Connect with us

Covid19

Discrimination and Harassment in the Cardiology Workplace

Published

on

Along with the myriad challenges affecting healthcare providers since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began, some clinicians have the burden of dealing with various forms of discrimination and harassment that may contribute to a hostile work environment (HWE). Findings from 2 recent studies elucidated the extent of these issues within the field of cardiology.

In the first paper recently published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, researchers investigated the prevalence of HWE in medicine, addressing not only gender discrimination but also emotional harassment.1  Cardiologists from around the world were surveyed (n=5931, 77% men and 23% women). The survey responders self-identified as White (54%), Asian (17%), Hispanic (17%), and Black (3%). In addition, 73% of responding physicians were ≤54 years of age.

Over 40% of respondents reported experiencing HWE, with the highest rates reported among women (68% vs 37%; P <.001 odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% CI, 3.14-4.07) and Black cardiologists (53% vs 43%; OR, 1.46 vs Whites). Specific components of HWE affected women more often than men: Emotional harassment (43% vs 26%), discrimination (56% vs 22%), and sexual harassment (12% vs 1%). The most common reasons for discrimination were gender (44%), age (37%), race (24%), religion (15%), and sexual orientation (5%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the highest odds of experiencing HWE among women (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.97-3.86; P <.001) and early-career cardiologists (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43; P <.001) compared with other physicians surveyed.


Continue Reading

Factors that independently protected against HWE included working in a physician-owned practice (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; P =.001), being married (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92; P =.001), and White race (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98; P =.017). Respondents reported that HWE had adverse effects on interactions with patients (53%) and colleagues (75%), as well as several aspects of career satisfaction.

In the second study published in the journal Heart2, London-based researchers examined the frequency and types of sexism affecting female and male cardiologists in the United Kingdom. Of the 174 cardiologists (24% female, 76% male) who completed a validated online survey, 61.9 of female physicians had experienced discrimination – most often focused on gender and parenting – compared with 19.7% of male physicians. The survey responses also showed that 35.7% of female cardiologists (vs 6.1% of male cardiologists) had “experienced unwanted sexual comments, attention or advances from a superior or colleague.” Sexual harassment had a greater negative impact on professional confidence in female vs male cardiologists (42.9% vs 3.0%), and 33.3% of female cardiologists (vs 2.3% of males) reported that sexism negatively affected opportunities for career advancement.

The results of these 2 studies are consistent with previous findings, including the American College of Cardiology third decennial Professional Life Survey published in 2017, which indicated that 65% of female cardiologists (vs 23% of males) experienced workplace harassment or discrimination.3 “Women are especially likely to experience gender harassment, which includes both verbal and nonverbal behaviors that treat women or men as inferior through hostility, objectification, disparagement, or exclusion”, noted researchers in the JACC study.1

Given the potential effects of these findings on providers and their patients, organizational structure and system processes should be examined to optimize patient care. We spoke with Laxmi Mehta, MD, lead study author of the JACC study and professor in the division of cardiovascular medicine, director of the Lipids Clinic, and director of Preventative Cardiology and Women’s Cardiovascular Health at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus about how to address these findings.   

What are some of the factors believed to be driving the high levels of hostility in the cardiology workplace?

Women and minorities are underrepresented in cardiology. Organizational and individual practices and beliefs can contribute to the hostile work environment. Micro- and macro-aggressions also contribute to hostility in the workplace.

What are the potential effects of HWE on patient care and provider well-being? 

Working in a HWE can negatively impact professional activities with colleagues and patient care. HWE may also result in disengagement and burnout for some people when they feel discriminated against or threatened.

What actions are needed on the institutional and employer level to reduce HWE? 

There should be a zero-tolerance policy for egregious acts of discrimination and harassment. For serious incidents of such behavior, human resources interventions and legal interventions are necessary to curb the acts. People need to feel that it is safe to voice their concerns and seek help in a non-threatening fashion, and victims should not be blamed. External review of complaints can mitigate internal suspicion of favoritism. Creation of a culture of workplace wellbeing is essential.

What are suggestions for clinicians in terms of supporting and advocating for colleagues who may be experiencing HWE?  

The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association just published an online Professionalism and Ethics document that outlines recommendations to address bias, structural racism, and structural sexism.4 Everyone in the cardiovascular community is responsible and must do their part to recognize and eliminate structural racism and sexism.

References

  1. Sharma G, Douglas PS, Hayes SN, et al. Global prevalence and impact of hostility, discrimination, and harassment in the cardiology workplace. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021;77(19):2398-2409.
  2. Jaijee SK, Kamau-Mitchell C, Mikhail GW, Hendry C. Sexism experienced by consultant cardiologists in the United Kingdom. Heart. 2021;107(11):895-901. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317837
  3. Lewis SJ, Mehta LS, Douglas PS, et al; American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology Leadership Council. Changes in the professional lives of cardiologists over 2 decades. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(4):452-462. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.027
  4. Executive Committee, Benjamin IJ, Valentine CM, Oetgen WJ, et al. 2020 American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Consensus Conference on Professionalism and Ethics: a consensus conference report. Published online May 5, 2021. J Am Coll Cardiol. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.004

This article originally appeared on The Cardiology Advisor

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.medicalbag.com/home/news/addressing-hostile-work-environments-in-the-field-of-cardiology/

Covid19

Novavax Says Its COVID Vaccine Is Extremely Effective

Published

on

Novavax says its vaccine is 100% effective against the original strain of the coronavirus and had 93% efficacy against more worrisome variants. Alastair Grant/AP hide caption

toggle caption

Alastair Grant/AP

The first results from a large efficacy study of a new kind of COVID-19 vaccine are now out, and they are good. Very good.

According to Novavax, the vaccine’s manufacturer, it had a 100% efficacy against the original strain of the coronavirus and 93% efficacy against more worrisome variants that have subsequently appeared.

In addition to efficacy, the PREVENT-19 (the PRE-fusion protein subunit Vaccine Efficacy Novavax Trial COVID-19) trial showed the Novavax vaccine was safe for users. Like other COVID-19 vaccines, it caused headaches, chills and muscle aches after injection, but few of these side effects were considered serious or severe.

The study involved 29,960 volunteers in the United States and Mexico. In the study, two-thirds of the volunteers received two shots of the vaccine and one-third received two shots of a placebo.

A total of 77 cases of COVID-19 occurred during the study: 63 in the placebo group and 14 in the vaccine group. According to the Novavax statement describing the results, none of the cases of COVID-19 in the vaccine group were related to the original strain of the virus, hence the 100% efficacy against the original strain.

The breakthrough cases were all caused by the newer, more worrisome variants, and all of the breakthroughs in the vaccine group were mild. By contrast, 10 in the placebo group were considered moderate and four severe. Novavax’s statement did not specify which variants in particular were prevented.

The company says it intends to file for authorization from regulators in the U.S., Europe and the United Kingdom later this summer. Novavax says it will be able to deliver 100 million doses per month by the end of September and 150 million doses per month by the end of the year.

The Novavax vaccine is what’s known as a protein subunit vaccine. All COVID-19 vaccines are based on something called the coronavirus spike protein. That’s the protein that prompts the immune system to make antibodies to the virus.

The vaccines made by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech deliver the genetic instructions for the spike protein in the form of messenger-RNA, and the cells of the person receiving the vaccine make the spike protein. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine delivers those instructions using a viral vector, again relying on the vaccine recipient’s cells to make the protein.

Novavax, on the other hand, makes the protein in cell cultures grown in giant bioreactors in manufacturing facilities and delivers the fully formed vaccine along with a substance for priming the immune system in its vaccine.

The Novavax vaccine was one of the vaccines chosen for development as part of Operation Warp Speed. The U.S. government is providing $1.75 billion to the company to support the vaccine’s development.

It’s not clear at this point whether the Food and Drug Administration is prepared to continue to grant emergency use authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines. The FDA may require Novavax to go through the standard licensure process, which can take considerably longer than an EUA.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2021/06/14/1006094476/novavax-says-its-covid-vaccine-is-extremely-effective-efficacy

Continue Reading

Covid19

Specific antibodies may be effective against multiple coronavirus types

Published

on

coronavirus antibody

Patients who have been exposed to a coronavirus may produce a versatile, cross-reactive coronavirus antibody; this may be useful for the eventual development of a broad-acting vaccine.

There are seven human coronavirus types, of which, four cause the common cold, named OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63. Most people become infected with at least one of these four coronaviruses at some point in their lives. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is another member of the coronavirus family that causes COVID-19. Infection with the cold-causing coronaviruses may lead to immune memory. This could potentially impact on the immune response to COVID-19.

Research published in Nature Communications compared blood samples of patients collected before the pandemic with those who tested positive for COVID-19. By doing this, the researchers were able to find antibody types that cross reacted with other coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.

Cross-reactive coronavirus antibody produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection

It was discovered that a cross-reactive coronavirus antibody is triggered as a direct result of a COVID-19 infection. Dr Raiees Andrabi, a senior author of the paper, stated, “We were able to determine that this type of cross-reactive antibody is likely produced by a memory B cell that’s initially exposed to a coronavirus that causes the common cold, and is then recalled during a COVID-19 infection.”

Memory B cells are long-lived, as they can circulate throughout the body for decades in order to recognise and fight pathogens that they have previously encountered. Memory B cells offer protection against reinfection by rapidly producing specific antibodies. Although the study found evidence of pre-existing cross-reactive memory B cells that were triggered during SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was only weak evidence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive serum antibodies in pre-pandemic patient samples. However, the researchers were able to identify one cross-reactive neutralizing antibody specific to the S2 subunit of the spike (S) protein.

How does this antibody work?

The researchers used electron microscopy to visualise how the cross-reactive antibody had the ability to neutralize a range of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. They found that the antibody typically bound to the S protein of the virus. This area did not seem to vary in different coronavirus strains.

Ge Song, the first author of the paper, stated, “The study highlights how important it is to fully understand the nature of pre-existing immunity, especially in regard to coronaviruses. Earlier exposure to a coronavirus, even a virus that causes mild colds, impacts the nature and level of antibodies produced when more serious coronavirus threats emerge.”

Significance of the study

Since immunological memory forms the basis of vaccination, the findings of this study could potentially lead to the creation of a vaccine or antibody treatment that works against most or all coronaviruses. Pre-existing immunity to endemic coronaviruses should be further investigated to evaluate antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.

Co-author Dr Dennis Burton explained, “Another deadly coronavirus will likely emerge again in the future – and when it does, we want to be better prepared. Our identification of a cross-reactive antibody against SARS-CoV-2 and the more common coronaviruses is a promising development on the way to a broad-acting vaccine or therapy.”

References:

Song, G., et al. (2021). Cross-reactive serum and memory B-cell responses to spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronavirus infection. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1-10. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23074-3

Versatile coronavirus antibody may be starting point for broader-acting vaccines (2021). EurekAlert! Retrieved from: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-05/sri-vca052721.php

Quast, I. and Tarlinton, D. (2021). B cell memory: understanding COVID-19. Immunity, 54(2), 205-210. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826135/

Image by mattthewafflecat from Pixabay 

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://medicalnewsbulletin.com/specific-antibodies-may-be-effective-against-all-coronavirus-types/

Continue Reading

Covid19

June 18 Web Event: Asian Immigrant Experiences with Racism, Immigration-related Fears, and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Published

on

While the country has collectively experienced health and economic difficulties with the COVID-19 pandemic, certain groups have experienced a disproportionate impact. The Asian American community has had to cope with the burden of pandemic-related racism and, as one of the fastest growing immigrant communities in the nation, immigration-related fears due to policy and regulatory action of recent years. Yet, there is often limited data and focus on the experiences of the expanding Asian immigrant community. KFF is hosting a June 18 public web event to highlight and discuss the complex set of challenges facing Asian immigrants and strategies to address them.

The one-hour interactive web event begins at 12 p.m. ET on Friday, June 18, featuring remarks from U.S. Congresswoman Judy Chu, who has been a leading voice on many of the issues to be discussed and chairs the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. Findings from a new KFF survey of Asian American patients from four community health centers will be released at the event with a panel discussion and audience questions to follow.

Welcome and Keynote Remarks

  • KFF Executive Vice President for Health Policy Larry Levitt (moderator)
  • U.S. Congresswoman and Chair of Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus The Honorable Judy Chu
  • Chief Program Director of Blue Shield of California Foundation Carolyn Wang Kong

Presentation of Survey Findings

  • KFF Vice President and Director of the Racial Equity and Health Policy Program Samantha Artiga

Panel Discussion

  • Director of Policy and Advocacy at the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO) Adam Carbullido
  • Vice President of Strategic Initiatives at International Community Health Services Sunshine Monastrial
  • Chief Deputy of Administration at Asian Health Services Thu Quach

The one-hour event will conclude with a question-and-answer session.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/event/june-18-web-event-asian-immigrant-experiences-with-racism-immigration-related-fears-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/

Continue Reading

Covid19

G-7 Leaders Are Set To Pledge 1 Billion Coronavirus Vaccines To Other Countries

Published

on

President Biden and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson speak during a bilateral meeting ahead of the G-7 summit on Thursday in Carbis Bay, England. Patrick Semansky/AP hide caption

toggle caption

Patrick Semansky/AP

World leaders of the Group of Seven are expected to announce today a commitment to share 1 billion of their COVID-19 vaccine resources with the lower income countries struggling to control the spread of the virus.

On Thursday, President Biden announced plans for the U.S. to donate 500 million doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine globally. The first 200 million are expected to be distributed this year and the rest will follow in 2022.

“Our values call on us to do everything that we can to vaccinate the world against COVID-19,” Biden said of the decision. “It’s also in America’s self-interest. As long as the virus rages elsewhere, there’s a risk of new mutations that could threaten our people.”

Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the U.S. make up the G-7.

The move by the wealthy democracies to share their vaccine stockpiles comes as high vaccination levels in those countries have led to a decline in infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Enough improvements have been made in the U.S. and U.K. for coronavirus-related protocols to ease.

But in South Asia and Latin America, countries are still struggling to contain the virus.

In late May, the World Health Organization urged wealthier countries to contribute more to COVAX and requested at least 1 billion excess doses by the end of 2021. The COVAX program distributes mass quantities of vaccines to countries based on their populations.

“By donating vaccines to COVAX alongside domestic vaccination programmes, the most at-risk populations can be protected globally, which is instrumental to ending the acute phase of the pandemic, curbing the rise and threat of variants, and accelerating a return to normality,” WHO said in a statement in May.

Biden and the other G-7 leaders are in the U.K. for the first meeting in about two years. The meeting is set to open today at Carbis Bay, a seaside resort in Cornwall in southwest England.

Coinsmart. Beste Bitcoin-Börse in Europa
Source: https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2021/06/11/1005437511/g-7-leaders-to-pledge-1-billion-vaccines-to-countries-struggling-with-covid-19

Continue Reading
Aviation5 days ago

The Story Of The Boeing 777 Family

Esports5 days ago

Every new Passive Power in Legends of Runeterra Lab of Legends 2.9.0

Crowdfunding4 days ago

April/May 2021 Top Campaigns

Aviation2 days ago

Delta Air Lines Flight Diverts To Oklahoma Over Unruly Off-Duty Flight Attendant

Blockchain4 days ago

Crypto Fund Manager Says Bitcoin ETFs to be Approved By 2022

Esports3 days ago

Lost Ark Founders Pack: Everything You Need to Know

Fintech4 days ago

PayPal launches PayPal Rewards Card in Australia

Energy3 days ago

Industrial robots market in the automotive industry | $ 3.97 billion growth expected during 2021-2025 | 17000+ Technavio Research Reports

Cyber Security3 days ago

Data Breach that Impacted Both Audi of America and Volkswagen of America

Energy3 days ago

Daiki Axis Co., Ltd. (4245, First Section, Tokyo Stock Exchange) Overview of Operating Performance for the First Three Months Ended March 31, 2021

Aviation2 days ago

Spirit Airlines Just Made The Best Argument For Lifting LaGuardia’s Perimeter Rule

Cleantech3 days ago

Tesla Model S 420 Plaid Is The Best Car In The World (But Not For Me)

Start Ups5 days ago

Loupe Tech Lands $12M Series A To Connect Sports Card Enthusiasts

Fintech4 days ago

Stripe launches Stripe Tax to simplify global tax compliance for Australian businesses

Blockchain4 days ago

JPMorgan Cautioned Coming Bear Market Signal in Bitcoin

Blockchain4 days ago

Blockchain technology can help to protect sensitive information

Blockchain5 days ago

PayPal Sets New Record of Daily Crypto Volume of Over $300 Million

Private Equity5 days ago

Warburg Pincus backs $150m Series E for cybersecurity company Aura

AI4 days ago

Ransomware Incidents Surging; Cybersecurity Experts Scramble to Respond   

Blockchain3 days ago

DCR Technical Analysis: Look for Support Levels of $130.13 and $126.01

Trending