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Chatbot Development in 2020: An Expert Guide to Tools & Techniques




Developing a successful mobile app that clearly reflects your business idea to your targeted audiences is not an overnight task. It requires a great deal of effort and a significant amount of time to build an Android or iOS application. Most people reckon that mobile app development is all about choosing the right technology stack and hiring a renowned mobile application development company. However, following the proper process, from beginning to the end, is equally essential to make your app a chartbuster on the PlayStore or App Store.

After reading this eye-opening fact, most people would be wondering about the processes or phases involved in the development of a mobile application. If you too are sailing in the same boat, then this article is exclusively for you. Here, we have provided the complete mobile app development lifecycle that would guide you throughout your development journey.

mobile app process

Phase 1- Researching

You might already have plenty of ideas for your mobile app; it is still good to dig deeper into demographics, behavior patterns, and demand of your targeted audiences. The other important thing that covers up under this phase is not to overlook your competitors. By researching thoroughly, get yourself answers to these following questions:

  • Who is your targeted audience?
  • What will be a suitable platform to launch your app?
  • What are your competitors offering to customers?

These are just a few questions from the long list that you have to keep in mind. While researching, think from your customers’ perspective to find out what additional features should be there in your app to make it stand out in the crowd. Sparing enough time for researching and brainstorming will build a strong foundation for your mobile app development.

Phase 2- Wireframing

Wireframing gives a clear understanding of your app’s features and functionalities, and hence, is a crucial phase. Draw detailed sketches of the product you want to build to reveal the usability problems beforehand. Wireframing help narrow down the ideas and organize all the app design components correctly.

In this stage, try to identify how your planned features will blend into a fully-functional mobile application. Also, make a storyboard or roadmap to demonstrate how a user will use and explore your app. Your prime focus should be on delivering an excellent customer experience by simplifying the roadmap.

Read More: 10 Leading UI/UX Design Trends for Mobile Apps in 2020

Phase 3- Evaluating Technical Feasibility

After having sound knowledge of visuals, it’s time to focus on the backend system. So, in this phase, you have to check whether the backend system would be capable of supporting the app’s functionality or not. To figure out the technical feasibility of your app’s idea, access the public data by sourcing public application programming interfaces (APIs).

You have to understand that an app with different formats (wearables, smartphones, tablets, etc.) and platforms (Android, iOS, or any other) will not have the same needs. By the end of this stage, you would have various ideas for your app’s functionality.

Phase 4- Prototyping

Prototyping helps to determine whether you are moving in the right direction or not. It is totally understandable that you cannot fully deliver the experience to let your users’ know about the working and functioning of your app without developing it completely.

Therefore, create a prototype that conveys the app’s concept to your targeted audience to verify how it works. You can allow your stakeholders to have the first look of your app and touch the prototype to deliver their feedback about it.

Phase 5- Designing

UI (User Interface) and UX (User Experience) are the two vital components of your mobile app design. The former is responsible for the look and appeal of your application, whereas the latter facilitates the interaction between the design elements. While preparing a design for your mobile app, two primary considerations should be your project’s scope and budget.

The time required for designing cannot be specified as it may take only a couple of hours to a few days. Another factor that impacts your app designing time is the experience of the developers from your mobile app development services provider. It is a multistep process that needs to be done carefully to ensure that the outcome provides a clear vision of your business idea.

Phase 6- Developing

Generally, this phase starts at the very initial stage. Right after you finalize an app idea, the developers need to develop a prototype to authenticate the features and functionalities. At this stage, the development flourishes to the fullest. The development phase is further divided into various sections, where the team or a developer writes pieces of code, which then tested by another team. After marking the first section as bug-free, the development team moves further.

In the case of complex projects with frequently changing user requirements, it is good to opt for an agile methodology. This type of methodology leads to progressive development and brings flexibility in the planning process.

Read More: Tech Stack Used for Mobile App Development in 2020

Phase 7- Testing

Testing early and frequently gives developers the advantage of fixing a bug right when it occurs. It also controls the final cost of the development as it will require both money and efforts to fix a bug, which occurred at the first stage, after you reach on fifth or more. Application testing involves various things; hence, make sure your development team covers every aspect of it.

While testing your app, consider compatibility, security, usability, performance, UI checks, and other factors in mind. Check whether your application serves its purpose or not. For testing the app in real-time, you can ask a few users to use the app and give their feedback. Once users give thumbs up to your app, you can be sure about its functionality. Now, you can move towards the beta testing.

Phase 8- Deploying the app

In this stage, your app is ready to launch. To do so, select a day and release your mobile application on the desired platforms. Deploying the app is not the final step technically as you receive feedback from your audience and thus, have to make the changes accordingly.

The other two processes that remain associated with a mobile app are support and maintenance. Maintenance is required to bring new functionalities and features to your app over time. On the other hand, support should be there to answer the queries of the users using your mobile application. It would be no wrong to say that mobile app development is a long-term commitment rather than just a short-term project.

hire mobile developer

Bottom Line

If you are thinking of developing a mobile application, you must know the processes or phases needed to build it successfully. Here, in this article, we have mentioned the eight essential stages that should be followed in the provided order to ensure that the final product (mobile app) fulfills your expectations and serves your business purpose.

Start from researching, wireframing, technical feasibility assessment, prototyping, designing, development, and go until the final release to develop a successful app. If you are new to this field and don’t have any idea of the development, then reach out to a custom mobile app development company with your particular app requirements. You can also hire mobile app developers for the same.

hire mobile development

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AI Contact Tracer Awarded at UNLV




Contact tracing for crowds. (Credit: Getty Images) 

If someone reports sick after a gathering, a new AI-based system can trace contacts across four days and thousands of people in just four seconds.

This week, UNLV Lee Business School awarded Volan Technology the coveted Lee Prize Nevada Innovation Award for its advanced solution for enterprise-scale, precise and private contact tracing software. The technology could enable hospitality operators to make dramatic improvements in virus prevention—and save millions of dollars in manual tracing.

Read the full report by JT Long at


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Spookier Or Safer: How AI Autonomous Cars Alter Halloween Trick-Or-Treat Activities 




Kids trick or treat in Halloween costume and face mask. Children in dress up with candy bucket in coronavirus pandemic. Little boy and girl trick or treating with pumpkin lantern. Autumn holiday fun.

By Lance Eliot, the AI Trends Insider 

Halloween is just around the corner, waiting to surprise us. Though this year’s celebrations might be less extravagant, requiring special care and precautions, nonetheless we all know that Halloween traditionally has welcomed a slew of joyous activities including pumpkin carving, wearing scary costumes, elaborately decorating our homes, and so on. 

The highlight, undoubtedly, has got to be the annual thrill of going trick-or-treating. 

Perhaps you remember as a child going door-to-door in your neighborhood and the excitement at approaching the porch of a house covered with cobwebs and ghosts. Do you dare make your way to the front door? What goblins and other frights might await you? And, upon bravely knocking on the imposing door, recall the absolute delight at being given a chocolate bar or your favorite bubble gum. Off you would sprint, heading to the next house on the block.   

Now, as an adult, hopefully, you either are the one dispensing those candies when impressionable youngsters knock at your door, or maybe you will be going outdoors and walking along with your children as they experience the same thrills that you did in your youth. It is fun to relish memories and also look toward future Halloweens too.   

Speaking of the future (notice that seamless segue), some readers have asked me to comment on Halloween and self-driving cars.   

I realize that your first thought might be that there is no particular connection between Halloween, one of the most revered celebrations each year, and the advent of AI-based true self-driving cars, an amazing technological innovation that is gradually emerging. It might seem odd to consider that there would be any type of connection between these two seemingly disparate facets. 

Surprise! There is indisputably a means to connect the two, very much so. 

Note: I hope that my written yelling of “surprise” at you did not startle you, though if you are reading this on Halloween, consider it the equivalent of being frighteningly startled with a spooky but festive boo.   

The question for today’s discussion is this: What kinds of impacts might the prevalence of AI-based true self-driving cars have upon Halloween and our festivities thereof? Great question and I’ll get to it, but first, let’s make sure we all concur on what is meant by referring to AI-based true self-driving cars.   

Time to unpack that jargon.   

For my framework about AI autonomous cars, see the link here:   

Why this is a moonshot effort, see my explanation here:   

For more about the levels as a type of Richter scale, see my discussion here:   

For the argument about bifurcating the levels, see my explanation here: 

Understanding The Levels Of Self-Driving Cars 

As a clarification, true self-driving cars are ones that the AI drives the car entirely on its own and there isn’t any human assistance during the driving task. 

These driverless vehicles are considered a Level 4 and Level 5, while a car that requires a human driver to co-share the driving effort is usually considered at a Level 2 or Level 3. The cars that co-share the driving task are described as being semi-autonomous, and typically contain a variety of automated add-on’s that are referred to as ADAS (Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems).   

There is not yet a true self-driving car at Level 5. We don’t yet even know if this will be possible to achieve, and nor how long it will take to get there. Meanwhile, the Level 4 efforts are gradually trying to get some traction by undergoing very narrow and selective public roadway trials, though there is controversy over whether this testing should be allowed. We are all life-or-death guinea pigs in an experiment taking place on our highways and byways, some point out. 

Since semi-autonomous cars require a human driver, the adoption of those types of cars won’t be markedly different from driving conventional vehicles. But it is important that the public needs to be forewarned about a disturbing aspect that’s been arising lately, namely that despite those human drivers that keep posting videos of themselves falling asleep at the wheel of a Level 2 or Level 3 car, we all need to avoid being misled into believing that the driver can take away their attention from the driving task while driving a semi-autonomous car. 

You are the responsible party for the driving actions of the vehicle, regardless of how much automation might be tossed into a Level 2 or Level 3.   

For why remote piloting or operating of self-driving cars is generally eschewed, see my explanation here:  

To be wary of fake news about self-driving cars, see my tips here:  

The ethical implications of AI driving systems are significant, see my indication here:  

Be aware of the pitfalls of normalization of deviance when it comes to self-driving cars, here’s my call to arms: 

Self-Driving Cars And Halloween   

For Level 4 and Level 5 true self-driving vehicles, there won’t be a human driver involved in the driving task. All occupants will be passengers. The AI is doing the driving.   

Let’s begin with the important and assuredly upbeat insight that by removing the need for a human driver, there will no longer be any drunk drivers or DUI drivers on our roadways (well, at least with respect to the self-driving cars, though keep in mind that conventional human-driven cars will likely also still be on the highways and byways too). 

What does it mean that there won’t potentially be intoxicated drivers during Halloween (or, at least a lot fewer ones)? In short, you can generally cross off your list any of those ghastly car crashes that lead to injuries and fatalities due to those out-of-their-mind human drivers. 

This is especially noteworthy on the evening of Halloween since there are zillions of young children at risk that night. Kids love to dart out into the street on Halloween while trick-or-treating. They aren’t thinking about cars, they are thinking about the next house that has that inflated menacing ogre and beckons to them via the screeching sounds emanating from the blaring speakers placed in the bushes of the front yard.   

Children on Halloween tend to falsely believe that the world has granted them a free pass to run and scamper all around the community. Though that would be a nice ideal, the reality is that there are today those drivers that insist on driving on the evening of Halloween and getting mired into the realm of where kids think they can go. One has to sympathize with the drivers that are sober and have little choice to drive that evening, perhaps to take their children to a Halloween party or for other needed purposes. Unfortunately, the bad apple drivers can spoil the whole barrel, as it were. 

Plus, even a cautious and fully aware driver is bound to find themselves unnerved that evening. You need to drive slowly, really slowly, and this is a hard thing for many drivers to do. They are accustomed to driving at normal speeds and when driving a reduced speed it seems as though their vehicular movement is glacial in nature. Add to this the potential pressure of needing to get to someone’s house by a certain time, and you have an adult that can readily misjudge the roadways, leading to a calamity.   

Bottom line: The more self-driving cars on the roads, the reduced chances of a human driver in that car that otherwise might have messed-up, one way or another, for whatever reason. 

We can stick for the moment with the advantages and benefits side of the self-driving car versus human-driven car equation, and then, once I have covered most of those key points, we’ll consider some downsides too.   

Pretend that you are busy at your home while handing out candy and also hosting your own adult-oriented Halloween party. Turns out that your teenage son or daughter was invited to a Halloween activity at the school grounds, but that is several miles away. Teachers at the school will be watching over the teens and you feel comfortable that your offspring will be safe there on their own.   

All you need to do is drive your eager youngster to the school.   

Instead of you being the driver, you could use a self-driving car to get your child over there. You would of course first make sure your child gets safely into the self-driving car, perhaps one that you own or that was available via a ride-sharing network, and the AI driving system then proceeds to drive over to the school. Once the event is completed, the self-driving car gives your offspring a ride back to your home.   

This frees you from having to make the drive. Also, if you didn’t already own a car, or if you didn’t have a driver’s license, the use of the self-driving car solves several issues when desiring to provide your child with a lift to the Halloween event (and, once again, aids in preventing a potentially tipsy driver from getting behind the wheel). 

Admittedly, some people repulsively recoil at the notion of having children riding in a self-driving car without any adult supervision. This will never-ever happen some parents exhort fervently. The idea is rather foreign to us currently and seems unimaginable, but we should be cautious in extending today’s cultural norms for what we might accept in the future.   

Let’s continue our tour of the ways that self-driving cars will impact Halloween. 

Some cities and suburbs have increasingly been setting up areas that allow for a drive-thru Halloween activity (especially due to the pandemic). You and the family pile into your car, and drive over to a park or parking lot that has a kind of haunted mansion or haunted city, as it were, created for providing a fun and spooky experience. Realize that you do not get out of your car. Instead, you remain in the vehicle, as though driving through a fast-food eatery, but in this case, it is an outdoor area set up with Halloween scenery.   

If you were driving the car, it would likely be hard to fully relish the festive experience since you would be constantly having to watch where you are driving. Via a self-driving car, you would let the AI do the driving. This means that you and the rest of your family can all enjoy together the Halloween festivities, and nobody needs to be worrying about the driving.   

Another somewhat new approach to Halloween that has been getting recent attention consists of trunk-or-treating.   

Never heard of it? 

You put Halloween decorations on the trunk of your car. Inside the trunk, you put bags or buckets of candies. When ready, you drive around the community, coming to a stop here and there, allowing kids to obtain their Halloween treats directly from the trunk of the vehicle. As to whether you get out of the car to dispense the candies, this depends (some purposely do not get out of the car as an added pandemic precaution for themselves and the kids that come to the car to retrieve the candies).   

Not everyone likes this trunk-or-treating phenomenon. 

Some point out that with Halloween candies dispensed from a house, you know where to go if there is something untoward handed to a child. The house is permanently affixed. On the other hand, someone driving a car around could be just about anybody, and they might not readily be traceable (for those of you that want to argue this point, it is true that you could copy down the license plate and trace the vehicle, but that’s a far cry from the aspect that a house is pinned to one readily known spot).   

Anyway, whether you like or hate the idea, it perhaps is apparent that a self-driving car could enable such an approach if desired.   

Yet another possibility for Halloween celebrations is the veritable Halloween car parade. People deck out their cars with Halloween banners and decorations. They put on costumes too if wishing to do so. You and your friends or family then get into the car and drive with other cars in a type of makeshift parade. This conga line of Halloween celebratory cars makes its way throughout the neighborhood. Horns are honked, people inside the cars are making noises befitting Halloween, and kids line the sidewalks, watching as the parade goes past their homes. As you might imagine, this is being spurred partially due to the pandemic, allowing people that already live together to be grouped into their car, and yet going outdoors to celebrate the evening.   

One concern that some have about these Halloween parades is the possibility that some drivers will be drinking or have already had a few too many before deciding to join the car procession. Without seeming like a broken record that repeats itself unduly, if those cars were self-driving cars then the parade could meander unabated and without fear of a human driver doing something that could be injuriously unseemly. 

For more details about ODDs, see my indication at this link here: 

On the topic of off-road self-driving cars, here’s my details elicitation: 

I’ve urged that there must be a Chief Safety Officer at self-driving car makers, here’s the scoop: 

Expect that lawsuits are going to gradually become a significant part of the self-driving car industry, see my explanatory details here:   

Now For Some Scary Twists Too 

Having covered the essence of the presumed upbeat or positive aspects of Halloween and self-driving cars, we now turn our gaze toward the less-so elements. 

A perhaps obvious aspect about the advent of self-driving cars on Halloween is that it would allow adults to go to bars or parties and get smashed, if they wanted to do so, and not be held back by having to be a designated driver. Actually, this is true for any evening on any day of the week. You cannot fault the self-driving cars for this human behavior, but nonetheless could be a reaction by humans to the ease of having self-driving cars available.   

Will self-driving cars spur people to drink or get drunk? 

Nobody knows, and we won’t likely know until the day arrives of a prevalence of self-driving cars on our roadways. 

Another aspect is the difficulty of driving on the roadways during Halloween.   

Yes, even self-driving cars are going to find this to be a challenging driving task. 

Do not falsely assume that merely because the self-driving car is using AI and has a collection of state-of-the-art sensors such as video cameras, LIDAR, radar, ultrasonic, etc., that it will perfectly and unerringly ensure that nobody is ever hit or hurt by a collision.   

I’ve stated categorically and repeatedly that the notion of zero fatalities for self-driving cars has a zero chance of occurring. Physics belies such a belief. If a child darts unexpectedly from between two parked cars, and a self-driving car (or even a human-driven car) is cruising down the street, there might be insufficient time to stop the car before striking the suddenly appearing child. That’s a fact of physics.   

When I mention this point, those in the self-driving industry are apt to instantly object. Therefore, let me be clear, I am not suggesting that self-driving cars will be less safe than human drivers. In fact, the expectation is going to be that self-driving cars have to be safer than human drivers. Thus, in the aggregate, we are presumably going to have many fewer injuries and fewer fatalities once we have a preponderance of self-driving cars. My point is that realistically it won’t go to zero. There will still be some non-zero number, though hopefully less than, a lot less, in comparison to the 40,000 annual car crash deaths in the U.S. annually and the approximately 2.5 million injuries.   

Anyway, back to the point that on Halloween, especially so, the number of children and adults, perhaps even scampering dogs and cats, upon the roadways can be much higher than what normally is seen on the streets. This means many more objects that the AI needs to detect and discern as to which way the “object” is going and what it will do.   

Challenges abound.   

Children are small in stature and thus tend to be harder to detect. They might be wearing costumes that make their shape irregular in comparison to the expectations of what a person usually looks like. The kids can be erratic in where they go and whether they are sprinting or walking, or perhaps even crawling on the ground. All the kids and adults might be quickly stepping off a curb or willing to run amongst the cars that are making their way down the street. 

Amidst all of this, it is nighttime and dark out, so the lighting of the scene can be quite problematic. Indeed, children might be carrying flashlights or lasers that they point at the cars, of which the sensors could be hampered by such actions. 


In the self-driving car field, there is a well-known dictum that entails dealing with edge problems, also known as corner cases. Essentially, those developing self-driving cars are prioritizing what needs to be accomplished, of which just safely having the AI drive from a house to a grocery store during daylight is a keystone task. Unusual driving scenarios are labeled as being an edge or corner case, meaning that they are oddball or unique situations and presumably can be dealt with at a later time. The rule-of-thumb is to get the core stuff done first, and then worry about the rest later on.   

It is safe to say that Halloween is an edge or corner case. 

How many times a year do we all wander out into the streets, at nighttime, in costumes, with children aplenty? 

Unless you live in an especially party-vigorous locale, the answer would seem to be that it is a once a year occurrence.   


Even though Halloween is reasonably classified as a once-a-year instance, i.e., an edge case, this does not obviate the need to ultimately cope with the zaniness of the driving situation that arises.   

Imagine if self-driving cars were unable to sufficiently drive around on Halloween, such that all self-driving cars had to be self-grounded that night. Assuming that people had become dependent upon the use of self-driving cars, it would seem inappropriate to have none available on any particular night, such as Halloween.   

There is no doubt that ultimately self-driving cars will be enhanced to handle the particulars of a Halloween driving scenario. Also, to clarify, it is not as though self-driving cars of today could not likely manage to drive around on Halloween evening, it is just that out of an abundance of caution, it would seem unwise to do so at this time. 

Consider what might happen if some self-driving car did ram into a child on Halloween (for sake of discussion, assume luckily the child is completely unhurt per se), this would generate unbelievably big news and become the headlines seen or heard all around the world. It would be a public relations nightmare that would exceed any of the scariest things you might ever envision associated with Halloween. 

Let’s aim to avoid that kind of ghastly affair. 

In any case, when thinking about the future, someday, you’ll be able to park your broom and let the AI do all the driving for you. 

Happy Halloween to all and please be safe!  

Copyright 2020 Dr. Lance Eliot  

This content is originally posted on AI Trends. 

[Ed. Note: For reader’s interested in Dr. Eliot’s ongoing business analyses about the advent of self-driving cars, see his online Forbes column:] 


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Busy Week for Google: Search Enhancements, Followed by an Antitrust Suit  




In the space of a week, Google announced enhancements to its search and map capabilities, and was sued by the US Justice Department for anti-competitive practices. (Photo by Brett Jordan on Unsplash) 

By AI Trends Staff 

Google has had an eventful couple of weeks, announcing enhancements to its search and map capabilities at its virtual “Search On” event on Oct. 15, and on Oct. 20 being accused by the US Justice Department of engaging in anti-competitive practices in order to preserve its search engine business.  

At the Search On event, Google detailed how it has tapped AI and machine learning techniques to make improvements to Google Maps as well as Search.  

In an expansion of its search “busyness metrics,” users will be able to see how busy locations are without identifying the specific beach, grocery store, pharmacy or other location. COVID-19 safety information will also be added to business profiles across Search and Maps, indicating whether the business is using safety precautions such as temperature checks or plexiglass shields, according to an account in VentureBeat.  

Prabhakar Raghavan, head of search, Google

An improvement to the algorithm beneath the “Did you mean?” features of search, will enable more accurate and precise spelling suggestions. The new underlying model contains 680 million parameters and is said to run in less than three milliseconds. “This single change makes a greater improvement to spelling than all of our improvements over the last five years,” stated Google head of search Prabhakar Raghavan in a blog post. 

In an improvement called Passages, an individual passage can be served up in response to a question, instead of a single web page. It does this by assessing the relevancy of specific passages, not just the overall page, helping to find “needle-in-a-haystack” information. Raghavan suggested the improvement will improve 7% of search queries worldwide.  

In an example, a person asked, “how can I determine if my house windows a UV glass?” A ‘before’ screen on a list returns some website links; the ‘after’ screen on the right offers specific instructions, to hold a match up to the window.   

“We’ve applied neural nets to understand subtopics around an interest, which helps deliver a greater diversity of content when you search for something broad,” Raghavan stated. 

Data Commons Project Data More Plugged into Search  

Google has been working since 2018, on the Data Commons Project, an open knowledge database of statistical data started in collaboration with the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, World Bank and other organizations. New improvements make the information more accessible through Google Search.   

If the user asks, “how many people work in Chicago?” the modified version taps into the Data Commons dataset. “We use natural language processing to map your search to one specific set of the billions of data points in Data Commons to provide the right stat in a visual, easy to understand format,” Raghavan stated. 

Google Maps, in use since 2016, gathers its “busyness” insights from analyzing, aggregating and anonymizing location history data from users who have opted to turn the setting on in Google Account. The data is used to calculate the busyness of a place for every hour of the week. “The busiest hour becomes our benchmark—and we then display busyness data for the rest of the week relative to that hour,” stated Matt D’Zmura, Software engineer of Google Maps, in an account in Analytics Insight.  

The “busyness” information will surface in directions and on maps, so that users do not need to search for a specific place to see how busy it is. The features will soon be available to Android, iOS, and desktop users worldwide, Google indicated. 

On the business side, the outlook for Google’s digital advertising business remains an issue amid the coronavirus pandemic, according to a recent account in Investor’s Business Daily. A rebound in Google’s core internet search advertising business is key for the stock, stated Bank of American analyst Justin Post in a recent report to clients. Google has a scheduled quarterly earnings report on Oct. 29.  

YouTube’s ad revenue growth came in under expectations in the June quarter while cloud computing revenue growth slowed from the previous quarter, Post reported. Google has struggled to gain share in cloud-computing services against Amazon and Microsoft, however Google has strength in its AI-spanning digital advertising, Google Cloud Platform, YouTube and its search technology businesses, the analyst indicated.   

Justice Department Alleges Anti-Competitive Practices 

The bad news from the Justice Department came in the form of an antitrust lawsuit alleging Google uses anti-competitive tactics to preserve a monopoly for its flagship search engine and related advertising businesses. It was called the most aggressive US legal challenge to a company’s dominance in the tech sector in more than two decades in an account in The Wall Street Journal. 

The government alleges that Google’s practice of paying smartphone manufacturers and browser suppliers including Apple (with Safari) to maintain Google as their preset, default search engine, creates an unlawful, self-reinforcing cycle of dominance.   

“Google achieved some success in its early years, and no one begrudges that,” stated Deputy U.S. Attorney General Jeffrey Rosen. “If the government does not enforce its antitrust laws to enable competition, we could lose the next wave of innovation. If that happens, Americans may never get to see the next Google.” 

Kent Walker, chief legal officer, Google

Google’s lawyers countered that they see the lawsuit as deeply flawed. “People use Google because they choose to—not because they’re forced to or because they can’t find alternatives,” stated Kent Walker, Google’s chief legal officer. “Like countless other businesses, we pay to promote our services, just like a cereal brand might pay a supermarket to stock its products at the end of a row or on a shelf at eye level.” 

The last similar US government antitrust case against a major US technology firm was US against Microsoft in 1998, the same year Google was founded. The Microsoft suit eventually ended in a settlement. The Google case is likely to take years to resolve. Facebook, Apple, and Amazon are also facing antitrust scrutiny from Washington.  

Google owns or controls search-distribution channels accounting for about 80% of search queries in the US, according to the lawsuit and third-party researchers. The government states that effectively leaves no room for competition, resulting in less choice and innovation for consumers, and less competitive prices for advertisers.  

The Journal reported on tension within the Justice Department about the timing of the suit against Google, with some staffers suggesting Attorney General William Barr was driven by an interest in filing before the Nov. 3 presidential election. 

Read the source articles in VentureBeat, a Google blog post, in Analytics Insight, in Investor’s Business Daily and in The Wall Street Journal. 


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