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Billions of Compromised Records and Counting: Why the Application Layer is Still the Front Door for Data Breaches

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Cyber Security

Apple Maintains Blindsided and Handcuffed by a Trump Administration Probe

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Apple

Apple claims it was blindsided and shackled by a Trump administration probe that ended in the corporation handing up phone data from two Democratic congressman, in order to safeguard its reputation as a champion of personal privacy.

In reaction to press reports describing the US Justice Department’s aggressive attempts to use its legal authority to uncover leaks related to an investigation into former President Donald Trump’s connection to Russia, Apple released its version of events on Friday.

The Justice Department was able to persuade a federal grand jury to issue a subpoena, which resulted in Apple handing over metadata regarding House Intelligence Committee members Adam Schiff and Eric Swalwell, both California Democrats, in 2018. Both legislators were members of the committee investigating Trump’s ties to Russia, and Schiff now serves as the panel’s chair.

According to the firm, Schiff and Swalwell were unaware that part of the information had been confiscated until May 5, after a series of gag orders had finally expired.

Apple’s compliance with the subpoena was revealed at a time when the corporation was ratcheting up efforts in its marketing campaigns to depict privacy as a “basic human right.” In April, Apple upped the ante on privacy by releasing iPhone privacy controls in an effort to make it more difficult for firms like Facebook to track people’s online behaviour in order to sell ads.

Apple said in a statement that it will continue to oppose unwarranted legal requests for personal data and keep customers informed.

Apple, on the other hand, stated it was bound by a nondisclosure order issued by a federal magistrate judge and that it had no knowledge of the investigation’s nature.

Without looking through consumers’ accounts, Apple would have been almost difficult to determine the objective of the required information, according to the Cupertino, California-based business. “Apple confined the information it provided to account subscriber information and did not release any content, such as emails or images, in accordance with the request.”

Based on the broad extent of the request for “customer or subscriber account information” encompassing 73 phone numbers and 36 email addresses, Apple believes other technological businesses may have been subjected to similar legal demands.

It’s unknown how many more businesses may have been entangled in the Trump administration’s hunt for leakers.

Microsoft stated in a statement that it received at least one subpoena in 2017 linked to a personal email account. After the gag order expired, the company said it alerted the customer, who turned out to be a member of Congress’s staff. “In circumstances like this, we will continue to vigorously pursue legislation that imposes appropriate restrictions on government secrecy,” the business added.

Apple’s limited compliance with the demands was less concerning to privacy experts than the US regulations that permitted the Justice Department to obtain the subpoenas in secret and then keep them hidden for years.

According to Alan Butler, executive director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, the subpoenas are “a textbook example of government abuse” that ensnared Apple.

“It’s harder, but not impossible, to contest these kind of subpoenas,” Butler said. “And if there was ever one worth taking on, it might as well have been these.”

According to Cindy Cohn, executive director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Apple’s answer to the demand does not inherently contradict the company’s stance on the importance of personal privacy. Because Apple’s privacy pledges mostly depend upon protecting its consumers from online surveillance, this is the case.

She believes the broader issue is why a grand jury in the United States can issue a subpoena and then prevent Apple from informing the people who are affected.

“The overall secrecy of this is troubling,” Cohn added, “especially given it appears to be a politically motivated investigation.”

Apple has a history of defying judicial orders, most notably in 2016, when the Justice Department attempted to force Apple to unlock an iPhone belonging to one of the shooters in the San Bernardino mass shooting.

Apple refused to cooperate, claiming that doing so would open a digital backdoor that would put all iPhone users’ security and privacy at risk. When the FBI hired a different business to unlock the iPhone linked to the shooting, the legal battle was over.

“At that point, Apple truly put its money where its mouth was,” Butler said.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/apple-maintains-blindsided-and-handcuffed-by-a-trump-administration-probe/

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Cyber Security

Certified Ethical Hacker

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Certified Ethical Hacker
Certified Ethical Hacker

Certified Ethical Hacker- While the term “ethical hacker” may appear to be an oxymoron at first glance, the concept behind it is that “to beat a hacker, you have to think like one.” In fact, The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) uses that motto to promote its ethical hacker certification.

The phrase “Certified Ethical Hacker” was coined to represent someone who has the requisite hacking skills but whose moral code forbade them from engaging in illegal conduct. The term ethical hacker has come to encompass all security experts who provide offensive services, whether they are part of a red team, a pentester, or a freelance offensive consultant.

The EC-Council is a non-profit organisation that certifies professionals in a variety of e-business and security abilities. Their stated aim is to “validate information security experts who are prepared with the requisite skills and expertise in a specialised information security sector that will assist them in avoiding a cyber war, should the need ever arise.”

Over 237,000 security professionals from private and public companies have been certified by the EC-Council. They have employees from IBM, Microsoft, the US Army, the FBI, and the United Nations among its ranks.

Table of Contents

What is the Certified Ethical Hacker Certification?

CEH stands for Certified Ethical Hacker, and it is the most well-known of the EC-Council qualifications. It was created to show that the holder knows how to seek for holes and vulnerabilities in computer systems and is familiar with malicious hacking tools.

Any security team would benefit greatly from hiring cybersecurity professionals who understand how to use antagonistic hackers’ tools and strategies. Building an adequate defence requires intimate knowledge of the offensive techniques likely to be utilised against their systems. The security sector has demonstrated its need for a dependable mechanism to recognise persons with these talents by overwhelmingly supporting and accepting the CEH certification.

Having a CEH certification means you’ve learned the abilities you’ll need to work in the following positions, among others:

The CEH’s recognition by the industry has bolstered the notion that ethical hacking is not just a helpful skill but also a respectable vocation. Acceptance has given respectability to a subset of computer and network abilities that were previously only pursued by criminals.

What are the Requirements for the CEH Exam?

Applications for CEH certification are examined in one of three categories. To be eligible to take the exam, an applicant must meet one of the following criteria:

Let’s pretend the candidate is under the age of eighteen. In that instance, the candidate will not be able to attend an official training session or take the certification exam unless they have written approval from their parent or legal guardian and a letter of support from their nationally authorised institution of higher learning.

Many other popular cybersecurity professional certifications have more strict standards than CEH. As a result, the CEH is frequently regarded as an entry-level certification, although it is unquestionably a must-have for anyone looking for career that involves offensive traits.

How Much Does Obtaining a CEH Certification Cost?

The final cost of any professional certification will vary depending on the candidate’s level of expertise and previous training. In addition to the application fee, exam fee, and training course fees, independent study resources will almost certainly be acquired, as well as the cost of maintaining the certification.

All exam applicants must pay a $100 non-refundable application fee. After the EC-Council receives the essential information, the application approval process usually takes five to 10 working days. A candidate must purchase an exam voucher from the EC-Council Online Store or an authorised training partner once their application has been approved. Although EC-Council does not establish a minimum exam voucher price for its authorised partners, a voucher from the EC-Council Store costs $1,199.00.

Finally, EC-Council or training partner training should be scheduled. The cost of the exam voucher is frequently included in the CEH course price. Assume that the candidate applied for the exam based on their work experience and declined to attend an approved EC-Council training programme. In that situation, individuals can arrange their exam right away after receiving approval.

Both defensive and offensive tactics and techniques are covered in the EC-Council CEH training course. Candidates are taught how to circumvent and defeat defences while learning about controls and countermeasures. The starting price for a CEH online instructor-led training course is $1,899.00. It comes with a one-year subscription to training modules, courseware, and iLabs, as well as an exam voucher.

$2,999 for the EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker Live Course. Check with EC-Council to see if the Live Course will be available during the Coronavirus epidemic.

Earning 120 Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits in three years is required to maintain CEH certification. Attending conferences, submitting research papers, delivering training sessions in a connected domain, reading publications on relevant subject topics, and participating in webinars are all ways to get the credits. The cost of obtaining CPE credits is typically several hundred dollars each year.

When choosing any professional certification, candidates must ask themselves, “Will it be worth it in the end?” The answer is almost always a resounding “yes” for the CEH. This is especially true for applicants who want to work in positions that demand an awareness of offensive techniques in order to assist their company’s defensive stance.

Deep Dive into CEH exam

The CEH test consists of 125 multiple-choice questions. The CEH exam will take four hours to complete. Because all of the questions are multiple-choice, test takers seldom run out of time. Many candidates claim that this test took them only two to three hours to complete.

EC-Council employs a variety of exam formats. An exam form is a set of questions used to give a test version. To ensure that each of their multiple exam forms reflects an equivalent assessment of the test taker’s knowledge, EC-Council adopts a methodology of evaluating each question.

Hacking tactics, scanning methodology, port scan kinds, and expected return responses are among the subjects covered, according to post-exam reports. Test takers are said to benefit from knowing how to utilise programmes like Nmap, Wireshark, Snort, OpenSSL, Netstat, and Hping.

People who have taken the exam consistently indicate that it is difficult and that substantial preparation is required before appearing for the exam—many people study for months in preparation for the CEH exam.

Successful candidates frequently indicate that a well-structured study regimen consisting of a few hours per day for a lengthy period of time is beneficial. There are a plethora of practise tests available on the internet.

The exam will be proctored by authorised individuals at the testing centre if you take it at a physical testing centre. Pearson VUE testing centres are available to take exams. Pearson VUE exam facilities are located in many of EC-Accredited Council’s Training Centers.

Depending on the exam form, or bank of questions, is delivered for that given exam, a CEH exam passing score might range from 60% to 85%. The passing score for any bank of questions will vary depending on the complexity of the questions.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/certified-ethical-hacker/

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Cyber Security

Cybersecurity Degrees in Washington

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Cybersecurity Degrees in Washington
Cybersecurity Degrees in Washington

Cybersecurity Degrees in Washington- This information is about Washington’s cybersecurity opportunities. Washington offers a wide range of educational possibilities and degree programmes, and the state’s economy is moving to accommodate the expanding cybersecurity industry.

Long reliant on agriculture, forestry, and shipping, Washington state has evolved into a diversified economy and one of the country’s key technological centres. The state currently boasts the largest concentration of STEM workers in the country. Amazon, Starbucks, Boeing, Microsoft, Costco, Nintendo, Expedia, and Weyerhaeuser all have offices there. The western coast of Washington has a significant concentration of economic activity, notably in the northwest region of the state, where Seattle, Tacoma, and Bellevue are all very close together.

The main employers in Washington’s economy in 2019 were trade, transportation, and utilities, government, education, and healthcare services, professional and business services, and leisure and hospitality, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The National Cybersecurity Training & Education Center, or NCyTE Center, is also located in Washington. NCyTE, formerly known as CyberWatch West, was created in 2011. It received a grant to become a National Cyber Resource Center in 2018. NCyTE’s goal is to “increase the amount and quality of existing cybersecurity resources while also leveraging these resources to construct effective teaching and training modules.” NCyTE aspires to maximise cybersecurity workforce development through education by interacting with educators, professionals, and government.

Washington is poised to be a prolific and lucrative centre for cybersecurity specialists and firms, thanks to its concentration on technology industries, STEM jobs, and cybersecurity, as well as state government backing. And schools and universities in Washington are starting to catch on with high-quality degree and certification programmes.

Table of Contents

Growing Importance of Cybersecurity in Washington

For more than a decade, the state of Washington has taken its own cybersecurity seriously. Through three government components, it coordinates public sector information security and private citizen knowledge. Attacks on state government computer networks are detected, blocked, and responded to by the Office of Cybersecurity. The Washington State Military Department’s Emergency Management Division developed a Cybersecurity Program to establish state cybersecurity policy and strategy for emergency management. The Office of the Washington State Auditor also conducts cybersecurity audits to ensure that the government’s security procedures are up to par.

The cybersecurity workforce in Washington has swelled to roughly 25,000 people. The state’s status as the home of Microsoft has contributed to it becoming the country’s most concentrated market for STEM vocations. It also houses a few significant defence contractors as well as a number of other significant global firms. Washington’s technology culture is well-established, and the state government is completely committed to working on cybersecurity concerns in the future. This should position Washington to recruit top-tier cybersecurity individuals and firms, resulting in a fast expansion of the information security industry and workforce in the coming years.

Cybersecurity Education in Washington

At the moment, there aren’t many specialised cybersecurity degree and certificate programmes in Washington, but that is changing. The Center for Information Assurance and Cybersecurity (CIAC) at the University of Washington was established to focus its efforts through a community of varied leaders from government, business, and other non-government groups. The Center is intended to serve as a catalyst for R&D, innovation, educational advancement, and workforce development.

In Washington, there is already a wide range of information security education opportunities, and we expect this to grow in the near future. Look for public colleges to expand their curriculum offerings in particular.

ASSOCIATE’S DEGREE

Employers are willing to hire applicants with an associate’s degree in cybersecurity for entry-level roles due to the current shortage of cybersecurity specialists in the workforce. Associate’s degrees take half as long and cost half as much as bachelor’s degrees to get, making them a viable alternative for getting into the cybersecurity field. Professionals who have established a job can continue their education and often use earlier training as credit toward a bachelor’s degree. Certifications can also help you grow and expand your professional opportunities if you have an associate’s degree.

Campus-based associate’s degrees in Washington

There are three possibilities for associate’s degree programmes on campus at Washington institutions right now. At this time, there are no online programmes offered by Washington educational institutions. The following are the on-campus degree options.

BACHELOR’S DEGREE

As the cybersecurity sector has advanced and become more complex, so have the degree requirements demanded by information security firms. Except for some entry-level employment, most information security occupations today require a bachelor’s degree in cybersecurity. While degrees in cybersecurity aren’t always required, majoring in cybersecurity is definitely a bonus when applying for information security positions. The state of Washington, in particular, is brimming with IT and STEM workers. As a result, having a degree in a cybersecurity concentration should be a great method for students and working professionals to stand apart.

Campus-based bachelor’s degrees in Washington

Washington state colleges and universities now offer four cybersecurity bachelor’s degree programmes on campus. The table below summarises the current possibilities.

Online bachelor’s degrees in Washington

Three bachelor’s degree options are currently being presented in online formats by Washington schools. All three of these, listed below, are offered by City University of Seattle.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/cybersecurity-degrees-in-washington/

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How to Get Started in Cybersecurity

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How to Get Started in Cybersecurity
How to Get Started in Cybersecurity

How to Get Started in Cybersecurity- So, are you considering a job move or simply want to add new information security skills to your arsenal to assist you protect your data and computers? Let’s walk through the steps of moving to cybersecurity, from the brainstorming and planning stages to the skills you’ll need to master and the tools to assist you do so.

Is a College Degree Required for a Career in Cybersecurity?

The short answer is no, it isn’t always the case. “People without college degrees pioneered our industry,” says Josh Feinblum. “Work hard to get active in the community, contribute to open source projects, and attempt to talk at conferences on intriguing research – these are all things that the early pioneers did, and they can create possibilities for smart, hard-working individuals to break into the industry.”

The similar tendency has been observed (and personally experienced) by Kristen Kozinski, who is now an Information Security Trainer at the New York Times.

She notes, “Most of the folks I’ve encountered in the field are self-taught.” “My own route has been pretty unconventional. When I was working at MailChimp a few years ago, our Information Security team had an opening for an apprentice to work with our security engineers. It seemed like the ideal situation. I acquired the job after doing some research on The Open Web Application Security Project. As a Junior Security Engineer, I continued to work with that team.” Don’t Click on That, Kozinski’s security awareness company, is now open for business.

If you have a computer science or equivalent degree, though, it will almost certainly broaden your cybersecurity work prospects. “College degrees are typically a checkbox anticipated by many large companies,” according to Feinblum, “so not having a degree may limit some opportunities.” It’s not a deal-breaker; it’s simply something to think about!

Pick a Cybersecurity Career Path

One of the most interesting aspects about cybersecurity is the variety of options available. You don’t need a technical background to pursue them, as I mentioned earlier.

The first step in deciding on a cybersecurity job path is to assess your strengths in light of your history. “I urge that you do an honest assessment of your own abilities and interests as your first step,” says Robb Reck. “Are you someone who enjoys interacting with others? Are you an app developer? Are you a policy wonk? What is a networking guru?

Creating a list of your preferences and talents can assist you in determining which type of IT security employment is the greatest fit for you. “Penetrating, security engineering, and incident response are some of the most popular areas,” adds Kristen Kozinski.

Once you’ve narrowed it down, conduct more study and learn the jargon for the sectors of interest you’ve chosen within cyber security. “Look for books that delve into that topic,” Kozinski advises. “No Starch Press publishes a number of excellent security books. I also suggest taking a look at the Awesome Infosec Github page, which is a crowdsourced collection of educational resources.”

It will also assist in connecting with individuals in the industry, forming contacts, and seeking guidance. “Join Twitter,” Kozinski advises. “There is a really open cybersecurity community there, and a lot of individuals give wonderful advice on how to obtain jobs and where to locate learning resources in your field of interest.”

In-person groups are also beneficial. “Join organisations like the Information Systems Security Association (ISSA), the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA), or the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), all of which have regional branches near you,” suggests Robb Reck. “Begin helping with these organisations, and learn about Open Source initiatives on the internet. You don’t need a job to gain security experience. The relationships you develop in those groups will almost certainly lead to your future job.”

Cybersecurity Prerequisites

It’s a good idea to learn the fundamentals of programming before moving on to more advanced topics. “Knowing a programming language will put you ahead of the game in cybersecurity,” says Kristen Kozinski. “You don’t have to be an expert, but knowing how to read and understand a language is a useful skill.” This isn’t a must-have requirement for cyber security, but it’s a great to have.
Learn about the most important cybersecurity technologies and skills.

According to Chris Coleman, successful cybersecurity engineers can also think like a cybercriminal. “One can only forecast and avoid cyberattacks if they have a thorough awareness of system vulnerabilities.”

Other technical skills will differ depending on the field you choose to specialise in. Coleman does, however, propose the following cybersecurity skills:

  • Security and networking foundations
  • Logging and monitoring procedures
  • Network defense tactics
  • Cryptography and access management practices
  • Web application security techniques

So, what is the most effective method for learning cybersecurity? The cornerstone to most security work, no matter what your specialty is—network security, information security, IT security, etc.—is understanding systems. Andy Ellis says, “Learn to take a systems view first when confronting new technology or processes.” “Ask questions like, ‘What is going on in this system that I’m not seeing?’ What are the objectives of the system owner or designer? What kind of inescapable loss might there be? ‘How could this have happened?’

If you’re thinking about payroll system vulnerabilities, for example, you’d start with queries like:

  • How does an employee get paid?
  • Where is their data?
  • How can that fail?

“Asking yourself these questions and knowing the answers is a terrific approach to get started on a path to securing the future,” Ellis continues.

Soft skills, on the other hand, include a willingness to learn — especially since the subject of information security is always changing — as well as the ability to work well in a group.

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Source: https://cybersguards.com/how-to-get-started-in-cyber-security/

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