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A Visual Guide to Human Emotion

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If the global pandemic has taught us anything, it is that humans truly are social creatures. Most of us need community and connection to thrive.

But when people are not socially distancing and limiting their contacts, who do they choose to spend time with?

This interactive chart from Our World in Data reveals who Americans spend the most daily minutes with at different ages of their life, based on data collected between 2009 and 2019 through the Time Use Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Adolescence to Adulthood

In the average American’s teenage years, they spend most of their time alone and with their family. This makes sense, as the majority of people under 18 still live in a home with their nuclear family unit, meaning parents and siblings.

Jumping forward to a person’s early adulthood, 25-year-olds spend an average of 275 minutes per day alone, and 199 minutes with coworkers. This aligns with people in their twenties beginning to enter the workforce.

By age 35, people are still spending the most time with themselves, at 263 minutes per day. However, time spent combined with children and partners, the runner-ups, adds up to 450 minutes or around 7.5 hours a day.

Age Most Time Spent Second Third
15 Family – 267 Minutes Alone – 193 Minutes Friends – 109 Minutes
25 Alone – 275 Minutes Coworkers – 199 Minutes Partner – 121 Minutes
35 Alone – 263 Minutes Children – 249 Minutes Partner – 198 Minutes

Although people are spending more time with kids and partners as they grow older, this trend may shift, as women are having fewer children. More women today are obtaining an education and are entering the workforce, causing them to delay or entirely put off having children.

Interestingly, the mid-thirties also tends to be the stage of life where time spent with friends levels off and remains steadily low throughout the rest of one’s life, usually sitting around an average of 30-40 minutes per day.

Middle to Old Age

Upon turning 45, the average person spends 309 minutes a day alone, and in second place, 199 minutes with children. Time with coworkers remains relatively steady throughout someone’s forties, which coincides with the middle of career for most workers.

At age 55, time spent alone is still the winner, but time spent with a partner goes up to 184 minutes, and time with coworkers also moves up, pushing out time spent with children.

Age Most Time Spent Second Third
45 Alone – 309 Minutes Children – 199 Minutes Partner – 184 Minutes
55 Alone – 384 Minutes Partner – 184 Minutes Coworkers – 163 Minutes
65 Alone – 444 Minutes Partner – 243 Minutes Family – 65 Minutes
75 Alone – 463 Minutes Partner – 253 Minutes Family – 56 Minutes

Typically, time spent with children during the mid-fifties tends to see a sharp decline as children enter adulthood and begin to move out.

However, it will be interesting to see what impact COVID-19 has on future data. With implications such as job loss or reduced income, more children are staying at home longer or even moving back home. 52% of adult children in the U.S. today are living with their parents.

As people get closer to old age, around 65-years-old, they spend increasingly less time with coworkers as they begin to retire, and much more time alone or with a spouse. Then, from age 65-75, people consistently spend the most time alone, then with a partner and family.

Alone and Lonely?

One of the most significant trends on the chart is increased time spent alone.

time spent alone by age

By the time someone reaches 80, their daily minutes alone goes up to 477. This can be a problematic reality. As the population continues to age in many countries around the world, more elderly people are left without resources or social connection.

Additionally, while 1-in-4 elderly Americans live alone, the trend of solo living is going up across nearly every age group, and this trend applies globally.

who americans spend the most time with

But being alone does not necessarily equate to loneliness, as Our World in Data found that there was no direct correlation between living alone and reported feelings of loneliness.

It is not necessarily the amount of time spent with others, but the quality and expectations, that reduce loneliness.

Spending Time Together

Where and how we spend our time has a direct relationship to who we spend time with. More hours at home and off work can mean either more time spent with family, children, and partners, or more time spent alone.

Regardless of who we spend the most time with, the pandemic revealed the importance of human connection to our wellbeing. While many are still doing this through their screens or at a six-foot distance, 2021 could be the year we break out of our bubbles and get back to time spent together.

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/a-visual-guide-to-human-emotion/

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Ranked: The Top 10 Football Clubs by Market Value

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The Briefing

  • Europe and China were the largest electric vehicle (EV) markets by a wide margin in 2020
  • EV adoption in the U.S. is expected to rise as the Biden administration works to increase industry incentives

Europe Leads in EV Sales, but for How Long?

Global sales of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEV) surpassed 3 million for the first time in 2020, despite the economic headwinds imposed by COVID-19.

This visualization presents a geographical breakdown of these sales, revealing that over 80% were made in either Europe or China.

Country EV and Plug-in Hybrid Sales (2020)  Population (2020) 
European Union (EU) 1,390,000 747.6M
China 1,330,000 1.4B
U.S. 328,000 331.0M
South Korea 52,000 51.3M
Canada 47,000 37.7M
Japan 31,000 126.5M
Taiwan 7,000 23.8M
Other 43,000

The EU was the largest market by a margin of 60,000 cars, but given China’s larger population, it’s likely the two will switch places in the near future.

Government Incentives Play a Key Role

Government incentives have boosted the transition to battery power in recent years. For example, many countries offer a buyer rebate, which effectively reduces the price a consumer pays for an EV or PHEV.

In Germany, buyers can receive a subsidy of $10,800 when purchasing an EV with a list price of less than $48,000. China also offers a rebate program, where buyers of an EV with a travel range of at least 186 miles can receive a subsidy of $2,500.

Consumers should be aware that these incentives are likely to diminish over time, especially as EVs become more mainstream. In January 2021, the Chinese government announced it would reduce its existing subsidies by 20%.

Will EV Sales in America Catch Up?

In a 2020 survey, 71% of U.S. drivers said they were interested in getting an EV—so why are sales so far behind Europe and China?

In that same survey, 50% of drivers cited a lack of public charging stations as the main factor for preventing them from buying an EV. Concerns like these have led the Biden administration to propose a more aggressive EV strategy, which includes the installation of at least 500,000 charging stations by 2030.

»If you found this post interesting, you might enjoy this graphic that compares electric vehicle highway ranges

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/top-10-football-clubs-by-market-value/

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Europe Leads in EV Sales, but for How Long?

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The Briefing

  • Europe and China were the largest electric vehicle (EV) markets by a wide margin in 2020
  • EV adoption in the U.S. is expected to rise as the Biden administration works to increase industry incentives

Europe Leads in EV Sales, but for How Long?

Global sales of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEV) surpassed 3 million for the first time in 2020, despite the economic headwinds imposed by COVID-19.

This visualization presents a geographical breakdown of these sales, revealing that over 80% were made in either Europe or China.

Country EV and Plug-in Hybrid Sales (2020)  Population (2020) 
European Union (EU) 1,390,000 747.6M
China 1,330,000 1.4B
U.S. 328,000 331.0M
South Korea 52,000 51.3M
Canada 47,000 37.7M
Japan 31,000 126.5M
Taiwan 7,000 23.8M
Other 43,000

The EU was the largest market by a margin of 60,000 cars, but given China’s larger population, it’s likely the two will switch places in the near future.

Government Incentives Play a Key Role

Government incentives have boosted the transition to battery power in recent years. For example, many countries offer a buyer rebate, which effectively reduces the price a consumer pays for an EV or PHEV.

In Germany, buyers can receive a subsidy of $10,800 when purchasing an EV with a list price of less than $48,000. China also offers a rebate program, where buyers of an EV with a travel range of at least 186 miles can receive a subsidy of $2,500.

Consumers should be aware that these incentives are likely to diminish over time, especially as EVs become more mainstream. In January 2021, the Chinese government announced it would reduce its existing subsidies by 20%.

Will EV Sales in America Catch Up?

In a 2020 survey, 71% of U.S. drivers said they were interested in getting an EV—so why are sales so far behind Europe and China?

In that same survey, 50% of drivers cited a lack of public charging stations as the main factor for preventing them from buying an EV. Concerns like these have led the Biden administration to propose a more aggressive EV strategy, which includes the installation of at least 500,000 charging stations by 2030.

»If you found this post interesting, you might enjoy this graphic that compares electric vehicle highway ranges

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/europe-leads-in-ev-sales-but-for-how-long/

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Fact Check: The Truth Behind Five ESG Myths

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In 2021, investors continue to embrace environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investments at record levels.

In the first quarter of 2021, global ESG fund inflows outpaced the last four consecutive quarters, reaching $2 trillion. But while ESG gains rapid momentum, the CFA Institute shows that 33% of professional investors surveyed feel they have insufficient knowledge for considering ESG issues.

To help investors understand this growing trend, this infographic from MSCI helps provide a fact check on five common ESG myths.

1. “ESG Comes at the Expense of Investment Performance”

Fact Check: Not necessarily

Worldwide, ESG-focused companies have not only seen higher returns, but stronger earnings growth and dividends.

Returns by ESG Ratings Earnings Growth* Active Return** Dividends and Buybacks
Top tier 2.89% 1.31% 0.28%
Middle tier 1.35% 0.12% -0.02%
Bottom tier -9.22% -1.25% -0.05%

Source: MSCI ESG Research LLC (Dec, 2020)
*Contribution of earnings growth and dividends/buybacks to active return
**Active return is the additional gain or loss compared to it respective benchmark

In fact, a separate study from the CFA Institute shows that 35% of investment professionals invest in ESG to improve their financial returns.

2. “Investors Talk About ESG But Don’t Invest In It”

Fact Check: False

Global ESG assets under management (AUM) in ETFs have grown from $6 billion in 2015 to $150 billion in 2020. In just five years, ESG AUM have accelerated 25 times.

Today, money managers are focusing on the following top five issues:

Top ESG Issues Assets Affected Growth in Assets Affected (2018-2020)
Climate change / carbon emissions $4.18T 39%
Anti-corruption $2.44T 10%
Board issues $2.39T 66%
Sustainable natural resources / agriculture $2.38T 81%
Executive pay $2.22T 122%

Source: US SIF Foundation (Nov, 2020)

Meanwhile, over 1,500 shareholder resolutions focused on ESG-related matters were filed between 2018-2020. Not only are investors turning to ESG assets, but they are placing higher demands on corporate responsibility.

3. “ESG Investment Strategies Eliminate Entire Sectors”

Fact Check: Not necessarily

First, not all ESG investment approaches are exclusionary.

For instance, in North America roughly 51% of ESG ETFs used an ESG integration approach as of Dec. 31, 2020. In an ESG integration approach, ESG risks and opportunities are analyzed with the goal to support long-term returns.

By comparison, values and screens approaches, which accounted for over 22% of ESG ETFs in North America may screen out specific business activities, such as alcohol or tobacco, or sectors such as oil & gas.

Percentage of ESG Type Integration Values & Screens Thematic Impact
North America 50.9% 22.5% 20.7% 5.9%
Asia 57.8% 34.6% 3.8% 3.8%
Europe 30.8% 60.6% 8.6% 0.0%
Australia 28.6% 71.4% 0.0% 0.0%

Source: Refinitiv/Lipper and MSCI ESG Research LLC as of Dec 31, 2020 (MSCI Feb, 2021)

Second, companies are assessed on a sector-specific basis where ESG leaders and laggards are identified within each sector in comparison to peers. In other words, ESG doesn’t mean eliminating exposure to entire sectors. Instead, investors can choose from a range of companies based on their ESG ratings quality.

4. “ESG Investing Is Only For Millennials”

Fact Check: False

Although ESG is popular among millennials, ESG investing is being driven by the entire investor population. In 2019, one study finds that 85% of the general population expressed interest in ESG investing.

Interest in Sustainable Investing General Population Millennials
2019 85% 95%
2015 71% 84%

Source: US SIF Foundation (Nov, 2020)

Sustainable investing goes far beyond millennials—ESG disclosures are quickly becoming requirements for key industry participants, such as institutional investors and listed companies.

5. “ESG Investing is Here to Stay”

Fact Check: True

Climbing 28% in 2020 alone, over 3,000 signatories have committed to the UN Principles of Responsible Investment. As of the first quarter of 2021, 313 global organizations and 33 asset owners have been newly added.

Growth of UN PRI Number of Signatories* AUM Represented
2020 3,038 $103.4T
2019 2,370 $86.3T

Source: UN PRI
*As of Mar, 2020

Central to ESG’s growth is the availability of ESG investments. ESG investing has become more widely accessible—which wasn’t always the case. Over the last decade, the global number of ESG ETFs has grown from 46 to 497.

Why the Facts Matter

As ESG investments continue to play an even greater role in investor portfolios, it’s important to focus on data rather than prevailing ESG myths that are not backed by fact.

Given the recent momentum in investment returns and ESG adoption, data-driven evidence empowers investors to build more sustainable portfolios that better align with their investment objectives.

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/fact-check-the-truth-behind-five-esg-myths/

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The Golden State: A Closer Look at Mining in California

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The world has become increasingly more digital—with everything from customer data and employee services to entire businesses living on servers—and in recent years cybercrime has become a constant threat.

After large-scale breaches in government organisations around the world and huge public companies like Sony, cybersecurity is being taken more seriously. And since 2016, the U.S. has seen at least 1,000 data breaches every single year, exposing billions more records.

But in a field where new exploits are just around the corner, and with COVID-19 driving more employees and services remote than ever before, the need for better cybersecurity technology and investment has reached critical importance.

This infographic from eToro highlights developments in the cybersecurity market and how they affect companies, consumers, and investors.

The Cybersecurity Landscape

No person or organisation is immune to cybercrime, but some are targeted more frequently.

Across businesses, cybercriminals look for exploits in sectors with either the most to lose in terms of financials or data, or they target sectors with the least protection.

Unsurprisingly, the top industry targeted by cybercrime in 2020 was financial services. But cybercriminals also focused on manufacturing, energy, and retail—industries forced to quickly shift to digital channels because of the pandemic, but without the time to adapt and safeguard.

Top Industries Targeted by Cybercrime % Targeted (2020)
Financial Services 23.0%
Manufacturing 17.7%
Energy 11.1%
Retail 10.2%
Professional Services 8.7%
Government 7.9%
Healthcare 6.6%
Media 5.7%
Transportation 5.1%
Education 4.0%

Though targeting is inconsistent across industries, financial impact is significant across the board.

In Europe, the average annual cost inflicted by cybercrime for affected organisations in 2019 ranged from $8 million in Italy to $13 million in Germany. In the U.S., the average annual cost of cybercrime was over $27 million.

Organisation Base Country Average Annual Cost of Cybercrime (2019)
U.S. $27.37M
Japan $13.57M
Germany $13.12M
UK $11.46M
France $9.72M
Singapore $9.32M
Canada $9.25M
Spain $8.16M
Italy $8.01M
Brazil $7.24M
Australia $6.79M

But in terms of volume, the most common cybersecurity threat is faced by individuals instead of companies. In addition to being a common target for cybercriminals attempting to access company data, consumers faced four times as many attacks as enterprises in 2019.

The Future Cybersecurity Need

The growth of cybercrime activity and adjacent cybersecurity investment over the last few decades was already impressive, but a post-COVID world puts the digital market front and center.

In the U.S., the cybersecurity market was valued at $156.5 billion in 2019, with more than half of the market focused on services over software and hardware. In 2027, the market is estimated to be worth $326.4 billion, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10%, with the focus remaining the same.

The driver of software and hardware usage is consistent with more aspects of business and personal life digitising, but growth in services is aligned with the uncertainty of future cybersecurity issues.

Winning the Fight Against Cybercrime

Cybersecurity and cybercrime grow and build off each other in a never-ending cycle, driving a need for increased investment alongside them.

The Cybersecurity Technology Cycle:

  1. Increased cyber operations incidents: Cybersecurity operations incidents increase as a result of the overwhelming burden of complexity.
  2. Add technology: Vendors pitch new technology as the solution to cyber operations incidents.
  3. Add people and process: New technology requires more people and processes.
  4. Operational complexity increases: Interactions between technology, processes and people increase geometrically.
  5. Loss of process visibility and control: Fog of uncertainty develops, old management systems are overwhelmed.
  6. Poor human performance: Technology and process complexity decrease cybersecurity effectiveness.
  7. Repeat 1)

As new devices and software come online, old methods used by cybercriminals for infiltration or data gathering are replaced with new ones.

In 2019, the most commonly used initial access methods were phishing (31%), scan & exploit (30%) and unauthorised credential usage (29%), with compromise of mobile devices only accounting for 2%. With more work going offline and onto personal devices post-pandemic, and increasingly so post-digitisation, those numbers are likely to fluctuate.

That’s why the cybersecurity market is expected to keep growing in importance and size over the coming decade. An increasingly digital world is putting more risk online as well, and as many companies have learned the hard way, cybersecurity is a core technology worth investing in.

How Can Investors Take Part?

eToro’s CyberSecurity CopyPortfolio* gives investors direct access to the growing cybersecurity market.

Curated by experienced and proven investment teams, the thematic portfolio offers exposure to a broad range of developers and companies invested in cybersecurity, with no management fees.

*Your capital is at risk.
CopyPortfolios is a portfolio management product, provided by eToro Europe Ltd., which is authorised and regulated by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission.

CopyPortfolios should not be considered as exchange traded funds, nor as hedge funds.

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Source: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/the-golden-state-a-closer-look-at-mining-in-california/

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