The argument over opening up the 6GHz spectrum range, allowing it to be used for things like private indoor Wi-Fi, is heating up with TV broadcasters now suing the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
In a petition [PDF] to the Washington DC Court of Appeals, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) has challenged the FCC’s decision in April to open up the space to unlicensed operators in the United States, claiming the move “unlawfully fails to protect the myriad existing licensed users in the band from potential interference arising from such unlicensed use.”
As the use of wireless data has exploded, the pressure to make efficient use of limited spectrum has been intense and complicated. Among those affected and unhappy has been the US military, weather stations, and now, the TV industry.
Today, the 6GHz band is allocated for licensed use by broadcasters, public safety entities, wireless communications providers, and utilities. The FCC’s plan, heavily backed by the tech industry, is to allow for unlicensed use of the band, with low-power usage inside houses and high-power usage allowed outside if it uses a so-called automatic frequency coordinator, which aims to avoid clashing with other, licensed, use of the spectrum.
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The idea is that low-power usage inside houses won’t have any impact on 6GHz transmissions outside the home, and it is this that tech giants are excited about as a way to provide next-generation wireless networking for people. And thanks to how Wi-Fi protocols work, those same giants are confident they can also use the 6GHz band without interfering with licensed providers.
Those providers, however, are significantly less confident, especially if the market is flooded by the likes of Google and Apple putting out products that use the spectrum.
“The [FCC] order is a final agency action that has significant and immediate adverse consequences for NAB and its members because broadcasters rely on interference-free spectrum in the 6GHz band for important operations, including those needed for the production of highly-valued news and sports programming,” the appeal stated. “NAB now seeks relief from the Order on the grounds that it: (1) is arbitrary, capricious, and an abuse of discretion… (2) violates federal law… and (3) is otherwise contrary to law.”
And the beneficiaries…
The tech industry – including Apple, Google and Microsoft – argue that the claims about interference are “fundamentally unconvincing,” and that the FCC’s approach will work. It has said the fear of a flood of new devices causing interference not foreseen by the regulator is “implausible.”
What’s more, they claim, not allowing the use of 6GHz would “significantly harm American consumers,” as well as companies that “have invested in 6GHz unlicensed technologies,” i.e. themselves.
Back in April, the FCC rejected a plan put forward by the current 6GHz users that would have auctioned off small bands of spectrum for exclusive use, with the commission’s chairman Ajit Pai saying that the required reorganization of the band would be too complex, especially since many of the current users won’t want to move off their spectrum allocations. And so the FCC voted to open up the entire band, but asks that tech companies use the latest technology to minimize interference.
Having lost the fight to get the FCC to come up with a different technological solution, the broadcasters are now going legal and arguing that the FCC’s rulemaking is itself invalid: an approach that has been unusually successful in the past, particularly when it comes to the hot-button issue of net neutrality. ®
Oracle aims high-end cloudy database release at existing customers in ‘defensive’ move
Oracle has brought out a new Exadata Cloud Service based on the Exadata X8M platform, bringing its high-end persistent memory feature to the cloud. Well, Oracle’s cloud at least.
The transactional and analytics database system Exadata X8M was first released last year in a launch Oracle claimed would reduce IO latency by up to 10 times with its use of persistent memory and remote direct memory access (RDMA) over Ethernet.
Bringing the system to the Exadata Cloud Service makes it available on a consumption basis in the Oracle cloud, including 26 global cloud regions and its on-prem service, Cloud@Customer. The omnipresent enterprise computing biz claimed it could help run applications needing multiple workloads and data types in a single converged Oracle Database, avoiding integration of multiple different database services.
Oracle claimed this meant 2.5 times higher transaction processing IOs, and 10 times better IO latency than its previous Exadata Cloud Service release.
The Exadata Database Machine started life in 2008 as an in-memory database appliance that supports OLTP (transactional) and OLAP (analytical) database systems. It was the result of a collaborative project between Big Red and HP (as it was then known), but was later ported to Sun hardware. A version has been available on Oracle Cloud since 2015.
David Floyer, CTO at Wikibon, said that with IO latency of around 20 microseconds and a 25 PB data warehouse available, Wikibon assessed it as the “highest-performance cloud database service available.”
Regardless of its performance, part of the positioning is to boost Oracle in the cloud market, as it was with the Zoom deal earlier this year, said Philip Carnelley, associate vice president of software research at IDC.
It would suit Oracle’s existing customers who want options in the cloud, he added.
“If you’ve already got loads of Oracle everywhere, then it’s becoming more viable to move what you want into the cloud: that’s their big thrust. There is such a huge install base of Oracle, it’s offering them everything in the cloud, on prem, or wherever they want it. From Oracle’s point of view, it could be seen as defensive. This will appeal to very large organisations with a very large investment in Oracle,” he said.
Carnelley said businesses were looking to move to the cloud as soon as possible, while at the same time IT departments would be reluctant to abandon their existing investments. “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it: you don’t want to change too many things and fewer things you have to change, the better,” he said.
But outside Oracle’s install base, the appeal becomes less certain. In transaction systems Oracle would go up against IBM’s Db2 and SAP’s in-memory HANA database, both of which are available on the public cloud from the usual suspects.
On the analytical systems, Oracle must compete with cloud-native data warehouses such as Snowflake, AWS’s Redshift, Google’s BigQuery and Microsoft’s Synapse. ®
OpenStack’s 10th birthday is next week, but you get the present of a new release today!
On October 21st, 2010, something new hit the world of enterprise infrastructure software: it was free software called OpenStack “Austin” and comprised the Nova VM-wrangler and the Swift Object store.
Enthusiasm for OpenStack has waxed and waned since. In its early years the project’s openness saw the likes of Cisco, Rackspace and HPE tout it as a better alternative than proprietary clouds from AWS Microsoft.
We know how that turned out: AWS, Azure and Google dominate the cloud and while OpenStack runs plenty of colossal web companies, the project’s own user surveys suggest that the majority of deployments are at organisations with between 100 and 10,000 employees.
China turned out to be a big part of the OpenStack story: its web giants Baidu and Tencent are known users, while the nation’s big three telcos – China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom – also adopted the stack. They’ve adopted it because OpenStack now offers over 40 modules that are collectively capable of doing just about anything a cloudy or webscale stack requires.
The Register will properly assess OpenStack’s first decade soon, but for now we need to consider the project’s 22nd major release, dubbed “Victoria”, which landed earlier this week.
The new release includes over 20,000 code changes by 794 developers from 160 different organisations and over 45 countries.
The OpenStack Foundation rates improved Kubernetes support, including support for containerised network functions, as among its most important new additions. More FPGA support has been added, specifically for Intel and Inspur accelerators, just in time for the SmartNIC craze to crest. And because too much security is seldom enough, the Octavia module now supports HTTP/2 over TLS using Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN).
The Ironic module, dedicated to provisioning bare metal servers, has a new communications flow for agent tokens that should make it safer to communicate with devices on the edge. Ironic had a 66% increase in activity compared to the OpenStack Ussuri cycle, and added more security for edge deployments by combining the communication flow for agent token which was added in Ussuri with the automatic agent TLS feature. Now, malicious attackers are unable to possibly intercept the “token” and through standard communication exchanges with the Ironic services. The Foundation also highlighted the following enhancements for “complex networking issues”:
- The SDN module Neutron now provides metadata service over IPv6 and has added support for flat networks for Distributed Virtual Routers (DVR), Floating IP port forwarding for the OVN backend, and router availability zones in OVN.
- Load-balancing module Octavia now support version two of the PROXY protocol.
- Container networking module Kuryr has added support for autodetection of VM bridging interface in nested setups.
OpenStack has published a full list of enhancements present in Victoria here. The next OpenStack release has been named “Wallaby” and should hop into view in April 2021. The release’s timeline and goals can be found here. ®
Your web browser running remotely in Cloudflare’s cloud. That’s it. That’s the story
Network services giant Cloudflare wants to host your web browser in the cloud so it can send you only safe content.
On Thursday, the biz invited customers to sign up for the beta release of its Browser Isolation service, a third component in its evolving Cloudflare for Teams offering that came from S2 Systems, a Kirkland, Washington-based startup acquired earlier this year.
Browser isolation generally involves running a headless web browser – the browser foundation without its graphic interface – on a remote server, now commonly referred to as “the cloud,” and then buffering its visual output in some kind of format to send to software on the user’s computer to display. Scrubbing the web content of bad stuff before it’s rendered is a possibility, too, and that’s what Cloudflare’s Browser Isolation appears to do.
There are also client-side variations like Apozy’s Native Browser Isolation, and HP-acquired Bromium (now HP Sure Click), which relies on running browser tasks inside a hardware-isolated micro virtual machine.
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Browser quarantine regimes have won corporate fans as a way to mitigate web-based security threats, and also to manage how workers interact with the unwholesome web. Think of web content as a package containing a bomb; if it explodes, you’ll wish you opened it in a concrete, reinforced bunker so that adjacent bunkers and buildings aren’t taken out. That’s browser isolation: containing any malicious stuff that spills into and out of the browser on your employees’ PCs.
Companies playing in the browser isolation market like Authentic8, Broadcom (Symantec), Menlo Security, and Webgap, among others, generally point to business-justifying stats compiled by consultancies.
Cloudflare, for instance, cites Gartner’s 2018 claim that web browsers are the source of 70 per cent of endpoint compromises. The IT research firm, declaring the public internet “a cesspool of attacks,” also projected that by 2022, 25 per cent of enterprises will adopt browser isolation technology for high-risk users and specific use-cases, up from one per cent in 2017.
Tim Obezuk, principal solutions engineer at Cloudflare, contends that Cloudflare Browser Isolation has an advantage over other approaches that rely on pixel pushing or DOM reconstruction. The former involves streaming rendered screen pixels to a remote user (slow) or loading pages remotely, checking them, then repacking and relaying them to a remote client (misses threats and prone to errors).
“Instead of streaming pixels to the user, Cloudflare Browser Isolation sends the final output of a browser’s web page rendering,” said Obezuk in a blog post. “The approach means that the only thing ever sent to the device is a package of draw commands to render the webpage, which also makes Cloudflare Browser Isolation compatible with any HTML5 compliant browser.”
Cloudflare Browser Isolation relies on Network Vector Rendering (NVR) technology from its S2 Systems acquisition. This intercepts the draw commands directed at the the remote Chromium browser’s Skia graphics rendering layer, then encodes, compressed, and encrypts them in a highly compact form before sending them to the remote client browser – which can be any HTML5-compliant browser (e.g. Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Safari).
Using an NVR WebAssembly library with an embedded Skia library that has been pushed to the local web browser, the transmitted draw commands can be unpacked, decrypted, and replayed with speed that approaches native device code.
It’s an approach that looks like it could work well given Cloudflare’s edge-centric network – with more than 200 data centers around the globe, latency between the user and the Cloudflare Browser Isolation host is likely to be less than it would be for a service operating under a more centralized network architecture.
We asked Cloudflare if browser add-ons will fit into its isolation approach, and a spokesperson told us:
If hosted browsers of this sort catch on, it may be time to stop referring to them as “user-agents” and call them something more accurate like “admin-agents.” ®
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