to the success of silicon electrodes in batteries.”

Researchers Investigate New Uncertainties in Battery Chemistry

To understand the lifetime of a battery, researchers must consider the effects of both battery usage and time. New electrodes are typically evaluated by cycling the cells — evaluating the capacity degradation over a set number of charge/discharge cycles — to determine the capacity loss during usage. To determine the capacity loss over time, charged cells are simply allowed to sit unused with periodic measurements of their capacities.

These types of calendar aging experiments are time intensive, so many calendar life studies extrapolate data from short-term tests to forecast aging trends. While this approach has worked for traditional graphite-based anodes, researchers face new uncertainties when altering the electrode chemistry. As a result, comparatively little is known about the time-dependent degradation of silicon-based batteries.

“Silicon does not form the same stable interface with the liquid electrolyte that gives graphite electrodes their long lifetimes,” said Andrew Colclasure, NREL scientist and another co-author of the perspective. “Further research is crucial to better understanding how the different electrode chemistry affects battery lifetime.”

Recent studies outlined in the Nature Energy Perspective suggest that the addition of silicon to the battery anode may result in a higher susceptibility to calendar aging. When compared to graphite anodes alone, silicon-containing anodes are significantly more reactive. These cells are vulnerable to damaging chemical reactions, such as gas formation, electrolyte decomposition, or dissolution of the silicon electrolyte interface, stressors that can lead to degradation over time, regardless of whether the battery is used. As such, comprehensive calendar aging studies are vital to understanding the long-term stability of silicon in batteries.

NREL-Led Consortium Focuses on Lifetime Predictions

The Silicon Consortium Project led by NREL is investigating strategies to learn more about calendar aging of silicon in batteries. Researchers developed new test protocols to assess the progress of silicon modifications, cell designs, electrolytes, or additives faster and more efficiently. The current methods do not yet provide absolute calendar lifetime predictions; however, researchers can use this data to identify the most promising strategies for mitigating calendar aging in silicon electrodes. Ultimately, the Silicon Consortium Project aims to implement those strategies to develop and demonstrate long-lived batteries with silicon anodes.

Learn more about NREL’s energy storage research.

Article courtesy of NREL.

 

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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/09/25/calendar-aging-research-is-critical-to-future-of-silicon-based-batteries/

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The Bauer Et Al “Blue” Hydrogen LCA Paper Isn’t Useful In The Real World (Part 2 of 2)

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The first part of this analysis on the recently released life-cycle assessment of “blue” hydrogen covered the provenance and background for the paper, as well as the significant and questionable assumptions that the authors make about both expected demand for “blue” hydrogen and the scalability of carbon capture and sequestration it would demand. This second half continues the analysis of assumptions and statements in the paper.

“In general, large-scale blue hydrogen production will be connected to the high-pressure natural gas transmission grid and therefore, methane emissions from final distribution to decentralized consumers (i.e., the low-pressure distribution network) should not be included in the quantification of climate impacts of blue hydrogen.”

The first problem with this is the assumption that massive centralized models of hydrogen generation will be preferable to the current highly distributed creation of hydrogen at the point of consumption. The challenges with distributing hydrogen are clear and obvious, so it’s interesting that they make an assumption that is completely contrary to what is occurring today, and wave away the significant additional challenges — including carbon debt — of creating a massive hydrogen distribution system essentially from scratch.

This also assumes that there will continue to be a distribution network for natural gas. Electrification of heat will continue apace, eliminating this market. But supposing that it does continue, this assumes that perpetuating the leakage problem is in line with actual climate mitigation, which is decidedly not the case. This is not the point of the paper, but is in line with the rest of the paper’s assumptions.

“… natural gas supply must be associated with low GHG emissions, which means that natural gas leaks and methane emissions along the entire supply chain, including extraction, storage, and transport, must be minimized.”

This is in context of what requirements “blue” hydrogen would have to meet in order to be low-carbon hydrogen per the paper.

I agree with this statement, but further say that there is zero reason to believe that this will be widely adhered to as the fossil fuel industry is already lagging substantially in maintenance with declining revenues in regions impacted by the Saudi Arabian-Russian price war, the history of the industry consists of a Ponzi-scheme of paying for remediation with far distant and non-existent revenues — witness the $200 billion in unfunded remediation in Alberta’s oil sands as merely the tip of the iceberg, and as long-distance piping and shipping of natural gas requires a great deal of expensive monitoring and maintenance to maintain that standard.

In other words, while the statement is true as far as it goes, it is so unlikely to be common as to be irrelevant to the actual needs of the world for hydrogen, something that the authors barely acknowledge.

“Our assessment is that CO2 capture technology is already sufficiently mature to allow removal rates at the hydrogen production plant of above 90%. Capture rates close to 100% are technically feasible, slightly decreasing energy efficiencies and increasing costs, but have yet to be demonstrated at scale.”

Once again, 90% is inadequate with over a thousand billion tons of excess CO2 already in the atmosphere. Second, carbon capture at source has been being done since the mid-19th century. It’s not getting magically better. The likelihood that approaching 100% capture rate technologies will be deployed by organizations and individuals who think 90% is good enough and are likely to be rewarded handsomely for achieving that level approaches zero. After all, Equinor has received what I estimate to be over a billion USD in tax breaks for its Sleipner facility, which simply pumps CO2 they extracted back underground, and ExxonMobil touts its Shute Creek facility as the best in the world when it pumps CO2 up in one place then back underground in another place for enhanced oil recovery, benefiting nothing except their bottom line.

Removal of carbon from the atmosphere to draw down CO2 levels toward achieving a stable climate will not be realized by “good enough,” and close to 100% will be so rarely realized globally that it’s not worth discussing.

“It is important to reiterate that no single hydrogen production technology (including electrolysis with renewables) is completely net-zero in terms of GHG emissions over its life cycle and will therefore need additional GHG removal from the atmosphere to comply with strict net-zero targets.”

The authors appear to think that the current CO2e emissions from purely renewable energy are going to persist. As mining, processing, distribution, manufacturing and construction processes decarbonize, the currently very low GHG emissions of renewables full lifecycle will fall. This is equivalent to the common argument against electric cars, that grid electricity isn’t pure. It’s also a remarkable oversight for a group of authors committed to a rigorous LCA process.

The argument that “blue” hydrogen at its very best in the best possible cases will be as good as renewably powered electrolysis as it decarbonizes fails the basic tests of logic and reasonableness.

“… natural gas with CCS may be a more sustainable route than hydrogen to decarbonize such applications as power generation.”

This is so completely wrong that it’s remarkable that it made it into the document. First, there is no value in hydrogen as a generation technology. That’s a complete and utter non-starter beginning to end, making electricity vastly more expensive to no climate benefit. Secondly, all bolt-on flue capture programs for electrical generation have cost hundreds of millions or billions and failed. They increase the costs of electrical generation to the level where it was completely uncompetitive in today’s markets.

When wind and solar are trending to $20 per MWh, long-distance transmission of electricity using HVDC exists in lengths thousands of kilometers long and underwater around the world, and there are already 170 GW of grid storage and another 60 GW under construction at the bare beginning of the development of storage, assuming that either natural gas with CCS or hydrogen have any play in electrical generation makes it clear that the authors are simply starting with the assumption that natural gas and hydrogen have a major part to play in the future, and have created an argument for it.


The authors’ argument boils down to that in a perfect world, perfectly monitored and perfectly maintained, “blue” hydrogen would be similar in emissions to green hydrogen today, ignoring the rapidly dropping GHG emissions per MWh of renewables and ignoring that the world of fossil fuels in no way adheres to the premise of perfect monitoring and perfect maintenance.

The authors are performing a life-cycle assessment focusing on greenhouse gas emissions, and it is not scoped to include costs. Having reviewed the costs of the technologies that they are proposing for this hypothetical perfect “blue” hydrogen world, they are vastly higher than just not bothering, shifting to renewables rapidly and electrifying rapidly.

As a contribution to the literature on what will happen in the real world, this is a fairly slight addition, one which is being promoted far beyond its actual merit by the usual suspects.

Featured image by akitada31 from Pixabay

 

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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/09/25/the-bauer-et-al-blue-hydrogen-lca-paper-isnt-useful-in-the-real-world-part-2-of-2/

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Lying, Cheating Oil & Gas Companies Stick Taxpayers With Cleanup Bill

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In our minds, we envision an oil well faithfully pumping oil for decades after it is drilled. In reality, the wells created by fracking often play out within a few years or even months. The same goes for unnatural gas wells. What to do? Drill more wells and when they stop producing, pack up your equipment and go drill down the road, around the corner, or somewhere over the rainbow.

Today, there are millions of abandoned wells all across America, many of them left behind during the fracking boom of the past 20 years. While many states require oil and gas companies to put up a bond to cover the cost of closing them down, in practice, that bond is often a small percentage of the actual cost. The Guardian reports the state of Colorado — one of the larger oil and gas producing states, requires a bond of as little a $10,000 when the actual cost is often $140,000 or more. The cost of cleaning up millions of abandoned wells in Texas is estimated at $1 billion.

Here’s how the game is played. GigantaOil drills a well and posts a bond. It carries that bond as a liability on its books but after a few years of maximum production, it sells the well to Acme Oil Corp. Acme assumes the liabilities but guess what? Acme in turn sells to Bottom Of The Barrel, LLC, a shell company that drains the last few drops out of the well, then folds its tent and disappears into the night, leaving nothing but worthless assets behind.

Now there is no money to pay to decommission the well so who gets stuck with the cleanup? Yup, you guessed it. The taxpayers who already shelled our millions in tax breaks to GigantaOil in the first place. Is this a great country or what?

Getting Paid On Both Ends

The myth in America is that oil and gas are what make the US such a great nation. Oil production and oil reserves are a matter of national security and let’s face it — without them the entire economy would grind to a halt, throwing millions of people out of work and shutting down public services like drinking water and sewer systems. Civilization as we know it would come to an abrupt halt.

But the fly in the ointment is that the oil and gas industry have used their economic power to suspend the laws of economics. They get to avoid taxes on most of their income through a convoluted web of special provisions in the tax code. Mr. and Mrs. America don’t need an IRS code that is thousands of pages long with a welter of rules and regulations to interpret all those provisions, but the fossil fuel industry certainly does. It’s an integral part of how it does business.

The free market types out there take great pleasure in telling us how efficient the market is but that is only true if it is run fairly. The fossil fuel hordes have gamed the system to the point where it is a “heads we win, tails you lose” proposition that takes no account of the pollution that results from basing the economy on oil and gas (and, to a lesser extent, coal). So, yeah, we get it. Markets are efficient and Adam Smith’s “unseen hand” has magical powers, but when free marketeers refuse to include all the costs of doing business in their grand economic calculus, they are committing a monstrous fraud on society.

The Infrastructure Bill

The US Congress at the present time is considering new legislation that would pump trillions of dollars into the economy to improve America’s infrastructure. That is a good thing, arguably. But it will also provide lots of tax dollars to clean up abandoned wells that are leaking toxins into the environment all across America.

The legislation includes a plan to inventory, measure, and track methane emissions and groundwater contamination associated with orphan wells — abandoned wells with no identifiable owner. “People on the surface think that this is a good environmental thing … but the devil is in the details,” Megan Milliken Biven, a consultant and former program analyst with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, tells The Guardian. She says in reality it is anything but. “This is a bill for the bosses,” she says.

$2 million is earmarked for the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, an organization closely linked to the fossil fuel industry. The draft bill empowers the group to consult with the federal government as it issues billions of dollars in grants for states to plug, remediate, and restore those orphan wells. The infrastructure bill treats the commission innocuously, granting it duties and access to federal research and development funds as if it were a formal government entity.

The trouble, The Guardian says, is it is not. It was originally sanctioned by the government. But according to an InsideClimate investigation, in 1978 the Department of Justice recommended that Congress break it up on the grounds the group had evolved into an advocacy organization. Its influence, through a membership network similar to the right wing American Legislative Exchange Council, has reached its tentacles into state legislatures across the country to promote copy and paste legislation that benefits oil and gas interests.

Uncle Sugar To The Rescue

Recently, IOGCC vice chairman Wayne Christian was recorded telling supporters, “If the bill passes, and we’re pretty close to it passing, $25 million will be coming to Texas to clean up abandoned wells and larger amounts than that in the future. So, we will be helping the energy industry to some of these trillions of dollars.”

Christian is an avowed climate denier and head of the Railroad Commission of Texas which is notorious for its close ties to the oil industry. The current chair of IOGCC is Oklahoma governor Kevin Stitt, who received more than $240,000 in campaign donations from the oil and gas sector in 2018. He is known for urging the Environmental Protection Agency to strip Indigenous tribes of regulatory authority over their land and for co-signing a letter urging the Biden administration to resume oil and gas leasing on public lands.

What is it about Oklahoma that causes it to embrace idiots like Stitt and the despicable Scott Pruitt who would rather see humans disappear from the face of the Earth than lose a dime of oil soaked profits? Do its citizens not understand that dead people make extremely poor customers?

On its website, the IOGCC calls itself a “multi-state government agency,” yet it also claims exemption from public information laws. Although the group says it does not lobby, according to ProPublica, it has spent an estimated $100,000 on Capitol Hill since March 2019 lobbying for favorable well plugging programs.

Jesse Coleman, senior researcher at the watchdog group Documented, has been investigating the IOGCC for years and says he was surprised to see a pseudo-agency identified as an arbiter of the orphan well program. He calls it an even “more powerful, more direct role” than the group usually gets, which he says is problematic because no government entity oversees the IOGCC.

“Any real amount of power going to this organization, which is funded by the oil and gas industry, [strips] power away from actual government agencies that do have oversight and accountability,” Coleman says. Not to worry says senator Ben Ray Luján of New Mexico, who co-sponsored the legislation. He explained that according to the proposal, the IOGCC’s role is to provide technical assistance and consultation. “Consultation is distinct from control,” Luján’s office said, defending the necessity of the IOGCC’s position in orphan well cleanup.

That may be true, but why are the taxpayers giving any money to an avowed climate denier who is little more than a spear carrier for the oil and gas industry? When do we stop letting the lunatics run the asylum?

Going Along To Get Along

The National Wildlife Federation and Environmental Defense Fund have endorsed the current bill. John Goldstein, senior director of regulatory and legislative affairs for the EDF, tells The Guardian his group was not worried about IOGCC influence. “We didn’t want to see this opportunity pass us by to get this funding out the door,” he said.

Rob Schuwerk, executive director of Carbon Tracker’s North America office, says, “The question is, does it then incentivize people to hold off plugging wells because they think federal money is going to be there for it?” He adds that plugging orphan wells won’t eliminate methane emissions across the oil and gas sector at anywhere near the scale needed to avert the worst effects of the climate emergency, scientists have pointed out, as long as drilling continues.

“I think [lawmakers] really need to be scrutinizing that issue and ensuring that they address the incentives and moral hazard problem, not just money to plug wells,” Schuwerk says. “There should be a good quid pro quo.

Leveling The Playing Field

In other words, let’s not just give the fossil fuel industry everything on its wish list. Those who pray at the altar of free market theory claim all they want is a level playing but that is a lie. They want the playing field tilted as much as possible in their favor. At some point, the best interests of the the larger community have to be given priority. “There’s no time like the present,” as my old Irish grandmother liked to say.

 

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Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2021/09/25/lying-cheating-oil-gas-companies-stick-taxpayers-with-cleanup-bill/

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